|This article does not cite any references (sources). (May 2013)|
|Province of the Netherlands|
|Anthem: "Ons Gelderland"
Location of Gelderland in the Netherlands
|• King's Commissioner||Clemens Cornielje (VVD)|
|• Land||4,971.76 km2 (1,919.61 sq mi)|
|• Water||164.75 km2 (63.61 sq mi)|
|Population (1 January 2015)|
|• Density||410/km2 (1,100/sq mi)|
|• Density rank||6th|
|ISO 3166 code||NL-GE|
|Religion (1999)||31% Protestant, 29% Catholic|
Gelderland (Dutch pronunciation: [ˈɣɛldərˌlɑnt] ( listen), also Guelders in English) is a province of the Netherlands. It located in the central eastern part of the country, bordering six other provinces, as well as Germany. Gelderland has a population of just over two million as of 2015. With a land area of nearly 5,000 km2, it is the largest province of the Netherlands.
Historically, the province (area) dates from states of the Holy Roman Empire and takes its name from the nearby German city of Geldern.
The capital city is Arnhem. The two other major cities, Nijmegen and Apeldoorn are very similarly sized, with them both having a few thousand more inhabitants. Other major regional centers in Gelderland are Ede, Doetinchem, Zutphen, Tiel, Wageningen, Zevenaar and Winterswijk.
The County of Guelders arose out of the Frankish pagus Hamaland in the 11th century around castles near Roermond and Geldern. The counts of Gelre acquired the Betuwe and Veluwe regions and, through marriage, the County of Zutphen. Thus had the counts of Guelders laid the foundation for a territorial power that, through control of the Rhine, Waal, Meuse, and IJssel rivers, was to play an important role in the later Middle Ages. The geographical position of their territory dictated the external policy of the counts during the following centuries; they were committed to the interests of the Holy Roman Empire and to expansion south and west. Further enlarged by the acquisition of the imperial city of Nijmegen in the 13th century, the countship was raised to a duchy in 1339 by the Holy Roman Emperor, Louis IV. After 1379, the duchy was ruled from Jülich and by the counts of Egmond and Cleves. The duchy resisted Burgundian domination, but William, Duke of Jülich-Cleves-Berg was forced to cede it to Charles V in 1543, after which it formed part of the Burgundian-Habsburg hereditary lands.
The duchy revolted with the rest of the Netherlands against Philip II of Spain and joined the Union of Utrecht (1579). After the deposition of Philip II, its sovereignty was vested in the States of Gelderland, and the princes of Orange were stadtholders. In 1672 the province was temporarily occupied by Louis XIV; and in 1713 the southeastern part, including the ducal capital of Geldern, fell to Prussia. Part of the Batavian Republic (1795–1806), of Louis Bonaparte’s Kingdom of Holland (1806–10), and of the French Empire (1810–13), Gelderland became a province of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in 1815. During World War II, it saw heavy fighting between Allied Paratroopers, British XXX Corps and the German II SS Panzer Corps, also known as the Battle of Arnhem.
Gelderland can roughly be divided into four geographical regions: the Veluwe in the north, Rivierenland including the Betuwe in the southwest, the Achterhoek (literally meaning the "back corner") or Graafschap (which originally means earldom or county) in the east and the city-region Arnhem - Nijmegen.
Currently (2015), the 54 municipalities in Gelderland are as follows:
- Veluwe COROP group
- South West Gelderland COROP group
- Achterhoek COROP group
- Arnhem & Nijmegen COROP group
The following municipalities were abolished on 1 January 2005; see further (in Dutch) for more detailed information on these changes.
These municipalities were merged with neighbouring ones:
- Angerlo was merged into Zevenaar
- Dinxperlo was merged into Aalten
- Gorssel was merged into Lochem
- Lichtenvoorde was merged into Groenlo (renamed Oost Gelre in 2006)
- Warnsveld was merged into Zutphen
- Wehl was merged into Doetinchem
These municipalities were merged and given a new name:
- Borculo, Eibergen, Neede, and Ruurlo became Berkelland
- Hengelo, Hummelo en Keppel, Steenderen, Vorden, and Zelhem became Bronckhorst
- Bergh and Didam became Montferland
- Gendringen and Wisch became Oude IJsselstreek
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|Utrecht||North Rhine-Westphalia (DE)|
|South Holland||North Brabant||Limburg|