Gendarmerie General Command

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Gendarmerie General Command
Jandarma Genel Komutanlığı
Seal of the Jandarma.jpg
Logo of the Gendarmerie General Command.
Active 1846 (Official claim)
June 10, 1930 (as Gendarmerie Organisation)
1956 (as Gendarmerie General Command)[1]
Country  Turkey
Type Gendarmerie
Role Paramilitary law enforcement, counter insurgency, armed response to civil unrest, counter terrorism, special weapons operations.
Size 276,320 sworn members[2]
1,475 Armored and utility vehicles
59 Helicopters
Part of Ministry of Interior
Garrison/HQ Ankara
Minister of Interior Selami Altınok
Commander Gen. Galip Mendi
Flag Flag of Turkish General Command of Gendarmerie.svg
British Officers in the Ottoman Gendarmerie, 1904

The Gendarmerie General Command (Turkish: Jandarma Genel Komutanlığı) or Turkish Gendarmerie (Turkish: Türk Jandarması) is a branch of the Turkish Armed Forces responsible for the maintenance of the public order in areas that fall outside the jurisdiction of police forces (generally in rural areas), as well as assuring internal security and general border control along with carrying out other specific duties assigned to it by certain laws and regulations. The Gendarmerie is essentially a governmental armed security and law enforcement force of military nature.

It also operates the Askeri İnzibat provost service, policing the armed forces and two special forces brigades called Jandarma Özel Harekat Komutanlığı and Jandarma Özel Asayiş Komutanlığı.

As a part of the Turkish Armed Forces, the General Command of the Gendarmerie is subordinate to the Turkish General Staff in matters relating to training and education in connection with the Armed Forces, and to the Ministry of the Interior in matters relating to the performance of the safety and public order duties. The Commander of the Gendarmerie reports to the Minister of the Interior.

The Gendarmerie has its roots in the Ottoman Empire military law enforcement organization "Subaşı" (later known as the "Zaptiye"), which carried out security and safety services. A similar, earlier force was called "Şurta" during the medieval Seljuq Empire.


Ottoman era[edit]

Main article: Ottoman Gendarmerie

After the abolition of the Janissary corps of the Ottoman Empire in 1826, military organizations called Asâkir-i Muntazâma-i Mansûre, Asâkir-i Muntazâma-i Hâssa, and, in 1834, Asâkir-i Redîfe were established to deliver security and public order services in Anatolia and in some provinces of Rumelia.

Since the term Gendarmerie was noticed only in the Assignment Decrees published in the years following the declaration of Tanzimat in 1839, it is assumed that the Gendarmerie organization was founded after that year, but the exact date of foundation has not yet been determined. Therefore, taking the June 14 of "June 14, 1869", on which Asâkir-i Zaptiye Nizâmnâmesi was adopted, June 14, 1839 was accepted as the foundation date of the Turkish Gendarmerie.[4]

After 1877–1878 Russo-Turkish War, Ottoman prime minister Mehmed Said Pasha decided to bring some officers from Britain and France to establish a modern law enforcement organization. After the Young Turk Revolution in 1908, the Gendarmerie achieved great successes, particularly in Rumelia. In 1909, the Gendarmerie was affiliated with the Ministry of War, and its name was changed to the Gendarmerie General Command (Ottoman Turkish: Umûm Jandarma Kumandanlığı‎).

Gendarmerie units both sustained their internal security duties and took part in the national defence at various fronts as a part of the Armed Forces during the World War I and the Turkish War of Independence.

Republic of Turkey[edit]

The Gendarmerie organization achieved its current legal status after Law No. 1706 entered into force on June 10, 1930. In 1939, the Gendarmerie organization was restructured, having three groups: Fixed Gendarmerie Units, Mobile Gendarmerie Units, and Gendarmerie Training Units and Schools.

Law No. 6815, which entered into force in 1956, assigned the Gendarmerie General Command duties such as protecting borders, coasts and territorial waters, and fighting smuggling, which had been previously carried out by the Gümrük Umum Kumandanlığı that was a military organization at the level of division in affiliation to the Ministry of Customs and Monopoly.

In 1957, Gendarmerie Border Units were transformed into brigades, and Gendarmerie Training Brigades were established.

In 1961, Gendarmerie Regional Commands were established.

In 1968, the first Gendarmerie Aviation Unit was established in Diyarbakır under the name of Light Helicopter Company Command.

In 1974, Gendarmerie Commando Units and Gendarmerie Aviation Units took part in the Turkish invasion of Cyprus.

Law No. 2692 which entered into force in 1982 assigned the duty of protecting the coasts and territorial waters to the Coast Guard Command.

Law No. 2803 on the Organization, Duties and Responsibilities of the Gendarmerie entered into force in 1983.

Law No. 3497 entering into force in 1988 assigned the duty of protecting the land borders and ensuring their security to the Land Forces Command, but Gendarmerie General Command still holds the responsibility for some parts of the Iranian and Syrian borders and the whole Iraqi border.

Gendarmerie Criminal Department was founded in Ankara in 1993 and Gendarmerie Regional Criminal Laboratory Superiorities were founded respectively in 1994 in Van, in 1998 in Bursa and in 2005 in Aydın. Crime Scene Examination Teams, Explosive Material Disposal Units, Fingerprints and Palm Prints Branches and Crime Scene Examination Units were also established.

Since 1984, Gendarmerie units have been the most important element of the conflict against Kurdish separatists.


The Turkish Gendarmerie comprises the following commands:[5]

  • Personnel
  • Intelligence
  • Operations
  • Logistics

The General Command is composed of:[6][7]




Submachine guns[edit]

Assault and battle rifles[edit]

Machine guns[edit]

Sniper rifles[edit]

Rocket and grenade launchers[edit]



Model Image Origin Type Variant Number Details
Armored personnel carriers
Sisu Nasu Tracked transport vehicle Sisu NA 110.JPG  Finland Tracked All-Terrain Vehicle 47
Kirpi 2012 Eurosatory BMC trucks.JPG  Turkey MRAP 200
Cobra Paradbaku98.jpg  Turkey MRAP 200
Cadillac Gage Commando ROCA V-150 Commando Front View in Chengkungling 20111009.jpg  United States Armored Personnel Carrier V-150S 200
Akrep Mosul, Iraq.jpg  Turkey Armored Car 250
BTR-60 BTR-60PB DA-ST-89-06597.jpg  East Germany
Armored Personnel Carrier BTR-60PB 323 Bought from Germany (300) in 1990 and Russia (23) in 1992, replaced by the Kirpi, all vehicles are in storage now and will be disposed of.
Condor Malaysian Condor.jpg  Germany Armored Personnel Carrier Condor 1 25[5] when bought, use, replacement - reason - with what
Dragoon Tanqueta militar.JPG  United States Armored Personnel Carrier Dragoon 300 60 when bought, use, replacement - reason - with what
Shorland Shorland armoured car mk1.jpg  United Kingdom Armored Car Shorland S55 300 Replaced by Akrep's, all vehicles are in storage now and will be disposed of.
Turkish Gendarmerie
28 S-70A Blackhawk (Avionics upgraded by Aselsan)
13 AB-205 (Avionics upgraded by Aselsan)
18 Mi-17 IVA (Avionics upgraded by Aselsan)


NATO Code OF-10 OF-9 OF-8 OF-7 OF-6 OF-5 OF-4 OF-3 OF-2 OF-1 OF(D) Student Officer
Turkey Turkey
Turkey-army-OF-10.svg Turkey-army-OF-9.svg Turkey-army-OF-8.svg Turkey-army-OF-7.svg Turkey-army-OF-6.svg Turkey-army-OF-5.svg Turkey-army-OF-4.svg Turkey-army-OF-3.svg Turkey-army-OF-2.svg Turkey-army-OF-1.svg Turkey-army-OF-1b.svg No
Mareşal1 Orgeneral Korgeneral Tümgeneral Tuğgeneral Albay Yarbay Binbaşı Yüzbaşı Üsteğmen Teğmen Asteğmen Harbiyeli
NATO Code OR-9 OR-8 OR-7 OR-6 OR-5 OR-4 OR-3 OR-2 OR-1
Turkey Turkey
Army-TUR-OR-09.svg Army-TUR-OR-08.svg Army-TUR-OR-07a.svg Army-TUR-OR-07b.svg Army-TUR-OR-06a.svg Army-TUR-OR-06b.svg TR-Army-OR5a.svg Army-TUR-OR-05.svg TR-Army-OR4a.svg Army-TUR-OR-04.svg No Insignia
Astsubay Kıdemli
Astsubay Kıdemli
Astsubay Kıdemli
Çavuş Uzman
Onbaşı Er

  • OF3, OF2, & OR2 translate to "Head of 1000", "Head of 100", and "Head of 10" respectively.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Jandarma Genel Komutanlığı". Retrieved 27 November 2015. 
  2. ^ "TSK Mevcut Personel Sayısını Açıkladı". Aktif Haber. 2 January 2014. Retrieved 27 November 2015. 
  3. ^ "Türk Silahlı Kuvvetlerinin Barışı Destekleme Harekâtlarına Katkıları". Retrieved 18 June 2014. 
  5. ^ a b Pike, John. "Jandarma". Retrieved 2015-12-01. 
  6. ^ "Organizational Structure". General Command of Gendarmerie. Retrieved 2008-11-22. 
  7. ^ John Pike. "Turkey - Gendarmerie General Command Jandarma Genel Komutanlýðý". Retrieved 27 November 2015. 
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u "Jandarma Komutanligi". Turkish Gendarmerie. Retrieved 2013-10-22. 
  9. ^ "'Hayata Dönüş' ilk kez gün ışığına çıktı". 7 July 2009. Retrieved 27 November 2015. 
  10. ^ [1] Archived September 12, 2012 at the Wayback Machine

External links[edit]