Generation X, commonly abbreviated to Gen X, is the generation born after the Western Post–World War II baby boom. Most demographers and commentators use birth dates ranging from the early 1960s to the early 1980s.
Origin of term
The term Generation X was coined by the Magnum photographer Robert Capa in the early 1950s. He used it later as a title for a photo-essay about young men and women growing up immediately after the Second World War. The project first appeared in Picture Post in the UK and Holiday in the U.S. in 1953. Describing his intention, Capa said "We named this unknown generation, The Generation X, and even in our first enthusiasm we realised that we had something far bigger than our talents and pockets could cope with." 
The name was popularized by Canadian author Douglas Coupland's 1991 novel Generation X: Tales for an Accelerated Culture, concerning young adults during the late 1980s and their lifestyles. While Coupland's book helped to popularize the phrase Generation X, he erroneously attributed it to English rock musician Billy Idol in a 1989 magazine article. In fact, Idol had been a member of the punk band Generation X from 1976 to 1981, which was named after Deverson and Hamblett's 1965 sociology book on British youth, Generation X—a copy of which was owned by Idol's mother.
Characteristics and demographics
In a 2012 article for the Joint Center for Housing Studies of Harvard University, George Masnick wrote that the "Census counted 82.1 million" Gen Xers in the U.S. The Harvard Center uses 1965 to 1984 to define Gen X so that Boomers, Xers, and Millennials "cover equal 20-year age spans". Masnick concluded that immigration filled in any birth year deficits during low fertility years of the late 1960s and early 1970s 
Jon Miller at the Longitudinal Study of American Youth at the University of Michigan wrote that "Generation X refers to adults born between 1961 and 1981" and it "includes 84 million people" in the U.S.
John Markert at Cumberland University employs a similar approach, but wrote a 2004 article in which "Generations should be discrete twenty-year periods" but with "ten-year cohorts" and 5-year "bihorts" (his word) non-simultaneously, classifies Generation X as those born in the years 1966 to 1985. Markert censures other methods and tactics to define Generation X in his article stating that "inconsistent use of dates by the same author" simply results "in an apple to lemon measurement standard".
In 2011, "The Generation X Report", based on annual surveys used in the longitudinal study of today's adults, found Gen Xers, defined in the report as people born between 1961 and 1981, to be highly educated, active, balanced, happy, and family-oriented. The study contrasted with the slacker, disenfranchised stereotype associated with youth in the 1970s and 1980s. Various questions and responses from approximately 4,000 people who were surveyed each year from 1987 through 2010 made up the study. Clive Thompson, writing in Wired in 2014 claimed that the differences between Generation X and its predecessors had been over-hyped, quoting Kali Trzesniewski, a scholar of life-span changes, as saying that the basic personality metrics of Americans had remained stable for decades.
In 2012, the Corporation for National and Community Service ranked Gen X volunteer rates in the U.S. at "29.4% per year", the highest compared with other generations. The rankings were based on a three-year moving average between 2009 and 2011.
In the preface to Generation X Goes Global: Mapping a Youth Culture in Motion, a collection of global essays, Professor Christine Henseler summarizes it as "a generation whose worldview is based on change, on the need to combat corruption, dictatorships, abuse, AIDS, a generation in search of human dignity and individual freedom, the need for stability, love, tolerance, and human rights for all".
In cinema, directors Quentin Tarantino, David Fincher, Jane Campion, Steven Soderbergh, Kevin Smith, Richard Linklater and Todd Solondz have been called Generation X filmmakers. Smith is most known for his View Askewniverse films, the flagship film being Clerks, which is set in New Jersey circa 1994, and focuses on two bored, convenience-store clerks in their twenties. Linklater's Slacker similarly explores young adult characters who were more interested in philosophizing than settling with a long-term career and family. Solondz' Welcome to the Dollhouse touched on themes of school bullying, school violence, teen drug use, peer pressure and broken or dysfunctional families, set in a junior high school environment in New Jersey during the early to mid-1990s. While not a member of Gen X himself, director John Hughes has been recognized as having created a series of classics "that an entire generation took ownership of with films like The Breakfast Club, Sixteen Candles and Weird Science".
Compared with previous generations, Generation X represents a more heterogeneous generation, embracing social diversity in terms of such characteristics as race, class, religion, ethnicity, culture, language, gender identity, and sexual orientation.
Unlike their parents who challenged leaders with an intent to replace them, Gen Xers are less likely to idolize leaders and are more inclined to work toward long-term institutional and systematic change through economic, media and consumer actions.
Pursuant to a study by Elwood Carlson on "how different generations respond in unique ways to common problems in some political, social, and consumption choices", the Population Reference Bureau, a private demographic research organization based in Washington, D.C., cited Generation X birth years as falling between 1965 and 1982. On the first page of the study, authors William Strauss and Neil Howe's definition of a "cohort generation" is cited. They define Generation X by the years 1961 to 1981.
Studies done by Pew Charitable Trusts, the American Enterprise Institute, the Brookings Institution, the Heritage Foundation and the Urban Institute challenged the notion that each generation will be better off than the one that preceded it.
A report titled Economic Mobility: Is the American Dream Alive and Well? focused on the income of males 30–39 in 2004 (those born April 1964 – March 1974). The study was released on May 25, 2007 and emphasized that this generation's men made less (by 12%) than their fathers had at that same age in 1974, thus reversing a historical trend. It concluded that per year increases in household income generated by fathers/sons have slowed (from an average of 0.9% to 0.3%), barely keeping pace with inflation. "Family incomes have risen though (over the period 1947 to 2005) because more women have gone to work, supporting the incomes of men, by adding a second earner to the family. And as with male income, the trend is downward".
Generation Flux is a neologism and psychographic designation coined by Fast Company for American employees who need to make several changes in career throughout their working lives because of the chaotic nature of the job market following the Financial crisis of 2007–08. Those in "Generation Flux" have birth years in the ranges of Gen X and Millennials.
According to authors Michael Hais and Morley Winograd:
"Small businesses and the entrepreneurial spirit that Gen Xers embody have become one of the most popular institutions in America. There's been a recent shift in consumer behavior and Gen Xers will join the “idealist generation” in encouraging the celebration of individual effort and business risk-taking. As a result, Xers will spark a renaissance of entrepreneurship in economic life, even as overall confidence in economic institutions declines. Customers, and their needs and wants (including Millennials) will become the North Star for an entire new generation of entrepreneurs".
A 2008 article by The Observer, cites the Generation X birth years as falling between 1965 and 1982; the same article later describes Millennials as being born between 1982 and 2002. The writer states that Generation Xers were "labelled by some" as the me-generation of the Eighties." Another piece written by a Guardian journalist in 2011 uses 1961 to 1981 for this generation.
The Telegraph cited Gen X birth dates as falling between a longer time span (1965–1985), In 2007, The Independent estimated an earlier range of birth dates (1963–1978) compared to other writers or researchers. However, the newspaper's 2010 article titled "Generation X: A mid-life crisis" uses the 1961 to 1981 date range. The BBC News article about a lack of "mid-career volunteers" in their 20s provides a Generation X age range, which, being written in 2007, would suggest birth years that fall between 1962 and 1982.
A Daily Express article in December 2013 discusses the impact the recession has had on the generation "born between 1961 and 1981". Despite a good degree and desired job skills, Jan Etherington writes: "They discovered that there is no job security and everywhere there are cutbacks on staff, salaries and benefits."
David Foot, author and University of Toronto professor, divides the generation born after the Baby Boomers into two groups in his book Boom Bust & Echo: How to Profit from the Coming Demographic Shift: Generation X, born between 1960 and 1966; and the "Bust Generation", born between 1967 and 1979. Foot contends that those born between the periods of 1947–1966 were the Baby Boomers, where in Canada they were the largest boom of the industrialized world (relative to population). This large boom complicated the job market for the upcoming generation. However, it is also common in Canada to represent Generation Xers using the date ranges 1961–1981 or 1965–1981.
Australia and New Zealand
A Sydney Morning Herald article defined Gen X as "those born roughly between 1963–1980." The Australian Bureau of Statistics use a 1965–1981 birth range to define Generation X. According to generational demographers Bill Strauss and Neil Howe, "shorter birth year definitions are shorthand for fertility rates. Gen Xers (as a cultural generation) look beyond demographics to define themselves by a shared location in history, common beliefs, attitudes and values (and a common perceived membership). Defining Gen X purely by demographic bulges and busts (like the Census) misses key cultural indicators that a very different set of young people has come along. Commentators who set Millennial birth boundaries starting in the late-70s often make the same assumptions using fertility rates to define birth dates rather than shared beliefs, attitudes and values. Children born in the early 1960s and after had a very different coming of age experience than those born in the late 1950s. Some of the most influential cultural definers of Gen X were born during the period between 1961 and 1964."
Sources in New Zealand, including the country's labour statistics, define Gen X between the years 1965 and 1981. According to a December 2013 article from The New Zealand Herald, a study done by researcher Dr. Kristin Murray of Massey University claims to have "debunked stereotypes about workers of different generations" who "may have more in common than we may think". She found that, although there were cultural differences between those in their twenties and those in their mid-thirties: "Those cultural differences weren't reflected in underlying values and motivations." But, she found that Generation X-ers (1965–1981) and Baby Boomers (1946–1964) were "most alike". However, Dr. Murray clarifies that her study "focused on values, so there could still be differences in behavior between age groups." Jason Walker, who is the New Zealand managing director for job recruitment company Hays, disagrees with Dr. Murray's findings. His company's research showed that Generation X members worked their way up the corporate ladder, advancing by learning new job skills. The Baby Boomers were dependent on their employers to take care of them if they worked hard. The "technologically savvy" Millennials, conversely, were "more risk-taking in their careers" and expected "fast-paced results". If they weren't challenging enough, or if they felt like they were in a dead-end job, they would move on.
- GenXegesis: essays on alternative youth (sub)culture By John McAllister Ulrich, Andrea L. Harris p. 5.
- Ulrich, John (2003). "Introduction: A (Sub)cultural Genealogy". In Andrea L. Harris. GenXegesis: essays on alternative youth. p. 3. ISBN 9780879728625.
- Idol, Billy. "Eyes Without a Face". Retrieved 23 March 2013.
- Idol, Billy. "Rebel Yell". Retrieved 23 March 2013.
- Coupland, Doug. "Generation X." Vista, 1989.
- "Catch My Fall". Retrieved 18 December 2014.
- Hamblett, Charles, and Jane Deverson. "generation X". Greenwich, Conn.: Fawcett Publications, 1964.
- Generation X – A Punk History with Pictures
- Miller, Jon D. "The Generation X Report: Active, Balanced, and Happy: These young Americans are not bowling alone" (PDF). University of Michigan, Longitudinal Study of American Youth, funded by the National Science Foundation. Retrieved 2012-10-23.
- Jon D., Miller. "Xplaining Gen X – National Science Foundation Sponsored Webcast". National Science Foundation. Retrieved 2011-10-19.
- Encyclopedia of Identity By Ronald L. Jackson, II
- Strauss, William & Howe, Neil. Generations: The History of America's Future, 1584 to 2069. Perennial, 1992 (Reprint). ISBN 0-688-11912-3 p. 318 & p. 324
- Chaudhry, Alexandra (2012-04-30). "Obama's Generation X Factor". Time. Retrieved 2012-05-01.
- Glenn, Joshua (2008-01-10). "The Original Generation X, 1954–63". Boston Globe. Retrieved 2012-07-24.
- Masnick, George. "Defining the Generations". Harvard Joint Center for Housing Studies. Retrieved 2013-05-29.
- "U.S. Census Age and Sex Composition: 2010" (PDF). U.S. Census. 2011-05-11. p. 4. Retrieved 2013-09-12.
- Miller, Jon (Fall 2011). "The Generation X Report: Active, Balanced, and Happy: These Young Americans are not Bowling Alone" (PDF). Longitudinal Study of American Youth – University Of Michigan. p. 1. Retrieved 2013-05-29.
- Markert, John (2004). "Demographics of Age: Generational and Cohort Confusion" (PDF). Journal of Current Issues and Research in Advertising (2 ed.) 26: 15. Retrieved 2015-12-10.
- Market, John (2004). "Demographics of Age: Generational and Cohort Confusion" (PDF). Journal of Current Issues and Research in Advertising: 18, 21.
- Dawson, Alene (2011-10-26). "Study says Generation X is balanced and happy". CNN. Retrieved 2012-06-25.
- "LSAY". LSAY. Retrieved 2014-05-19.
- Thompson, Clive (31 January 2014). "Congrats, Millennials. Now It's Your Turn to Be Vilified". Wired. Retrieved 2014-03-02.
- "Volunteering and Civic Life in America: Generation X Volunteer Rates". Corporation for National and Community Service. November 27, 2012. Retrieved 31 January 2013.
- "Volunteering in the United States" (PDF). Bureau of Labor Statistics – U.S. Department of Labor. February 22, 2013. p. 1. Retrieved 2013-04-20.
- Generation X Goes Global: Mapping a Youth Culture in Motion, Christine Henseler, Ed.; Routledge, August 2012
- Hanson, Peter (2002). The Cinema of Generation X: A Critical Study of Films and Directors. North Carolina and London: McFarland and Company. ISBN 0-7864-1334-4.
- TIME, Magazine (1998-06-09). "MY GENERATION BELIEVES WE CAN DO ANYTHING". View Askew. Retrieved 2011-09-18.
- Richard Linklater, Slacker, St Martins Griffin, 1992.
- Tasker, Yvonne (October 21, 2010). Fifty Contemporary Film Directors (page 365). Routledge. ISBN 0415554330.
- Russell, Dominique (March 25, 2010). Rape In Art Cinema (page 130: "In this vein, Solondz' films, while set in the present, contain an array of objects and architectural styles that evoke Generation X's childhood and adolescence. Dawn (Heather Matarazzo) wears her hair tied up in a 1970s ponytail holder with large balls, despite the fact her brother works at a 1990 Macintosh computer, in a film that came out in 1996."). Continuum International Publishing Group. ISBN 082642967X.
- "The Breakfast Club".
- Simple Minds. "Don't You (Forget About Me)".
- Aronchick., David. "Happy Birthday John Hughes: The Voice of My So-Called 'Lost Generation'". Huff Post Entertainment. Retrieved 5 March 2014.
- Isaksen, Judy L. (2002). "Generation X". St. James Encyclopedia of Pop Culture.
- Wilson, Carl (2011-08-04). "My So Called Adulthood". New York Times. Retrieved 2011-08-25.
-  Archived July 1, 2013 at the Wayback Machine
- .U.S. Census Bureau, in their 2009 Statistical Abstract.
- "20th – Century U.S. Generations" (PDF).
- Strauss, William; Neil Howe (1991). Generations: The History of Americas Future, 1584 to 2069. New York: Harper Perennial. p. 317. ISBN 0-688-11912-3.
- Gordinier, Jeff (2008). X Saves the World -- How Generation X Got the Shaft but Can Still Keep Everything From Sucking. New York, NY: Penguin Group. pp. Cover. ISBN 978-0-670-01858-1.
- Gordinier, Jeff. "Author Jeff Gordinier Discusses X Saves the World". YouTube. Retrieved November 2, 2012.
- Isabel Sawhill, Ph.D; John E. Morton (2007). "Economic Mobility: Is the American Dream Alive and Well?" (PDF). Retrieved 22 March 2013.
- Steuerle, Eugene; Signe-Mary McKernan; Caroline Ratcliffe; Sisi Zhang (2013). "Lost Generations? Wealth Building Among Young Americans" (PDF). Urban Institute. Retrieved 22 March 2013.
- Economic Mobility Project
- Ellis, David (2007-05-25). "Making less than dad did". CNN. Retrieved 2010-05-03.
- Morley Winograd; Michael Hais (2012). "Why Generation X is Sparking a Renaissance in Entrepreneurship". Retrieved 2013-04-22.
- Ashthana, Anushka (2008-05-25). "They don't live for work ... they work to live". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 2011-07-21.
- Devlin, Kate (2007-12-24). "Generation X 'having less sex'". The Telegraph (London). Retrieved 2011-07-21.
- A (2007-02-18). "Generation X: The slackers who changed the world". The Independent (London). Retrieved 2011-07-21.
- Mesure, Susie (2010-05-23). "Generation X: A mid-life crisis". The Independent (Independent Print Limited). Retrieved 2014-02-15.
The Independent on Sunday tested his thesis with a straw poll of Gen Xers (anyone born between 1961 and 1981) to see whether the slacker mid-life crisis has hit the UK.
- A (2007-01-19). "Teaching 'Generation X' a lesson". BBC News. Retrieved 2011-07-23.
- Etherington, Jan (2013-12-18). "Fortysomethings are bearing the brunt of the recession". Daily Express (Northern and Shell Media). Retrieved 2014-02-15.
Known as Generation X (born between 1961 and 1981), my children and their friends grew up politically aware, energetic, full of hope and ambition.
- Foot, David (1996). Boom, Bust & Echo. Macfarlane Walter & Ross. pp. 18–22. ISBN 0-921912-97-8.
- Trenton, Thomas Norman (Fall 1997). "Generation X and Political Correctness: Ideological and Religious Transformation Among Students". Canadian Journal of Sociology 22 (4): 417–36. Retrieved 2011-06-03.
In Boom, Bust & Echo, Foot (1996: 18–22) divides youth into two groups: 'Generation X' born between 1960 and 1966 and the 'Bust Generation' born between 1967 and 1979.
- Foot, David. Boom, Bust & Echo.Macfarlane Walter & Ross, 1996. ISBN 0-921912-97-8. p.19
- "CBC Digital Archives". Archives.cbc.ca. Retrieved 2014-05-19.
- Deloitte & Touche LLP, Tourism Industry Association of Canada (2009). "Destination Canada: Are We Doing Enough?" (PDF). Deloitte Tourism, Hospitality & Leisure Industry and Tourism Industry Association of Canada (TIAC): 1–16. Retrieved 2011-03-28.
67% are members of Generations X (1961–81) and Y [Millennials] (1982–2001), or the 'contemporary generations'
- Nicolosi, Gary (2008-03-01). "From Maintenance to Mission". The Anglican Diocese of British Columbia. Retrieved 2011-03-31.
Generation X (born 1965–1981)[dead link]
- Holroyd, Jane (2011-07-20). "Talkin' 'bout my label". Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 2011-12-18.
- McCrindle, Mark (2005-07-18). "Superannuation and the Under 40’s: Summary Report: Research Report on the Attitudes and Views of Generations X and Y on Superannuation.". McCrindle Research.
Generation X 1965–1981...Generation X comprises those aged between 24 and 40...Millennials 1982–2000...
- Howe, Neil (1991). Generations. New York: Harper Perennial. pp. 58–68. ISBN 0-688-11912-3.
- Eames, David (2008-03-06). "Jumping the Generation Gap". The New Zealand Herald (APN New Zealand Ltd). Retrieved 2011-03-31.
Generation X (1965–1981) Cynical, pessimistic, individualist, no employer loyalty, self-sufficient, sceptical.
- Pitt, Dr. Colin (March 2011). "Tuning in to the Next Generation of Leaders". InFinance 125 (1): 1.
Generation X: 1965–1981
- McCracken, Heather (2013-12-03). "Gen X & Y Want Same Things From Ideal Job". The New Zealand Herald (APN New Zealand Ltd). Retrieved 2013-02-16.
Gen X, born between 1965 and 1981
- Generation X Goes Global: Mapping a Youth Culture in Motion, Christine Henseler, Ed.; 2012