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Gemini 10 is boosted into a higher orbit by its Agena Target Vehicle
|Mission duration||2 days, 22 hours, 46 minutes, 39 seconds|
|Launch mass||3,762.6 kilograms (8,295 lb)|
|Landing mass||1,930 kilograms (4,254 lb)|
|Members||John W. Young
|EVA duration||1 hour, 28 minutes|
|Start of mission|
|Launch date||July 18, 1966, 22:20:26UTC|
|Rocket||Titan II GLV, s/n #62-12565|
|Launch site||Cape Canaveral LC-19|
|End of mission|
|Landing date||July 21, 1966, 21:07:05UTC|
|Regime||Low Earth orbit|
|Perigee||299 kilometers (161 nmi)|
|Apogee||756 kilometers (408 nmi)|
|Epoch||July 19, 1966|
|Docking with GATV-5005|
|Docking date||July 19, 1966, 04:15:00 UTC|
|Undocking date||July 20, 1966, 19:00:00 UTC|
|Time docked||1 day, 14 hours, 45 minutes|
Gemini 10 (officially Gemini X) was a 1966 manned spaceflight in NASA's Gemini program. It was the 8th manned Gemini flight, the 16th manned American flight and the 24th spaceflight of all time (includes X-15 flights over 100 kilometers (62 mi)).
|Command Pilot||John W. Young
|Command Pilot||Alan L. Bean|
|Pilot||Clifton C. Williams, Jr.|
- Mass: 3,762.6 kilograms (8,295 lb)
- Perigee: 159.9 kilometres (99.4 mi)
- Apogee: 268.9 kilometres (167.1 mi)
- Inclination: 28.87°
- Period: 88.79 min
- Docked: July 19, 1966 - 04:15:00 UTC
- Undocked: July 20, 1966 - 19:00:00 UTC
- Collins - EVA 1 (stand up)
- Start: July 19, 1966, 21:44:00 UTC
- End: July 19, 1966, 22:33:00 UTC
- Duration: 0 hours, 49 minutes
- Collins - EVA 2
- Start: July 20, 1966, 23:01:00 UTC
- End: July 20, 1966, 23:40:00 UTC
- Duration: 0 hours, 39 minutes
Gemini 10 established that radiation at high altitude was not a problem. After docking with their Agena booster in low orbit, Young and Collins used it to climb another 763.8 kilometers to meet with the dead, drifting Agena left over from the aborted Gemini 8 flight—thus executing the program's first double rendezvous. With no electricity on board the second Agena, the rendezvous was accomplished with eyes only—no radar. After the rendezvous, Collins spacewalked over to the dormant Agena at the end of a 15.24 meter tether, making Collins the first person to meet another spacecraft in orbit. He retrieved a cosmic dust-collecting panel from the side of the Agena, but returned no pictures of his close encounter; in the complicated business of keeping his tether clear of the Gemini and Agena, Collins' Hasselblad camera worked itself free and drifted off into orbit.
Gemini 10 was designed to achieve the objectives planned for the last two missions—rendezvous, docking and EVA. As well as this it was also hoped to dock with the Agena Target Vehicle from the Gemini 8 mission. This Agena's battery power had failed many months earlier and this would demonstrate the ability to rendezvous with a dormant object. It would be also the first mission to fire the Agena's own rocket, allowing them to reach higher orbits.
The Agena launched perfectly for the second time, after problems had occurred with the targets for Gemini 6 and 9. Gemini 10 followed 100 minutes later and entered into a 159.9-by-268.9-kilometer (86.3-by-145.2-nautical-mile) orbit. They were 1,800 kilometers (970 nmi) behind the Agena. Two anomalous events occurred during the launch. At liftoff, a propellant fill umbilical failed to disconnect from the booster due to becoming snared with its release lanyard. It ripped out of the LC-19 service tower and remained attached to the second stage during ascent. Following staging, the first stage nitrogen tetroxide tank dome ruptured for unknown reasons, possibly either due to being struck from flying debris or else structural bending of the tank. The debris from the first stage fell outward and downward and was in no danger of colliding with the second stage or the spacecraft.
|Gemini 10||Agena Info|
|Mass||3,175 kilograms (7,000 lb)|
|Launch date||July 18, 1966|
|Launch time||20:39:46 UTC|
|1st perigee||294.7 kilometres (183.1 mi)|
|1st apogee||302.8 kilometres (188.2 mi)|
|Reentered||December 29, 1966|
Collins discovered that he was unable to use the sextant for navigation as it did not seem to work as expected. At first he mistook airglow as the real horizon when trying to make some fixes on stars. Then the image didn't seem right. He tried another instrument that they had on board but this was not practical to use as it had a very small field of view.
They fortunately had a backup in the form of the computers on the ground. They made their first burn to put them into a 265-by-272-kilometer (143 by 147 nmi) orbit. However Young didn't realize that during the next burn, he had the spacecraft turned slightly, which meant that they introduced an out-of-plane error. This meant two extra burns were necessary, and by the time they had docked with the Agena, 60% of their fuel had been consumed. It was decided to keep the Gemini docked to the Agena as long as possible, as this would mean that they could use the fuel on board the Agena for attitude control.
The first burn of the Agena engine they made was 80 seconds long and put them in a 294-by-763-kilometer (159 by 412 nmi) orbit. This was the highest a person had ever been (until the next mission when Gemini 11 went to over 1,000 kilometers (540 nmi)). This burn was quite a ride for the crew. Because the Gemini and Agena docked nose-to-nose, the forces experienced were "eyeballs out" as opposed to "eyeballs in" for a launch from Earth. The crew took a couple of pictures when they reached apogee but were more interested in what was going on in the spacecraft — checking the systems and watching the radiation dosage meter.
After this they had their sleep period which lasted for eight hours and then they were ready for another busy day. The crew's first order of business was to make a second burn with the Agena engine to put them into the same orbit as the Gemini 8 Agena. This was at 20:58 UTC on July 19 and lasted 78 seconds and took 105 meters per second (340 ft/s) off their speed, putting them into a 294-by-382-kilometer (159 by 206 nmi) orbit. They made one more burn of the Agena to circularize their orbit to 377.6 kilometers (203.9 nmi).
It was now time for the first of two EVAs on Gemini 10. This was to be just a standup EVA, where Collins would 'stand' in the open hatch and take some photographs of stars as part of experiment S-13. They used a 70 mm general purpose camera to image the Southern Milky Way in ultraviolet. After orbital sunrise, Collins then photographed a color plate on the side of the spacecraft (MSC-8) to see whether film reproduced colors accurately in space. They reentered the spacecraft six minutes early when they both found their eyes were irritated, which was caused by a minor leak of lithium hydroxide in the astronauts' oxygen supply. After repressurizing the cabin, they ran the oxygen at high rates and flushed the environment system.
Young and Collins were both tired after the exercise of the EVA and slept well on their second 'night' in space. The next 'morning' they started preparing for the second rendezvous and another EVA.
After undocking from their Agena, the crew thought they sighted the Gemini 8 Agena. It however turned out to be their own Agena 5.5 kilometers (3.0 nmi) away, while their target was 176 kilometers (95 nmi) away. It wasn't until just over 30 kilometres (19 mi) away that they saw it as a faint star. After a couple more correction burns, they were station-keeping three meters away from the Gemini 8 Agena. They found the Agena to be very stable and in good condition.
At 48 hours and 41 minutes into the mission, the second EVA began. Collins' first task was to retrieve a Micrometeorite Collector (S-12) from the side of the spacecraft. This he accomplished with some difficulty (similar to that encountered by Eugene Cernan on Gemini 9A). However, the collector floated out of the cabin some time later during the EVA and was lost.
He next traveled over to the Agena and tried to grab onto the docking cone but found this impossible as it was smooth and had no grip. Collins used a nitrogen-propelled Hand-Held Maneuvering Unit (HHMU) to move himself towards the Gemini and then back to the Agena. This time he was able to grab hold of some wire bundles and retrieved the Micrometeorite Collector (S-10) from the Agena. He decided against replacing it as he could lose the one he had just retrieved.
His last task on this EVA was to test out the HHMU. However this stopped working and meant they finished the EVA after only 39 minutes. During this time, it took the crew eight minutes to close the hatch as they had some difficulty with the 50 feet (15 m) umbilical. It was jettisoned along with the chestpack used by Collins an hour later when they opened the hatch for the third and final time.
There were ten other experiments that the crew performed during the mission. Three were interested in radiation: MSC-3 was the Tri-Axis Magnetometer which measured levels in the South Atlantic Anomaly. There was also MSC-6, a beta spectrometer, which measured potential radiation doses for Apollo missions, and MSC-7, a bremsstrahlung spectrometer which detected radiation flux as a function of energy when the spacecraft passed through the South Atlantic Anomaly.
S-26 investigated the ion and electron wake of the spacecraft. This provided limited results due to the lack of fuel for attitude control, but found that electron and ion temperatures were higher than expected and it registered shock effects during docking and undocking.
The S-5 and S-6 experiments were performed, which were previously carried on Gemini 9A; these were Synoptic Terrain and Synoptic Weather photography respectively. There was also S-1 which was intended to image the Zodiacal light. All of these experiments were of little use as the film used was only half as sensitive as Gemini 9A and the dirty windows lowered the transmission of light by a factor of six.
The crew also tried to perform D-5, a navigation experiment. They were only able to track five stars, with six needed for accurate measurements. The last experiment, D-10, was to investigate an ion-sensing attitude control system. This experiment measured the attitude of the spacecraft from the flow of ions and electrons around the spacecraft in orbit. The results from this experiment showed the system to be accurate and responsive.
The last day of the mission was short and retrofire came at 70 hours and 10 minutes into the mission. They landed only 5.6 kilometers (3.0 nmi) away from the intended landing site and were recovered by the USS Guadalcanal.
The Gemini 10 mission was supported by the following U.S. Department of Defense resources; 9,067 personnel, 78 aircraft and 13 ships.
The patch is simple in design but highly symbolic. The main feature is a large X with a Gemini and Agena orbiting around it. The two stars have a variety of meanings: the two rendezvous attempts, Castor and Pollux in Gemini or the two crew members. This is one of the few crew patches without the crew's name. It is able to be displayed "upside down" but is correctly shown with the spacecraft to the right. It was designed by Young's first wife, Barbara.
The spacecraft is currently on display at the Kansas Cosmosphere and Space Center, Hutchinson, Kansas. When the restoration of the Gemini 6A spacecraft is completed, then Gemini 10 will be restored in full view of the public. At the end of this restoration it will be put back on full display at the Cosmosphere. One of the hatches is displayed at Virginia Air and Space Center, Hampton, Virginia.
- Agena Target Vehicle
- Extra-vehicular activity
- List of spacewalks
- Space exploration
- U.S. space exploration history on U.S. stamps
- Space suit
- Space capsule
- McDowell, Jonathan. "SATCAT". Jonathan's Space Pages. Retrieved March 23, 2014.
- Hacker, Barton C.; Grimwood, James M. (September 1974). "Chapter 11 Pillars of Confidence". On the Shoulders of Titans: A History of Project Gemini. NASA History Series. SP-4203. NASA. p. 239. With Gemini IV, NASA changed to Roman numerals for Gemini mission designations.
- Collins, Michael (1974). "8". Carrying the Fire: An Astronaut's Journeys (eBook). Cooper Square Press. ISBN 9781461660880.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Gemini 10.|
- NASA Gemini 10 press kit - July 15, 1966
- Gemini 10 Mission Report (PDF) August 1966
- On The Shoulders of Titans: A History of Project Gemini: http://www.hq.nasa.gov/office/pao/History/SP-4203/cover.htm
- Spaceflight Mission Patches: http://www.genedorr.com/patches/Intro.html
- U.S. Space Objects Registry http://usspaceobjectsregistry.state.gov/search/index.cfm