Gelderland

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This article is about the Dutch province. For other uses, see Gelderland (disambiguation).
Gelderland
Province of the Netherlands
Flag of Gelderland
Flag
Coat of arms of Gelderland
Coat of arms
Anthem: "Ons Gelderland"
"Our Gelderland"
Location of Gelderland in the Netherlands
Location of Gelderland in the Netherlands
Coordinates: 52°04′N 5°57′E / 52.06°N 5.95°E / 52.06; 5.95Coordinates: 52°04′N 5°57′E / 52.06°N 5.95°E / 52.06; 5.95
Country Netherlands
Capital Arnhem
Largest city Nijmegen
Government
 • King's Commissioner Clemens Cornielje (VVD)
Area
 • Land 4,971.76 km2 (1,919.61 sq mi)
 • Water 164.75 km2 (63.61 sq mi)
Area rank 1
Population (1 January 2015)
 • Land 2,026,578
 • Rank 4th
 • Density 410/km2 (1,100/sq mi)
 • Density rank 6th
ISO 3166 code NL-GE
Religion (1999) 31% Protestant, 29% Catholic
Website www.gelderland.nl

Gelderland (Dutch pronunciation: [ˈɣɛldərˌlɑnt], also Guelders in English) is a province of the Netherlands, located in the central eastern part of the country. With a land area of nearly 5,000 km², it is the largest province of the Netherlands and shares borders with six other provinces and Germany.

The capital, and largest city, is Arnhem; but the two other major cities, Nijmegen and Apeldoorn, are almost as large. Other major regional centres in Gelderland are Ede, Doetinchem, Zutphen, Tiel, Wageningen, Zevenaar, Winterswijk and Harderwijk.

Gelderland has a population of just over two million as of 2015.[1]

History[edit]

Historically, the province dates from states of the Holy Roman Empire and takes its name from the nearby German city of Geldern.

The County of Guelders arose out of the Frankish pagus Hamaland in the 11th century around castles near Roermond and the town of Geldern. The counts of Gelre acquired the Betuwe and Veluwe regions and, through marriage, the County of Zutphen. Thus the counts of Guelders laid the foundation for a territorial power that, through control of the Rhine, Waal, Meuse, and IJssel rivers, was to play an important role in the later Middle Ages. The geographical position of their territory dictated the external policy of the counts during the following centuries; they were committed to the interests of the Holy Roman Empire and to expansion south and west.

Further enlarged by the acquisition of the imperial city of Nijmegen in the 13th century, the countship was raised to a duchy in 1339 by the Holy Roman Emperor, Louis IV. After 1379, the duchy was ruled from Jülich and by the counts of Egmond and Cleves. The duchy resisted Burgundian domination, but William, Duke of Jülich-Cleves-Berg was forced to cede it to Charles V in 1543, after which it formed part of the Burgundian-Habsburg hereditary lands.[2]

The duchy revolted with the rest of the Netherlands against Philip II of Spain and joined the Union of Utrecht (1579). After the deposition of Philip II, its sovereignty was vested in the States of Gelderland, and the princes of Orange were stadtholders. In 1672 the province was temporarily occupied by Louis XIV; and in 1713 the southeastern part, including the ducal capital of Geldern, fell to Prussia. Part of the Batavian Republic (1795–1806), of Louis Bonaparte’s Kingdom of Holland (1806–10), and of the French Empire (1810–13), Gelderland became a province of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in 1815.[2]

During World War II, it saw heavy fighting between Allied Paratroopers, British XXX Corps and the German II SS Panzer Corps, at the Battle of Arnhem.

Geography[edit]

Gelderland can roughly be divided into four geographical regions: the Veluwe in the north, Rivierenland including the Betuwe in the southwest, the Achterhoek (literally meaning the "back corner") or Graafschap (which originally means earldom or county) in the east and the city-region Arnhem - Nijmegen.

Municipalities[edit]

Aalten Apeldoorn Arnhem Barneveld Berkelland Beuningen Bronckhorst Brummen Buren Culemborg Doesburg Doetinchem Druten Duiven Ede Elburg Epe Ermelo Geldermalsen Harderwijk Hattem Heerde Heumen Lingewaal Lingewaard Lochem Maasdriel Millingen aan de Rijn Montferland Neder-Betuwe Neerijnen Nijkerk Nijmegen Nunspeet Oldebroek Oost Gelre Oude IJsselstreek Overbetuwe Putten Renkum Rheden Rijnwaarden Rozendaal Scherpenzeel Tiel Ubbergen Voorst Wageningen West Maas en Waal Westervoort Wijchen Winterswijk Zaltbommel Zevenaar ZutphenProvincie Gelderland.gif

Currently (2015), the 54 municipalities in Gelderland are as follows:


Sonsbeek villa at Arnhem's Sonsbeek park

Abolished municipalities[edit]

These municipalities were merged with neighbouring ones:

These municipalities were merged and given a new name:

Cultural references[edit]

In the movie A Knight's Tale, the protagonist, William Thatcher (played by Heath Ledger) pretends to be a knight known as "Ulrich von Lichtenstein from Gelderland."

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Regionale kerncijfers Nederland" (in Dutch). CBS. Retrieved 30 May 2015. 
  2. ^ a b "Gelderland". Britannica.com. Retrieved 13 July 2015. 

External links[edit]