|Other names||Gender identity disorder|
|Symptoms||Distress related to one's assigned gender or sex|
|Complications||Eating disorders, suicide, depression, anxiety, social isolation|
|Differential diagnosis||Variance in gender identity or expression that is not distressing|
|Medication||Hormones (e.g., androgens, antiandrogens, estrogens)|
|Part of a series on|
Gender dysphoria (GD) is the distress a person feels due to a mismatch between their gender identity and their sex assigned at birth. People with gender dysphoria are typically transgender. The diagnostic label gender identity disorder (GID) was used until 2013 with the release of the DSM-5. The condition was renamed to remove the stigma associated with the term disorder.
Evidence from studies of twins suggests that gender dysphoria likely has genetic causes in addition to environmental ones. Some transgender people and researchers support declassification of the condition because they say the diagnosis pathologizes gender variance and reinforces the binary model of gender.
Treatment for gender dysphoria may involve supporting the person through changes in gender expression. Hormone therapy or surgery may be used to assist such changes. Treatment may also include counseling or psychotherapy.
Signs and symptoms
Gender dysphoria in those assigned male at birth tends to follow one of two broad trajectories: early-onset or late-onset. Early-onset gender dysphoria is behaviorally visible in childhood. Sometimes gender dysphoria will desist in this group and they will identify as gay or homosexual for a period of time, followed by recurrence of gender dysphoria. This group is usually sexually attracted to members of their natal sex in adulthood. Late-onset gender dysphoria does not include visible signs in early childhood, but some report having had wishes to be the opposite sex in childhood that they did not report to others. Trans women who experience late-onset gender dysphoria will usually be sexually attracted to women and may identify as lesbians. It is common for people assigned male at birth who have late-onset gender dysphoria to engage in cross-dressing with sexual excitement. In those assigned female at birth, early-onset gender dysphoria is the most common course. This group is usually sexually attracted to women. Trans men who experience late-onset gender dysphoria will usually be sexually attracted to men and may identify as gay.
Symptoms of GD in children include preferences for opposite sex-typical toys, games, or activities; great dislike of their own genitalia; and a strong preference for playmate of opposite sex children. Some children may also experience social isolation from their peers, anxiety, loneliness, and depression. According to the American Psychological Association, transgender children are more likely to experience harassment and violence in school, foster care, residential treatment centers, homeless centers and juvenile justice programs than other children. Additionally, some child psychologists continue to use misgendering and pathologizing language and approaches with transgender children, contrary to APA policy statements.
In adolescents and adults, symptoms include the desire to be and to be treated as the other gender. Adults with GD are at increased risk for stress, isolation, anxiety, depression, poor self-esteem, and suicide. Studies indicate that transgender people have an extremely high rate of suicide attempts; one study of 6,450 transgender people in the United States found 41% had attempted suicide, compared to a national average of 1.6%. It was also found that suicide attempts were less common among transgender people who said their family ties had remained strong after they came out, but even transgender people at comparatively low risk were still much more likely to have attempted suicide than the general population. Transgender people are also at heightened risk for eating disorders and substance abuse.
A twin study (based on seven people in a 314 sample) suggested that GID may be 62% heritable, indicating the possibility of a genetic influence as its origin, in these cases.
- A strong desire to be of a gender other than one's assigned gender
- A strong desire to be treated as a gender other than one's assigned gender
- A significant incongruence between one's experienced or expressed gender and one's sexual characteristics
- A strong desire for the sexual characteristics of a gender other than one's assigned gender
- A strong desire to be rid of one's sexual characteristics due to incongruence with one's experienced or expressed gender
- A strong conviction that one has the typical reactions and feelings of a gender other than one's assigned gender
In addition, the condition must be associated with clinically significant distress or impairment.
The DSM-5 moved this diagnosis out of the sexual disorders category and into a category of its own. The diagnosis was renamed from gender identity disorder to gender dysphoria, after criticisms that the former term was stigmatizing. Subtyping by sexual orientation was deleted. The diagnosis for children was separated from that for adults, as "gender dysphoria in children". The creation of a specific diagnosis for children reflects the lesser ability of children to have insight into what they are experiencing, or ability to express it in the event that they have insight. Other specified gender dysphoria or unspecified gender dysphoria can be diagnosed if a person does not meet the criteria for gender dysphoria but still has clinically significant distress or impairment. Intersex people are now included in the diagnosis of GD.
- Transsexualism (F64.0): Desire to live and be accepted as a member of the opposite sex, usually accompanied by a desire for surgery and hormonal treatment
- Gender identity disorder of childhood (F64.2): Persistent and intense distress about one's assigned gender, manifested prior to puberty
- Other gender identity disorders (F64.8)
- Gender identity disorder, unspecified (F64.9)
- Sexual maturation disorder (F66.0): Uncertainty about one's gender identity or sexual orientation, causing anxiety or distress
The ICD-11, which will come into effect on 1 January 2022, significantly revises classification of gender identity-related conditions. Under "conditions related to sexual health", the ICD-11 lists "gender incongruence", which is coded into three conditions:
- Gender incongruence of adolescence or adulthood (HA60): replaces F64.0
- Gender incongruence of childhood (HA61): replaces F64.2
- Gender incongruence, unspecified (HA6Z): replaces F64.9
In addition, sexual maturation disorder has been removed, along with dual-role transvestism. ICD-11 defines gender incongruence as "a marked and persistent incongruence between an individual’s experienced gender and the assigned sex", with presentations similar to the DSM-5 definition, but does not require significant distress or impairment.
Treatment for a person diagnosed with GD may include psychotherapy or to support the individual's preferred gender through hormone therapy, gender expression and role, or surgery. This may include psychological counseling, resulting in lifestyle changes, or physical changes, resulting from medical interventions such as hormonal treatment, genital surgery, electrolysis or laser hair removal, chest/breast surgery, or other reconstructive surgeries. The goal of treatment may simply be to reduce problems resulting from the person's transgender status, for example, counseling the patient in order to reduce guilt associated with cross-dressing, or counseling a spouse to help them adjust to the patient's situation.
Guidelines have been established to aid clinicians. The World Professional Association for Transgender Health (WPATH) Standards of Care are used by some clinicians as treatment guidelines. Others use guidelines outlined in Gianna Israel and Donald Tarver's Transgender Care. Guidelines for treatment generally follow a "harm reduction" model.
The question of whether to counsel young children to be happy with their assigned sex, or to encourage them to continue to exhibit behaviors that do not match their assigned sex—or to explore a transgender transition—is controversial. The follow-up studies of children with gender dysphoria consistently show that the majority cease to feel transgender during puberty and identify instead as gay or lesbian. Others clinicians also report that a significant proportion of young children diagnosed with gender dysphoria later do not exhibit any dysphoria.
Professionals who treat gender dysphoria in children have begun to refer and prescribe hormones, known as puberty blockers, to delay the onset of puberty until a child is believed to be old enough to make an informed decision on whether hormonal gender reassignment leading to surgical gender reassignment will be in that person's best interest.
Until the 1970s, psychotherapy was the primary treatment for gender dysphoria, and generally was directed to helping the person adjust to the gender of the physical characteristics present at birth. Psychotherapy is any therapeutic interaction that aims to treat a psychological problem. Though some clinicians still use only psychotherapy to treat gender dysphoria, it may now be used in addition to biological interventions. Psychotherapeutic treatment of GID involves helping the patient to adapt. Attempts to cure GID by changing the patient's gender identity to reflect birth characteristics have been ineffective.:1741
Biological treatments physically alter primary and secondary sex characteristics to reduce the discrepancy between an individual's physical body and gender identity. Biological treatments for GID without any form of psychotherapy is quite uncommon. Researchers have found that if individuals bypass psychotherapy in their GID treatment, they often feel lost and confused when their biological treatments are complete.
Psychotherapy, hormone replacement therapy, and sex reassignment surgery together can be effective treating GID when the WPATH standards of care are followed.:1570 The overall level of patient satisfaction with both psychological and biological treatments is very high.
In April 2011, the UK National Research Ethics Service approved prescribing monthly injection of puberty-blocking drugs to youngsters from 12 years old, in order to enable them to get older before deciding on formal sex change. The Tavistock and Portman NHS Foundation Trust (T&P) in North London has treated such children. Clinic director Dr. Polly Carmichael said, "Certainly, of the children between 12 and 14, there's a number who are keen to take part. I know what's been very hard for their families is knowing that there's something available but it's not available here." The clinic received 127 referrals for gender dysphoria in 2010.
The T&P completed a three-year trial to assess the psychological, social and physical benefits and risks involved for 12- to 14-year-old patients. The trial was deemed such a success that doctors have decided to make the drugs more widely available and to children as young as 9 years of age. As recently as 2009, national guidelines stated that treatment for gender dysphoria should not start until puberty had finished. Ferring Pharmaceuticals manufactures the drug Triptorelin, marketed under the name Gonapeptyl, at £82 per monthly dose. The treatment is reversible, which means the body will resume its previous state upon discontinuation of drugs.
Gender dysphoria occurs in one in 30,000 male-assigned births and one in 100,000 female-assigned births. Estimated rates of those with a transgender identity range from a lower bound of 1:2000 (or about 0.05%) in the Netherlands and Belgium to 0.5% of Massachusetts adults. From a national survey of high-school students in New Zealand, 8,500 randomly selected secondary school students from 91 randomly selected high schools found 1.2% of students responded "yes" to the question "Do you think you are transgender?". These numbers are based on those who identify as transgender. It is estimated that about 0.005% to 0.014% of people assigned male at birth and 0.002% to 0.003% of people assigned female at birth would be diagnosed with gender dysphoria,[disputed ] based on 2013 diagnostic criteria, though this is considered a modest underestimate. Research indicates people who transition in adulthood are up to three times more likely to be male assigned at birth, but that among people transitioning in childhood the sex ratio is close to 1:1.
Neither DSM-I (1952) nor DSM-II (1968) contained a diagnosis analogous to gender dysphoria. Gender identity disorder first appeared as a diagnosis in DSM-III (1980), where it appeared under "psychosexual disorders" but was used only for the childhood diagnosis. Adolescents and adults received a diagnosis of transsexualism (homosexual, heterosexual, or asexual type). DSM-III-R (1987) added "Gender Identity Disorder of Adolescence and Adulthood, Non-Transsexual Type" (GIDAANT).
Society and culture
Researchers disagree about the nature of distress and impairment in people with GD. Some authors have suggested that people with GD suffer because they are stigmatized and victimized; and that, if society had less strict gender divisions, transsexual people would suffer less.
Some controversy surrounds the creation of the GD diagnosis, with Davy et al. stating that although the creators of the diagnosis state that it has rigorous scientific support, "it is impossible to scrutinize such claims, since the discussions, methodological processes, and promised field trials of the diagnosis have not been published."
Social gender characteristics are created and supported by the expectations of a culture, and are therefore only partially related to biological sex. For example, the association of particular colors with "girl" or "boy" babies begins extremely early in Western European-derived cultures. Other expectations relate to approved and allowable behaviors and emotional expression.
Some cultures have three defined genders: man, woman, and effeminate man. For example, in Samoa, the fa'afafine, a group of feminine males, are entirely socially accepted. The fa'afafine do not have any of the stigma or distress typically associated in most cultures with deviating from a male/female gender role. This suggests the distress so frequently associated with GID in a Western context is not caused by the disorder itself, but by difficulties encountered from social disapproval by one's culture. However, research has found that the anxiety associated with gender dysphoria persists in cultures, Eastern or otherwise, which are more accepting of gender nonconformity.
In Australia, a 2014 High Court of Australia judgment unanimously ruled in favor of a plaintiff named Norrie, who asked to be classified by a third gender category, 'non-specific', after a long court battle with the NSW Registrar of Births, Deaths and Marriages. However, the Court did not accept that gender was a social construction: it found that sex reassignment "surgery did not resolve her sexual ambiguity".:para 11
Classification as a disorder
The psychiatric diagnoses of gender identity disorder (now gender dysphoria) was introduced in DSM-III in 1980. Arlene Istar Lev and Deborah Rudacille have characterized the addition as a political maneuver to re-stigmatize homosexuality. (Homosexuality was removed from DSM-II in 1974.) By contrast, Kenneth Zucker and Robert Spitzer argue that gender identity disorder was included in DSM-III because it "met the generally accepted criteria used by the framers of DSM-III for inclusion." Some researchers, including Robert Spitzer and Paul J. Fink, contend that the behaviors and experiences seen in transsexualism are abnormal and constitute a dysfunction. The American Psychiatric Association stated that gender nonconformity is not the same thing as gender dysphoria, and that "gender nonconformity is not in itself a mental disorder. The critical element of gender dysphoria is the presence of clinically significant distress associated with the condition."
Individuals with gender dysphoria may or may not regard their own cross-gender feelings and behaviors as a disorder. Advantages and disadvantages exist to classifying gender dysphoria as a disorder. Because gender dysphoria had been classified as a disorder in medical texts (such as the previous DSM manual, the DSM-IV-TR, under the name "gender identity disorder"), many insurance companies are willing to cover some of the expenses of sex reassignment therapy. Without the classification of gender dysphoria as a medical disorder, sex reassignment therapy may be viewed as cosmetic treatment, rather than medically necessary treatment, and may not be covered. In the United States, transgender people are less likely than others to have health insurance, and often face hostility and insensitivity from healthcare providers.
The DSM-IV-TR diagnostic component of distress is not inherent in the cross-gender identity; rather, it is related to social rejection and discrimination suffered by the individual. Psychology professor Darryl Hill insists that gender dysphoria is not a mental disorder, but rather that the diagnostic criteria reflect psychological distress in children that occurs when parents and others have trouble relating to their child's gender variance. Transgender people have often been harassed, socially excluded, and subjected to discrimination, abuse and violence, including murder.
In December 2002, the British Lord Chancellor's office published a Government Policy Concerning Transsexual People document that categorically states, "What transsexualism is not ... It is not a mental illness." In May 2009, the government of France declared that a transsexual gender identity will no longer be classified as a psychiatric condition, but according to French trans rights organizations, beyond the impact of the announcement itself, nothing changed. Denmark made a similar statement in 2016.
In the ICD-11, GID is reclassified as "gender incongruence", a condition related to sexual health. The working group responsible for this recategorization recommended keeping such a diagnosis in ICD-11 to preserve access to health services.
Intimate relationships between lesbians and female-to-male people with GID will sometimes endure throughout the transition process, or shift to becoming supportive friendships. Intimate relationships between heterosexual women and male-to-female people with GID often suffer once the GID is known or revealed. Researchers say the fate of the relationship seems to depend mainly on the woman's adaptability. Problems often arise, with the cisgender partner becoming increasingly angry or dissatisfied, if her partner's time spent in a female role grows, if her partner's libido decreases, or if her partner is angry and emotionally cut-off when in the male role. Cisgender women sometimes also worry about social stigma and may be uncomfortable with the bodily feminization of their partner as the partner moves through transition. The cisgender women who are likeliest to accept and accommodate their partner's transition, researchers say, are those with a low sex drive or those who are equally sexually attracted to men and women.
- "Gender Dysphoria" (PDF). American Psychiatric Publishing. Retrieved December 24, 2016.
- Maddux JE, Winstead BA (2015). Psychopathology: Foundations for a Contemporary Understanding. Routledge. pp. 464–465. ISBN 978-1317697992.
- Coleman E (2011). "Standards of Care for the Health of Transsexual, Transgender, and Gender-Nonconforming People, Version 7" (PDF). International Journal of Transgenderism. Routledge Taylor & Francis Group. 13 (4): 165–232. doi:10.1080/15532739.2011.700873. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 2, 2014. Retrieved August 30, 2014.
- Davidson, Michelle R. (2012). A Nurse's Guide to Women's Mental Health. Springer Publishing Company. p. 114. ISBN 978-0-8261-7113-9.
- American Psychiatric Association, DSM-5 Fact Sheets, Updated Disorders: Gender Dysphoria (Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Association, 2013): 2 ("DSM-5 aims to avoid stigma and ensure clinical care for individuals who see and feel themselves to be a different gender than their assigned gender. It replaces the diagnostic name 'gender identity disorder' with 'gender dysphoria', as well as makes other important clarifications in the criteria.").
- Ranna Parekh. "What Is Gender Dysphoria?". American Psychiatric Publishing. Retrieved November 20, 2018.
- Heylens G, De Cuypere G, Zucker KJ, Schelfaut C, Elaut E, Vanden Bossche H, De Baere E, T'Sjoen G (March 2012). "Gender identity disorder in twins: a review of the case report literature". The Journal of Sexual Medicine. 9 (3): 751–7. doi:10.1111/j.1743-6109.2011.02567.x. PMID 22146048.
Of 23 monozygotic female and male twins, nine (39.1%) were concordant for GID; in contrast, none of the 21 same‐sex dizygotic female and male twins were concordant for GID, a statistically significant difference (P = 0.005)... These findings suggest a role for genetic factors in the development of GID.
- Diamond, Milton (2013). "Transsexuality Among Twins: Identity Concordance, Transition, Rearing, and Orientation". International Journal of Transgenderism. 14 (1): 24–38. doi:10.1080/15532739.2013.750222.
Combining data from the present survey with those from past-published reports, 20% of all male and female monozygotic twin pairs were found concordant for transsexual identity... The responses of our twins relative to their rearing, along with our findings regarding some of their experiences during childhood and adolescence show their identity was much more influenced by their genetics than their rearing.
- Bryant, Karl (2018). "Gender Dysphoria". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved August 16, 2018.
- Fraser, L; Karasic, D; Meyer, W; Wylie, K (2010). "Recommendations for Revision of the DSM Diagnosis of Gender Identity Disorder in Adults". International Journal of Transgenderism. 12 (2): 80–85. doi:10.1080/15532739.2010.509202.
- Newman, L (July 1, 2002). "Sex, Gender and Culture: Issues in the Definition, Assessment and Treatment of Gender Identity Disorder". Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 7 (3): 352–359. doi:10.1177/1359104502007003004.
- Zucker, Kenneth J.; Lawrence, Anne A.; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P.C. (2016). "Gender Dysphoria in Adults". Annual Review of Clinical Psychology. 12: 217–247. doi:10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-021815-093034. PMID 26788901.
[For DSM-5] a reconceptualization was articulated in which 'identity' per se was not considered a sign of a mental disorder. Rather, it was the incongruence between one’s felt gender and assigned sex/gender (usually at birth) leading to distress and/or impairment that was the core feature of the diagnosis.
- Lev, Arlene Istar (2013). "Gender Dysphoria: Two Steps Forward, One Step Back". Clinical Social Work Journal. 41 (3): 288–296. doi:10.1007/s10615-013-0447-0.
[Despite some misgivings], I think that the change in nomenclature from the DSM-IV to the DSM-5 is a step forward, that is, removing the concept of gender as the site of the disorder and placing the focus on issues of distress and dysphoria.
- Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fifth ed.). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. pp. 451–460. ISBN 978-0-89042-554-1.
- Guillamon A, Junque C, Gómez-Gil E (October 2016). "A Review of the Status of Brain Structure Research in Transsexualism". Archives of Sexual Behavior. 45 (7): 1615–48. doi:10.1007/s10508-016-0768-5. PMC 4987404. PMID 27255307.
- American Psychiatry Association (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) (5th ed.). Washington, DC and London: American Psychiatric Publishing. pp. 451–460. ISBN 978-0-89042-555-8.
- American Psychological Association (2008). "Resolution on transgender, gender identity, and gender expression non-discrimination" (PDF).
- Ansara, Y. Gavriel; Hegarty, Peter (2012). "Cisgenderism in psychology: pathologising and misgendering children from 1999 to 2008" (PDF). Psychology and Sexuality. 3 (2): 137–60. doi:10.1080/19419899.2011.576696.
- Grant; Jaime, M.; Mottet, Lisa; Tanis, Justin; Harrison, Jack; Herman, Jody; Keisling, Mara (2011). Injustice at Every Turn: A Report of the National Transgender Discrimination Survey (PDF). Washington: National Center for Transgender Equality and National Gay and Lesbian Task Force. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 4, 2015. Retrieved May 10, 2015.
- Diemer EW, Grant JD, Munn-Chernoff MA, Patterson DA, Duncan AE (August 2015). "Gender Identity, Sexual Orientation, and Eating-Related Pathology in a National Sample of College Students". The Journal of Adolescent Health. 57 (2): 144–9. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2015.03.003. PMC 4545276. PMID 25937471.
- Harmon, A., & Oberleitner, M. G. (2016). Gender dysphoria. In Gale (Ed.), Gale encyclopedia of children's health: Infancy through adolescence (3rd ed.). Farmington, MI: Gale.
- Coolidge FL, Thede LL, Young SE (July 2002). "The heritability of gender identity disorder in a child and adolescent twin sample". Behavior Genetics. 32 (4): 251–7. doi:10.1023/A:1019724712983. PMID 12211624.
- "Gender Dysphoria in Children". American Psychiatric Association. May 4, 2011. Retrieved July 3, 2011.
- "P 00 Gender Dysphoria in Children". American Psychiatric Association. Retrieved April 2, 2012.
- Davy, Zowie; Toze, Michael (2018). "What Is Gender Dysphoria? A Critical Systematic Narrative Review". Transgender Health. Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Publishers. 3 (1): 159–169. doi:10.1089/trgh.2018.0014. PMC 6225591. PMID 30426079.
- "International Classification of Diseases (ICD) F64 Gender identity disorders". World Health Organization. Retrieved August 9, 2018.
- Potts, S; Bhugra, D (1995). "Classification of sexual disorders". International Review of Psychiatry. 7 (2): 167–174. doi:10.3109/09540269509028323.
- "International Classification of Diseases". World Health Organization. Retrieved August 11, 2018.
- "Gender incongruence (ICD-11)". icd.who.int. WHO. Retrieved August 28, 2018.
- Reed GM, Drescher J, Krueger RB, Atalla E, Cochran SD, First MB, Cohen-Kettenis PT, Arango-de Montis I, Parish SJ, Cottler S, Briken P, Saxena S (October 2016). "Disorders related to sexuality and gender identity in the ICD-11: revising the ICD-10 classification based on current scientific evidence, best clinical practices, and human rights considerations". World Psychiatry. 15 (3): 205–221. doi:10.1002/wps.20354. PMC 5032510. PMID 27717275.
- "NHS - Treatment - Gender dysphoria". NHS. 2016. Retrieved January 10, 2019.
- Leiblum, Sandra (2006). Principles and Practice of Sex Therapy, Fourth Edition. The Guilford Press. pp. 488–9. ISBN 978-1-59385-349-5.
- Committee On Adolescence (July 2013). "Office-based care for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning youth". Pediatrics. 132 (1): 198–203. doi:10.1542/peds.2013-1282. PMID 23796746.
However, adolescents with multiple or anonymous partners, having unprotected intercourse, or having substance abuse issues should be tested at shorter intervals.
- "www.glma.org Compendium of Health Profession Association LGBT Policy & Position Statements" (PDF). GLMA. 2013. Retrieved August 27, 2013.
- "APA Policy Statements on Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, & Transgender Concerns" (PDF). American Psychological Association. 2011. Retrieved August 27, 2013.
BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that APA recognizes the efficacy, benefit, and necessity of gender transition treatments for appropriately evaluated individuals and calls upon public and private insurers to cover these medically necessary treatments;
- Wallien, M. S. C., & Cohen-Kettenis, P. T. (2008). Psychosexual outcome of gender-dysphoric children. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 47, 1413–1423.
- Drummond, K. D., Bradley, S. J., Badali-Peterson, M., & Zucker, K. J. (2008). A follow-up study of girls with gender identity disorder. Developmental Psychology, 44, 34–45.
- Steensma, T. D., McGuire, J. K., Kreukels, B. P. C., Beekman, A. J., & Cohen-Kettenis, P. T. (2013). Factors associated with desistence and persistence of childhood gender dysphoria: A quantitative follow-up study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 52, 582–590.
- Spiegel, Alix (May 8, 2008). "Q&A: Therapists on Gender Identity Issues in Kids". NPR. Retrieved September 16, 2008.
- The Transgendered Child: A Handbook for Families and Professionals (Brill and Pepper, 2008)[full citation needed][page needed]
- Gijs, L; Brawaeys, A (2007). "Surgical Treatment of Gender Dysphoria in Adults and Adolescents: Recent Developments, Effectiveness, and Challenges". Annual Review of Sex Research. 18 (178–224).
- George R. Brown, MD (July 20, 2011). "Chapter 165 Sexuality and Sexual Disorders". In Robert S. Porter, MD; et al. (eds.). The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy (19th ed.). Whitehouse Station, NJ, USA: Merck & Co., Inc. pp. 1740–1747. ISBN 978-0-911910-19-3.
- Bockting, W; Knudson, G; Goldberg, J (January 2006). "Counselling and Mental Health Care of Transgender Adults and Loved Ones". Cite journal requires
- Hakeem, Az (2008). "Changing Sex or Changing Minds: Specialist Psychotherapy and Transsexuality". Group Analysis. 41 (2): 182–196. doi:10.1177/0533316408089883.
- telegraph.co.uk: "Puberty blocker for children considering sex change", The Daily Telegraph (Alleyne) April 15, 2011
- Gender identity disorders. (2018). In H. Marcovitch (Ed.), Black's Medical Dictionary, 43rd edition (43rd ed.). London, UK: A&C Black.
- Olyslager, Femke; Conway, Lynn (2008). "Transseksualiteit komt vaker voor dan u denkt. Een nieuwe kijk op de prevalentie van transseksualiteit in Nederland en België". Tijdschrift voor Genderstudies (in Dutch). Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press. 11 (2): 39–51. ISSN 1388-3186. Retrieved August 27, 2013. Lay summary – How Frequently Does Transsexualism Occur?.
…it is safe to assume that the lower limit for the inherent prevalence of transsexualism in the Netherlands and Flanders is on order of 1:2000 to 1:1000 for transgender females and on the order of 1:4000 to 1:2000 for transgender males.
- Conron, KJ; Scott, G; Stowell, GS; Landers, S (January 2012), "Transgender Health in Massachusetts: Results from a Household Probability Sample of Adults", American Journal of Public Health, American Public Health Association, 102 (1): 118–222, doi:10.2105/AJPH.2011.300315, ISSN 1541-0048, OCLC 01642844, PMC 3490554, PMID 22095354,
Between 2007 and 2009, survey participants aged 18 to 64 years in the Massachusetts Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (MA-BRFSS; N = 28 662) were asked: "Some people describe themselves as transgender when they experience a different gender identity from their sex at birth. For example, a person born into a male body, but who feels female or lives as a woman. Do you consider yourself to be transgender?" […] We restricted the analytic sample to 28176 participants who answered yes or no to the transgender question (excluding n=364, 1.0% weighted who declined to respond. […] Transgender respondents (n=131; 0.5%; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.3%, 0.6%) were somewhat younger and more likely to be Hispanic than were nontransgender respondents.
- Clark TC, Lucassen MF, Bullen P, Denny SJ, Fleming TM, Robinson EM, Rossen FV (July 2014). "The health and well-being of transgender high school students: results from the New Zealand adolescent health survey (Youth'12)". The Journal of Adolescent Health. 55 (1): 93–9. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2013.11.008. PMID 24438852.
Whether a student was transgender was measured by the question, "Do you think you are transgender? This is a girl who feels like she should have been a boy, or a boy who feels like he should have been a girl (e.g., Trans, Queen, Fa’faffine, Whakawahine, Tangata ira Tane, Genderqueer)?" […] Over 8,000 students (n = 8,166) answered the question about whether they were transgender. Approximately 95% of students did not report being transgender (n=7,731; 94.7%), 96 students reported being transgender (1.2%), 202 reported not being sure (2.5%), and 137 did not understand the question (1.7%).
- Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5. American Psychiatric Association. 2013. p. 454. ISBN 978-0-89042-555-8.
- Landén M, Wålinder J, Lundström B (April 1996). "Prevalence, incidence and sex ratio of transsexualism". Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. 93 (4): 221–3. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0447.1996.tb10638.x. PMID 8712018.
On average, the male [to female]:female [to male] ratio in prevalence studies is estimated to be 3:1. However […] the incidence studies have shown a considerably lower male [to female] predominance. In Sweden and England and Wales a sex ratio of 1:1 has been reported. In the most recent incidence data from Sweden there is a slight male [to female] predominance among the group consisting of all applicants for sex reassignment, while in the group of primary [early onset] transsexuals there is no difference in incidence between men and women.
- Koh J (2012). "[The history of the concept of gender identity disorder]". Seishin Shinkeigaku Zasshi = Psychiatria et Neurologia Japonica. 114 (6): 673–80. PMID 22844818.
- Pauly, Ira B., "Terminology and Classification of Gender Identity Disorders", Journal of Psychology & Human Sexuality, 5, no. 4, (1993): 2–3.
- Drescher, Jack, Transsexualism, Gender Identity Disorder and the DSM, Journal of Gay & Lesbian Mental Health 14, no. 2 (2010): 112.
- Bryant, Karl Edward (2007). The Politics of Pathology and the Making of Gender Identity Disorder. Ann Arbor, Michigan. p. 222. ISBN 978-0-549-26816-1.
- Giordano, Simona (2012). Children with Gender Identity Disorder: A Clinical, Ethical, and Legal Analysis. New Jersey: Routledge. p. 147. ISBN 978-0-415-50271-9.
- Marecek, J., Crawford, M., & Popp, D. (2004). "On the Construction of Gender, Sex, and Sexualities". In A.H. Eagly, A.E. Beall, & R.J. Sternberg (eds.). The Psychology of Gender. New York: Guilford Press. pp. 192–216.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link) CS1 maint: uses editors parameter (link)
- Vasey PL, Bartlett NH (2007). "What can the Samoan "Fa'afafine" teach us about the Western concept of gender identity disorder in childhood?". Perspectives in Biology and Medicine. 50 (4): 481–90. doi:10.1353/pbm.2007.0056. PMID 17951883.
- Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5. American Psychiatric Association. 2013. p. 459. ISBN 978-0-89042-555-8.
- NSW Registrar of Births, Deaths and Marriages v Norrie /11.html [2014 ] HCA 11 (2 April 2014), High Court (Australia).
- Lev, Arlene Istar (2004). Transgender Emergence: Therapeutic Guidelines for Working with Gender-Variant People and Their Families. Haworth Press. p. 172. ISBN 978-0-7890-2117-5.
- Rudacille, Deborah (February 2005). The Riddle of Gender: Science, Activism, and Transgender Rights. Pantheon. ISBN 978-0-375-42162-4.[page needed]
- Zucker, KJ; Spitzer, RL (Jan–Feb 2005), "Was the gender identity disorder of childhood diagnosis introduced into DSM-III as a backdoor maneuver to replace homosexuality? A historical note.", Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy, 31 (1): 31–42, doi:10.1080/00926230590475251, PMID 15841704
- "Controversy Continues to Grow Over DSM's GID Diagnosis". Psychiatric News.
- Ford, Zack. "APA Revises Manual: Being Transgender is No Longer a Mental Disorder". Archived from the original on February 2, 2013. Retrieved April 7, 2013.
- Mallon, Gerald P. (2009). Social Work Practice with Transgender and Gender Variant Youth. New Jersey: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-99482-8.
- "Government Policy concerning Transsexual People". People's rights/Transsexual people. U.K. Department for Constitutional Affairs. 2003. Archived from the original on May 11, 2008.
- "La transsexualité ne sera plus classée comme affectation psychiatrique". Le Monde. May 16, 2009.
- "La France est très en retard dans la prise en charge des transsexuels". Libération (in French). May 17, 2011.
En réalité, ce décret n'a été rien d'autre qu'un coup médiatique, un très bel effet d'annonce. Sur le terrain, rien n'a changé.
- "Denmark will become first country to no longer define being transgender as a mental illness". The Independent. May 14, 2016.
- Barrett, James (2007). Transsexual and Other Disorders of Gender Identity: A Practical Guide to Management. RADCLIFFE MEDICAL PRESS LTD. p. 83. ISBN 978-1-85775-719-4.
- Conway, Lynn (June 26, 2014). "Successful TransMen: Links and Photos". ai.eecs.umich.edu. Retrieved December 2, 2014.
- Conway, Lynn (February 5, 2011). "Transsexual Women's Successes: Links and Photos". ai.eecs.umich.edu. Retrieved December 2, 2014.
- Jacques, Juliet. "A Transgender Journey". The Guardian. Retrieved December 2, 2014.
- World Professional Association for Transgender Health (2012). Standards of Care for Gender Identity Disorders (PDF). Harry Benjamin International Gender Dysphoria Association. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 24, 2014. Includes a description of ICD-10 criteria.
- Health Law Standards of Care for Transsexualism – An alternative to the Benjamin Standards of Care proposed by the International Conference on Transgender Law and Employment Policy.
- The Lord Chancellor's Department Government Policy concerning Transsexual People