Jump to content

Gender equality

Page semi-protected
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Gender equality, also known as sexual equality or equality of the sexes, is the state of equal ease of access to resources and opportunities regardless of gender, including economic participation and decision-making; and the state of valuing different behaviors, aspirations, and needs equally, regardless of gender.[1]

UNICEF defined gender equality as "women and men, and girls and boys, enjoy the same rights, resources, opportunities and protections. It does not require that girls and boys, or women and men, be the same, or that they be treated exactly alike."[2][a]

As of 2017, gender equality is the fifth of seventeen sustainable development goals (SDG 5) of the United Nations; gender equality has not incorporated the proposition of genders besides women and men, or gender identities outside of the gender binary. Gender inequality is measured annually by the United Nations Development Programme's Human Development Reports.

Gender equality can refer to equal opportunities or formal equality based on gender or refer to equal representation or equality of outcomes for gender, also called substantive equality.[3] Gender equality is the goal, while gender neutrality and gender equity are practices and ways of thinking that help achieve the goal. Gender parity, which is used to measure gender balance in a given situation, can aid in achieving substantive gender equality but is not the goal in and of itself. Gender equality is strongly tied to women's rights, and often requires policy changes. On a global scale, achieving gender equality also requires eliminating harmful practices against women and girls, including sex trafficking, femicide, wartime sexual violence, gender wage gap,[4] and other oppression tactics. UNFPA stated that "despite many international agreements affirming their human rights, women are still much more likely than men to be poor and illiterate. They have less access to property ownership, credit, training, and employment. This partly stems from the archaic stereotypes of women being labeled as child-bearers and homemakers, rather than the breadwinners of the family.[5] They are far less likely than men to be politically active and far more likely to be victims of domestic violence."[6]


Christine de Pizan, an early advocate for gender equality, states in her 1405 book The Book of the City of Ladies that the oppression of women is founded on irrational prejudice, pointing out numerous advances in society probably created by women.[7][8]


Life of the Diligent Shaker, Shaker Historical Society
The Ritual Dance of the Shakers, Shaker Historical Society
The Shakers harvesting their famous herbs

The Shakers, an evangelical group, which practiced segregation of the sexes and strict celibacy, were early practitioners of gender equality. They branched off from a Quaker community in the north-west of England before emigrating to America in 1774. In America, the head of the Shakers' central ministry in 1788, Joseph Meacham, had a revelation that the sexes should be equal. He then brought Lucy Wright into the ministry as his female counterpart, and together they restructured the society to balance the rights of the sexes. Meacham and Wright established leadership teams where each elder, who dealt with the men's spiritual welfare, was partnered with an eldress, who did the same for women. Each deacon was partnered with a deaconess. Men had oversight of men; women had oversight of women. Women lived with women; men lived with men. In Shaker society, a woman did not have to be controlled or owned by any man. After Meacham's death in 1796, Wright became the head of the Shaker ministry until her death in 1821.

Shakers maintained the same pattern of gender-balanced leadership for more than 200 years. They also promoted equality by working together with other women's rights advocates. In 1859, Shaker Elder Frederick Evans stated their beliefs forcefully, writing that Shakers were "the first to disenthrall woman from the condition of vassalage to which all other religious systems (more or less) consign her, and to secure to her those just and equal rights with man that, by her similarity to him in organization and faculties, both God and nature would seem to demand".[9] Evans and his counterpart, Eldress Antoinette Doolittle, joined women's rights advocates on speakers' platforms throughout the northeastern U.S. in the 1870s. A visitor to the Shakers wrote in 1875:

Each sex works in its own appropriate sphere of action, there being a proper subordination, deference and respect of the female to the male in his order, and of the male to the female in her order [emphasis added], so that in any of these communities the zealous advocates of "women's rights" may here find a practical realization of their ideal.[10]

The Shakers were more than a radical religious sect on the fringes of American society; they put equality of the sexes into practice. It has been argued that they demonstrated that gender equality was achievable and how to achieve it.[11]

In wider society, the movement towards gender equality began with the suffrage movement in Western cultures in the late-19th century, which sought to allow women to vote and hold elected office. This period also witnessed significant changes to women's property rights, particularly in relation to their marital status. (See for example, Married Women's Property Act 1882.)

Post-war era

Since World War II, the women's liberation movement and feminism have created a general movement towards recognition of women's rights. The United Nations and other international agencies have adopted several conventions which promote gender equality. These conventions have not been uniformly adopted by all countries, and include:

Such legislation and affirmative action policies have been critical to bringing changes in societal attitudes. A 2015 Pew Research Center survey of citizens in 38 countries found that majorities in 37 of those 38 countries said that gender equality is at least "somewhat important", and a global median of 65% believe it is "very important" that women have the same rights as men.[17] Most occupations are now equally available to men and women, in many countries.[i]

Similarly, men are increasingly working in occupations which in previous generations had been considered women's work, such as nursing, cleaning and child care. In domestic situations, the role of Parenting or child rearing is more commonly shared or not as widely considered to be an exclusively female role, so that women may be free to pursue a career after childbirth. For further information, see Shared earning/shared parenting marriage.

Another manifestation of the change in social attitudes is the non-automatic taking by a woman of her husband's surname on marriage.[18]

A highly contentious issue relating to gender equality is the role of women in religiously orientated societies.[ii][iii] Some Christians or Muslims believe in Complementarianism, a view that holds that men and women have different but complementing roles. This view may be in opposition to the views and goals of gender equality.

From the documentary Ukraine Is Not a Brothel. Radical group Femen protest against the increase in sex tourism into Ukraine.

In addition, there are also non-Western countries of low religiosity where the contention surrounding gender equality remains. In China, a cultural preference for a male child has resulted in a shortfall of women in the population. The feminist movement in Japan has made many strides which resulted in the Gender Equality Bureau, but Japan still remains low in gender equality compared to other industrialized nations.Developing countries like Kenya, on the other hand, do not have official national statistics and have to rely on some gender-disaggregated statistics, usually funded by international organizations, for their analysis.[19]

The notion of gender equality, and of its degree of achievement in a certain country, is very complex because there are countries that have a history of a high level of gender equality in certain areas of life but not in other areas.[iv][v] Indeed, there is a need for caution when categorizing countries by the level of gender equality that they have achieved.[20] According to Mala Htun and S. Laurel Weldon "gender policy is not one issue but many" and:[21]

When Costa Rica has a better maternity leave than the United States, and Latin American countries are quicker to adopt policies addressing violence against women than the Nordic countries, one at least ought to consider the possibility that fresh ways of grouping states would further the study of gender politics.

Not all beliefs relating to gender equality have been popularly adopted. For example, topfreedom, the right to be bare breasted in public, frequently applies only to males and has remained a marginal issue. Breastfeeding in public is now more commonly tolerated, especially in semi-private places such as restaurants.[22]

United Nations

It is the vision that men and women should be treated equally in social, economic and all other aspects of society, and to not be discriminated against on the basis of their gender.[vi] Gender equality is one of the objectives of the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights.[23] World bodies have defined gender equality in terms of human rights, especially women's rights, and economic development.[24][25] The United Nation's Millennium Development Goals Report states that their goal is to "achieve gender equality and the empowerment of women". Despite economic struggles in developing countries, the United Nations is still trying to promote gender equality, as well as help create a sustainable living environment is all its nations. Their goals also include giving women who work certain full-time jobs equal pay to the men with the same job.

Gender biases

There is controversy with regard to ideologies according to which Western culture and Western feminism should be considered the international standard to be followed by the developing world.[26]
An example of a Western European ideology responsible for persecution of women:[27] Malleus Maleficarum, a book endorsing the extermination of witches. The book was written by the German Catholic clergyman Heinrich Kramer.
The Swiss canton of Appenzell Innerrhoden was the last jurisdiction in Europe, and one of the last jurisdictions in the world, to grant women's suffrage in 1990[28]

A study involving predicting personality characteristics of individuals in photographs across 44 countries found that the women-are-wonderful effect is lower in countries with high measures of gender equality, with the decrease arising from men being viewed less negatively.[29] The gender-equality paradox is the observation that gendered differences in personality tend to be higher in countries with higher gender equality.[30]


There has been criticism from some feminists towards the political discourse and policies employed in order to achieve the above items of "progress" in gender equality, with critics arguing that these gender equality strategies are superficial, in that they do not seek to challenge social structures of male domination, and only aim to improve the situation of women within the societal framework of subordination of women to men,[31] and that official public policies (such as state policies or international bodies policies) are questionable, as they are applied in a patriarchal context, and are directly or indirectly controlled by agents of a system which is for the most part male.[32] One of the criticisms of the gender equality policies, in particular, those of the European Union, is that they disproportionately focus on policies integrating women in public life, but do not seek to genuinely address the deep private sphere oppression.[33] A criticism of the Western concept and policies of gender equality relates to the degree to which this approach is able to genuinely address in a successful way the problem of violence against women.[34][35][36][37][38][39]

A further criticism is that a focus on the situation of women in non-Western countries, while often ignoring the issues that exist in the West, is a form of imperialism and of reinforcing Western moral superiority; and a way of "othering" of domestic violence, by presenting it as something specific to outsiders – the "violent others" – and not to the allegedly progressive Western cultures.[40] These critics point out that women in Western countries often face similar problems, such as domestic violence and rape, as in other parts of the world.[41] They also cite the fact that women faced de jure legal discrimination until just a few decades ago; for instance, in some Western countries such as Switzerland, Greece, Spain, and France, women obtained equal rights in family law in the 1980s.[vii][viii][ix][x] Another criticism is that there is a selective public discourse with regard to different types of oppression of women, with some forms of violence such as honor killings (most common in certain geographic regions such as parts of Asia and North Africa) being frequently the object of public debate, while other forms of violence, such as the lenient punishment for crimes of passion across Latin America, do not receive the same attention in the West.[43][xi] It is also argued that the criticism of particular laws of many developing countries ignores the influence of colonialism on those legal systems.[xii] There has been controversy surrounding the concepts of Westernization and Europeanisation, due to their reminder of past colonialism,[44] and also due to the fact that some Western countries, such as Switzerland, have been themselves been very slow to give women legal rights.[45][46] There have also been objections to the way Western media presents women from various cultures creating stereotypes, such as that of 'submissive' Asian or Eastern European women, a stereotype closely connected to the mail order brides industry.[47] Such stereotypes are often blatantly untrue: for instance women in many Eastern European countries occupy a high professional status.[48][49] Feminists in many developing countries have been strongly opposed to the idea that women in those countries need to be 'saved' by the West.[50] There are questions on how exactly should gender equality be measured, and whether the West is indeed "best" at it: a study in 2010 found that among the top 20 countries on female graduates in the science fields at university level most countries were countries that were considered internationally to score very low on the position of women's rights, with the top 3 being Iran, Saudi Arabia and Oman, and only 5 European countries made it to that top: Romania, Bulgaria, Italy, Georgia and Greece.[51]

Controversy regarding Western cultural influence in the world is not new; in the late 1940s, when the Universal Declaration of Human Rights was being drafted, the American Anthropological Association warned that the document would be defining universal rights from a Western perspective which could be detrimental to non-Western countries, and further argued that the West's history of colonialism and forceful interference with other societies made them a problematic moral representative for universal global standards.[52]

There has been criticism that international law, international courts, and universal gender neutral concepts of human rights are at best silent on many of the issues important to women and at worst male centered; considering the male person to be the default.[53] Excessive gender neutrality can worsen the situation of women, because the law assumes women are in the same position as men, ignoring the biological fact that in the process of reproduction and pregnancy there is no 'equality', and that apart from physical differences there are socially constructed limitations which assign a socially and culturally inferior position to women – a situation which requires a specific approach to women's rights, not merely a gender neutral one.[54] In a 1975 interview, Simone de Beauvoir talked about the negative reactions towards women's rights from the left that was supposed to be progressive and support social change, and also expressed skepticism about mainstream international organizations.[55] There have been questions about the acceptability of international intervention into societal domestic issues from international organizations,[56] especially since the multitude of such international bodies can create confusion, including through contradictory rulings on the same issue: for example the ECtHR upheld in 2014 France's ban on wearing a burqa in public,[57] while the United Nations Human Rights Committee concluded in 2018 that France's ban on burqa in public violates human rights.[58] International bodies have been criticized for being based on an ideology of one size fits all approach to issues, which does not take into account that a specific approach may work in one culture but not in another,[59][60] and that historically international intervention into another country has often done more harm than good; and that ultimately the problems from a culture must be solved from within that culture, not through forceful foreign intervention.[61] A criticism of international organizations is that while they purport to support universal global human rights, they often support the interests of Western elites.[62] The legitimacy of international organizations has come into question in the 21st century especially in the light of international scandals, such as child sexual abuse by UN peacekeepers.[63]

Efforts to fight inequality

In 2010, the European Union opened the European Institute for Gender Equality (EIGE) in Vilnius, Lithuania to promote gender equality and to fight sex discrimination. In 2015 the EU published the Gender Action Plan 2016–2020.[64]

Gender equality is part of the national curriculum in Great Britain and many other European countries. By presidential decree, the Republic of Kazakhstan created a Strategy for Gender Equality 2006–2016 to chart the subsequent decade of gender equality efforts.[65] Personal, social, health and economic education, religious studies and language acquisition curricula tend to address gender equality issues as a very serious topic for discussion and analysis of its effect in society.

A large and growing body of research has shown how gender inequality undermines health and development. To overcome gender inequality the United Nations Population Fund states that women's empowerment and gender equality requires strategic interventions at all levels of programming and policy-making. These levels include reproductive health, economic empowerment, educational empowerment and political empowerment.[66]

UNFPA says that "research has also demonstrated how working with men and boys as well as women and girls to promote gender equality contributes to achieving health and development outcomes."[67]

The extent to which national policy frameworks address gender issues improved over the past decade. National policies and budgets in East Africa and Latin America, for example, have increasingly highlighted structural gaps in access to land, inputs, services, finance and digital technology and included efforts to produce gender-responsive outcomes.[68] However, the extent to which agricultural policies specifically address gender equality and women's empowerment varies.[68]

Even though more than 75 percent of agricultural policies that the Food and Agriculture Organization analysed recognized women's roles and/or challenges in agriculture, only 19 percent had gender equality in agriculture or women's rights as explicit policy objectives. And only 13 percent encouraged rural women's participation in the policy cycle.[68]

Health and safety

Effect of gender inequality on health

A composite data map showing the percentage of women aged 15-49 who have undergone FGM. The source is UNICEF (2016), and a number of additional studies for countries outside Africa (with the exception of Indonesia) not surveyed by UNICEF. There is no data for the countries in grey

Social constructs of gender (that is, cultural ideals of socially acceptable masculinity and femininity) often have a negative effect on health. The World Health Organization cites the example of women not being allowed to travel alone outside the home (to go to the hospital), and women being prevented by cultural norms to ask their husbands to use a condom, in cultures which simultaneously encourage male promiscuity, as social norms that harm women's health. Teenage boys suffering accidents due to social expectations of impressing their peers through risk taking, and men dying at much higher rate from lung cancer due to smoking, in cultures which link smoking to masculinity, are cited by the WHO as examples of gender norms negatively affecting men's health.[69] The World Health Organization has also stated that there is a strong connection between gender socialization and transmission and lack of adequate management of HIV/AIDS.[70]

Maternal mortality ratio.[71]

Certain cultural practices, such as female genital mutilation (FGM), negatively affect women's health.[72] Female genital mutilation is the ritual cutting or removal of some or all of the external female genitalia. It is rooted in inequality between the sexes, and constitutes a form of discrimination against women.[72] The practice is found in Africa,[1] Asia and the Middle East, and among immigrant communities from countries in which FGM is common. The preference rate in Kenya is 21 per cent and an estimated 4 million girls and women have undergone FGM in Kenya with hot spot areas/ communities including the Kuria community both in Kenya and Tanzania border, Kisii, Maasai, Somali, Samburu and Kuria ethnic groups. UNICEF estimated in 2016 that 200 million women have undergone the procedure.[73]

Map of countries by fertility rate (2020), according to the Population Reference Bureau

According to the World Health Organization, gender equality can improve men's health. The study shows that traditional notions of masculinity have a big impact on men's health. Among European men, non-communicable diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, respiratory illnesses, and diabetes, account for the vast majority of deaths of men aged 30–59 in Europe which are often linked to unhealthy diets, stress, substance abuse, and other habits, which the report connects to behaviors often stereotypically seen as masculine behaviors like heavy drinking and smoking. Traditional gender stereotypes that keep men in the role of breadwinner and systematic discrimination preventing women from equally contributing to their households and participating in the workforce can put additional stress on men, increasing their risk of health issues and men bolstered by cultural norms, tend to take more risks and engage in interpersonal violence more often than women, which could result in fatal injuries.[74][75][76][77]

Violence against women

A map of the world showing murders per 100,000 population committed against women, 2019
Anti-FGM road sign, Bakau, Gambia, 2005
An X-ray of two bound feet. Foot binding was practiced for centuries in China.

Violence against women (VAW) is a technical term used to collectively refer to violent acts that are primarily or exclusively committed against women.[xiii] This type of violence is gender-based, meaning that the acts of violence are committed against women expressly because they are women, or as a result of patriarchal gender constructs.[xiv] Violence and mistreatment of women in marriage has come to international attention during the past decades. This includes both violence committed inside marriage (domestic violence) as well as violence related to marriage customs and traditions (such as dowry, bride price, forced marriage and child marriage).

According to some theories, violence against women is often caused by the acceptance of violence by various cultural groups as a means of conflict resolution within intimate relationships. Studies on Intimate partner violence victimization among ethnic minorities in the United Studies have consistently revealed that immigrants are a high-risk group for intimate violence.[78][79]

In countries where gang murders, armed kidnappings, civil unrest, and other similar acts are rare, the vast majority of murdered women are killed by partners/ex-partners.[xv] By contrast, in countries with a high level of organized criminal activity and gang violence, murders of women are more likely to occur in a public sphere, often in a general climate of indifference and impunity.[80] In addition, many countries do not have adequate comprehensive data collection on such murders, aggravating the problem.[80]

In some parts of the world, various forms of violence against women are tolerated and accepted as parts of everyday life.[xvi]

In most countries, it is only in more recent decades that domestic violence against women has received significant legal attention. The Istanbul Convention acknowledges the long tradition of European countries of ignoring this form of violence.[xvii][xviii]

In some cultures, acts of violence against women are seen as crimes against the male 'owners' of the woman, such as husband, father or male relatives, rather the woman herself. This leads to practices where men inflict violence upon women in order to get revenge on male members of the women's family.[81] Such practices include payback rape, a form of rape specific to certain cultures, particularly the Pacific Islands, which consists of the rape of a female, usually by a group of several males, as revenge for acts committed by members of her family, such as her father or brothers, with the rape being meant to humiliate the father or brothers, as punishment for their prior behavior towards the perpetrators.[82]

Richard A. Posner writes that "Traditionally, rape was the offense of depriving a father or husband of a valuable asset — his wife's chastity or his daughter's virginity".[83] Historically, rape was seen in many cultures (and is still seen today in some societies) as a crime against the honor of the family, rather than against the self-determination of the woman. As a result, victims of rape may face violence, in extreme cases even honor killings, at the hands of their family members.[84][85] Catharine MacKinnon argues that in male dominated societies, sexual intercourse is imposed on women in a coercive and unequal way, creating a continuum of victimization, where women have few positive sexual experiences.[xix] Socialization within rigid gender constructs often creates an environment where sexual violence is common.[xx] One of the challenges of dealing with sexual violence is that in many societies women are perceived as being readily available for sex, and men are seen as entitled to their bodies, until and unless women object.[86][87][xxi]

Types of VAW

Violence against women may be classified according to different approaches.

  • WHO's life cycle typology:

The World Health Organization (WHO) has developed a typology of violence against women based on their cultural life cycles.

Phase Type of violence
Pre-birth Sex-selective abortion; effects of battering during pregnancy on birth outcomes
Infancy Female infanticide; physical, sexual and psychological abuse
Girlhood Child marriage; female genital mutilation; physical, sexual and psychological abuse; incest; child prostitution and pornography
Adolescence and adulthood Dating and courtship violence (e.g. acid throwing and date rape); economically coerced sex (e.g. school girls having sex with "sugar daddies" in return for school fees); incest; sexual abuse in the workplace; rape; sexual harassment; forced prostitution and pornography; trafficking in women; partner violence; marital rape; dowry abuse and murders; partner homicide; psychological abuse; abuse of women with disabilities; forced pregnancy
Elderly Forced "suicide" or homicide of widows for economic reasons; sexual, physical and psychological abuse[88]

Significant progress towards the protection of women from violence has been made on international level as a product of collective effort of lobbying by many women's rights movements; international organizations to civil society groups. As a result, worldwide governments and international as well as civil society organizations actively work to combat violence against women through a variety of programs. Among the major achievements of the women's rights movements against violence on girls and women, the landmark accomplishments are the "Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women" that implies "political will towards addressing VAW " and the legal binding agreement, "the Convention on Elimination of all forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW)".[89] In addition, the UN General Assembly resolution also designated 25 November as International Day for the Elimination of Violence against Women.[90]

  • The Lancet's over time typology:

A typology similar to the WHO's from an article on violence against women published in the academic journal The Lancet shows the different types of violence perpetrated against women according to what time period in a women's life the violence takes place.[91] However, it also classifies the types of violence according to the perpetrator. One important point to note is that more of the types of violence inflicted on women are perpetrated by someone the woman knows, either a family member or intimate partner, rather than a stranger.

  • Council of Europe's nine forms of violence:

The Gender Equality Commission of the Council of Europe identifies nine forms of violence against women based on subject and context rather than life cycle or time period:[92][93]

  • 'Violence within the family or domestic violence'
  • 'Rape and sexual violence'
  • 'Sexual harassment'
  • 'Violence in institutional environments'
  • 'Female genital mutilation'
  • 'Forced marriages'
  • 'Violence in conflict and post-conflict situations'
  • 'Killings in the name of honour'
  • 'Failure to respect freedom of choice with regard to reproduction'
Violence against trans women

Killings of transgender individuals, especially transgender women, continue to rise yearly. 2020 saw a record 350 transgender individuals murdered, with means including suffocation and burning alive.[94]

In 2009, United States data showed that transgender people are likely to experience a broad range of violence in the entirety of their lifetime. Violence against trans women in Puerto Rico started to make headlines after being treated as "An Invisible Problem" decades before. It was reported at the 58th Convention of the Puerto Rican Association that many transgender women face institutional, emotional, and structural obstacles. Most trans women do not have access to health care for STD prevention and are not educated on violence prevention, mental health, and social services that could benefit them.[95]

Trans women in the United States have encountered the subject of anti-trans stigma, which includes criminalization, dehumanization, and violence against those who identify as transgender. From a societal standpoint, a trans person can be victim to the stigma due to lack of family support, issues with health care and social services, police brutality, discrimination in the work place, cultural marginalisation, poverty, sexual assault, assault, bullying, and mental trauma. The Human Rights Campaign tracked over 128 cases[clarification needed] that ended in fatality against transgender people in the US from 2013 to 2018, of which eighty percent included a trans woman of color. In the US, high rates of Intimate Partner violence impact trans women differently because they are facing discrimination from police and health providers, and alienation from family. In 2018, it was reported that 77 percent of transgender people who were linked to sex work and 72 percent of transgender people who were homeless, were victims of intimate partner violence.[96]

Reproductive and sexual health and rights

Global maternal mortality rate per 100,000 live births (2010)[97]
In 2010, Sierra Leone launched free healthcare for pregnant and breastfeeding women

The importance of women having the right and possibility to have control over their body, reproduction decisions, and sexuality, and the need for gender equality in order to achieve these goals are recognized as crucial by the Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing and the UN International Conference on Population and Development Program of Action. The World Health Organization (WHO) has stated that promotion of gender equality is crucial in the fight against HIV/AIDS.[70]

Maternal mortality is a major problem in many parts of the world. UNFPA states that countries have an obligation to protect women's right to health, but many countries do not do that.[98] Maternal mortality is considered today not just an issue of development but also an issue of human rights.[xxii]

The right to reproductive and sexual autonomy is denied to women in many parts of the world, through practices such as forced sterilization, forced/coerced sexual partnering (e.g. forced marriage, child marriage), criminalization of consensual sexual acts (such as sex outside marriage), lack of criminalization of marital rape, violence in regard to the choice of partner (honor killings as punishment for 'inappropriate' relations).[xxiii] The sexual health of women is often poor in societies where a woman's right to control her sexuality is not recognized.[xxiv]

Adolescent girls have the highest risk of sexual coercion, sexual ill health, and negative reproductive outcomes. The risks they face are higher than those of boys and men; this increased risk is partly due to gender inequity (different socialization of boys and girls, gender based violence, child marriage) and partly due to biological factors.[xxv]

Family planning and abortion
Placard showing negative effects of lack of family planning and having too many children and infants (Ethiopia)

Family planning is the practice of freely deciding the number of children one has and the intervals between their births, particularly by means of contraception or voluntary sterilization. Abortion is the induced termination of pregnancy. Abortion laws vary significantly by country. The availability of contraception, sterilization and abortion is dependent on laws, as well as social, cultural and religious norms. Some countries have liberal laws regarding these issues, but in practice it is very difficult to access such services due to doctors, pharmacists and other social and medical workers being conscientious objectors.[99][100] Family planning is particularly important from a women's rights perspective, as having very many pregnancies, especially in areas where malnutrition is present, can seriously endanger women's health. UNFA writes that "Family planning is central to gender equality and women's empowerment, and it is a key factor in reducing poverty".[101]

Family planning is often opposed by governments who have strong natalist policies. During the 20th century, such examples have included the aggressive natalist policies from communist Romania and communist Albania. State mandated forced marriage was also practiced by some authoritarian governments as a way to meet population targets: the Khmer Rouge regime in Cambodia systematically forced people into marriages, in order to increase the population and continue the revolution.[102] By contrast, the one-child policy of China (1979–2015) included punishments for families with more than one child and forced abortions. The fine is so-called "social maintenance fee" and it is the punishment for the families who have more than one child. According to the policy, the families who violate the law may bring the burden to the whole sociey. Therefore, the social maintenance fee will be used for the operation of the basic government.[103] Some governments have sought to prevent certain ethnic or social groups from reproduction. Such policies were carried out against ethnic minorities in Europe and North America in the 20th century, and more recently in Latin America against the Indigenous population in the 1990s; in Peru, President Alberto Fujimori (in office from 1990 to 2000) has been accused of genocide and crimes against humanity as a result of a sterilization program put in place by his administration targeting indigenous people (mainly the Quechuas and the Aymaras).[104]

Investigation and prosecution of crimes against women and girls

Human rights organizations have expressed concern about the legal impunity of perpetrators of crimes against women, with such crimes being often ignored by authorities.[105] This is especially the case with murders of women in Latin America.[106][107][108] In particular, there is impunity in regard to domestic violence.[xxvi]

Women are often, in law or in practice, unable to access legal institutions. UN Women has said that: "Too often, justice institutions, including the police and the courts, deny women justice".[109] Often, women are denied legal recourse because the state institutions themselves are structured and operate in ways incompatible with genuine justice for women who experience violence.[xxvii]

Harmful traditional practices

Anti-dowry poster in Bangalore, India
FGM in Africa, Iraqi Kurdistan and Yemen, as of 2015 (map of Africa).[73]

"Harmful traditional practices" refer to forms of violence which are committed in certain communities often enough to become cultural practice, and accepted for that reason. Young women are the main victims of such acts, although men can be affected.[110] They occur in an environment where women and girls have unequal rights and opportunities.[111] These practices include, according to the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights:[111]

female genital mutilation (FGM); forced feeding of women; early marriage; the various taboos or practices which prevent women from controlling their own fertility; nutritional taboos and traditional birth practices; son preference and its implications for the status of the girl child; female infanticide; early pregnancy; and dowry price

Son preference refers to a cultural preference for sons over daughters, and manifests itself through practices such as sex selective abortion; female infanticide; or abandonment, neglect or abuse of girl-children.[111]

Abuses regarding nutrition are taboos in regard to certain foods, which result in poor nutrition of women, and may endanger their health, especially if pregnant.[111]

The caste system in India which leads to untouchability (the practice of ostracizing a group by segregating them from the mainstream society) often interacts with gender discrimination, leading to a double discrimination faced by Dalit women.[112] In a 2014 survey, 27% of Indians admitted to practicing untouchability.[113]

Traditional customs regarding birth sometimes endanger the mothers. Births in parts of Africa are often attended by traditional birth attendants (TBAs), who sometimes perform rituals that are dangerous to the health of the mother. In many societies, a difficult labour is believed to be a divine punishment for marital infidelity, and such women face abuse and are pressured to "confess" to the infidelity.[111]

Tribal traditions can be harmful to males; for instance, the Satere-Mawe tribe use bullet ants as an initiation rite. Men must wear gloves with hundreds of bullet ants woven in for ten minutes: the ants' stings cause severe pain and paralysis. This experience must be completed twenty times for boys to be considered "warriors".[114]

Other harmful traditional practices include marriage by abduction, ritualized sexual slavery (Devadasi, Trokosi), breast ironing and widow inheritance.[115][116][117][118]

Female genital mutilation
Road sign near Kapchorwa, Uganda, 2004

UNFPA and UNICEF regard the practice of female genital mutilation as "a manifestation of deeply entrenched gender inequality. It persists for many reasons. In some societies, for example, it is considered a rite of passage. In others, it is seen as a prerequisite for marriage. In some communities – whether Christian, Jewish, Muslim – the practice may even be attributed to religious beliefs."[119]

An estimated 125 million women and girls living today have undergone FGM in the 29 countries where data exist. Of these, about half live in Egypt and Ethiopia.[120] It is most commonly carried out on girls between infancy and 15 years old.[110]

Forced marriage and child marriage
Poster against child and forced marriage

Early marriage, child marriage or forced marriage is prevalent in parts of Asia and Africa. The majority of victims seeking advice are female and aged between 18 and 23.[110] Such marriages can have harmful effects on a girl's education and development, and may expose girls to social isolation or abuse.[111][121][122]

The 2013 UN Resolution on Child, Early and Forced Marriage calls for an end to the practice, and states that "Recognizing that child, early and forced marriage is a harmful practice that violates abuses, or impairs human rights and is linked to and perpetuates other harmful practices and human rights violations, that these violations have a disproportionately negative impact on women and girls [...]".[123] Despite a near-universal commitment by governments to end child marriage, "one in three girls in developing countries (excluding China) will probably be married before they are 18."[124] UNFPA states that, "over 67 million women 20–24 year old in 2010 had been married as girls. Half were in Asia, one-fifth in Africa. In the next decade 14.2 million girls under 18 will be married every year; this translates into 39,000 girls married each day. This will rise to an average of 15.1 million girls a year, starting in 2021 until 2030, if present trends continue."[124]

Bride price

Bride price (also called bridewealth or bride token) is money, property, or other form of wealth paid by a groom or his family to the parents of the bride. This custom often leads to women having reduced ability to control their fertility. For instance, in northern Ghana, the payment of bride price signifies a woman's requirement to bear children, and women using birth control face threats, violence and reprisals.[125] The custom of bride price has been criticized as contributing to the mistreatment of women in marriage, and preventing them from leaving abusive marriages. UN Women recommended its abolition, and stated that: "Legislation should ... State that divorce shall not be contingent upon the return of bride price but such provisions shall not be interpreted to limit women's right to divorce; State that a perpetrator of domestic violence, including marital rape, cannot use the fact that he paid bride price as a defence to a domestic violence charge."[81]

The custom of bride price can also curtail the free movement of women: if a wife wants to leave her husband, he may demand back the bride price that he had paid to the woman's family; and the woman's family often cannot or does not want to pay it back, making it difficult for women to move out of violent husbands' homes.[126][127][128]

Economy and public policy

Economic empowerment of women

Bar graph showing the gender pay gap in European countries
Gender pay gap in average gross hourly earnings in the EU member states, according to Eurostat 2014[129][failed verification]

Promoting gender equality is seen as an encouragement to greater economic prosperity.[24][xxviii] Female economic activity is a common measure of gender equality in an economy.[xxix]

A government video: Why substantive equality is important in local government

Gender discrimination often results in women obtaining low-wage jobs and being disproportionately affected by poverty, discrimination and exploitation.[130][xxx] A growing body of research documents what works to economically empower women, from providing access to formal financial services to training on agricultural and business management practices, though more research is needed across a variety of contexts to confirm the effectiveness of these interventions.[131]

Gender biases also exist in product and service provision.[132] The term "Women's Tax", also known as "Pink Tax", refers to gendered pricing in which products or services marketed to women are more expensive than similar products marketed to men. Gender-based price discrimination involves companies selling almost identical units of the same product or service at comparatively different prices, as determined by the target market. Studies have found that women pay about $1,400 a year more than men due to gendered discriminatory pricing. Although the "pink tax" of different goods and services is not uniform, overall women pay more for commodities that result in visual evidence of feminine body image.[133][xxxi]

In addition, gender wage gap is a phenomenon of gender biases. That means women do the same job or work with their male counterpart, but they could not receive the same salary or opportunity at workforce.[4] Across the European Union, for example, since women continue to hold lower-paying jobs, they earn 13% less than men on average. According to European Quality of Life Survey and European Working Conditions Survey data, women in the European Union work more hours but for less pay. Adult men (including the retired) work an average of 23 hours per week, compared to 15 hours for women.

Women continue to earn around 25% less than males. Almost a billion women are unable to obtain loans to establish a company or create a bank account in order to save money.[134][135] Increasing women's equality in banking and the workplace might boost the global economy by up to $28 trillion by 2025.[136][134][135][137] Funding is becoming more available for this, for example with the European Investment Bank establishing the SheInvest program in 2020 with the goal of raising €1 billion in investments to assist women in obtaining loans and running enterprises across Africa.[136][138]

The European Investment Bank funded an additional €2 billion in gender-lens investment in Africa, Asia, and Latin America at the Finance in Common Summit at the end of 2022.[136][139][140]

Gendered arrangements of work and care

Since the 1950s, social scientists as well as feminists have increasingly criticized gendered arrangements of work and care and the male breadwinner role. Policies are increasingly targeting men as fathers as a tool of changing gender relations.[141] Shared earning/shared parenting marriage, that is, a relationship where the partners collaborate at sharing their responsibilities inside and outside of the home, is often encouraged in Western countries.[142]

Western countries with a strong emphasis on women fulfilling the role of homemakers, rather than a professional role, include parts of German speaking Europe (i.e. parts of Germany, Austria and Switzerland); as well as the Netherlands and Ireland.[xxxii][xxxiii][xxxiv][xxxv] In the computer technology world of Silicon Valley in the United States, New York Times reporter Nellie Bowles has covered harassment and bias against women as well as a backlash against female equality.[143][144]

Females are underrepresented in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) at all levels of society. Fewer females are completing STEM school subjects, graduating with STEM degrees, being employed as STEM professionals, and holding senior leadership and academic positions in STEM. This problem is exacerbated by the gender pay gap; family role expectations; lack of visible role models or mentors; discrimination and harassment; and bias in hiring and promotion practices.[145]

A key issue towards insuring gender equality in the workplace is the respecting of maternity rights and reproductive rights of women.[146] Different countries have different rules regarding maternity leave, paternity leave and parental leave.[xxxvi] Another important issue is ensuring that employed women are not de jure or de facto prevented from having a child.[xxxvii] In some countries, employers ask women to sign formal or informal documents stipulating that they will not get pregnant or face legal punishment.[147] Women often face severe violations of their reproductive rights at the hands of their employers; and the International Labour Organization classifies forced abortion coerced by the employer as labour exploitation.[148][xxxviii] Other abuses include routine virginity tests of unmarried employed women.[149][150]

Freedom of movement

Women in Afghanistan wearing burqas. Some clothes that women are required to wear, by law or custom, can restrict their movements.

The degree to which women can participate (in law and in practice) in public life varies by culture and socioeconomic characteristics. Seclusion of women within the home was a common practice among the upper classes of many societies, and this still remains the case today in some societies. Before the 20th century it was also common in parts of Southern Europe, such as much of Spain.[151]

Women's freedom of movement continues to be legally restricted in some parts of the world. This restriction is often due to marriage laws.[xxxix] In some countries, women must legally be accompanied by their male guardians (such as the husband or male relative) when they leave home.[152]

The Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) states at Article 15 (4) that:

4. States Parties shall accord to men and women the same rights with regard to the law relating to the movement of persons and the freedom to choose their residence and domicile.[153]

In addition to laws, women's freedom of movement is also restricted by social and religious norms.[xl] Restrictions on freedom of movement also exist due to traditional practices such as baad, swara, or vani.[xli]

Girls' access to education

In many parts of the world, girls' access to education is very restricted. In developing parts of the world women are often denied opportunities for education as girls and women face many obstacles. These include: early and forced marriages; early pregnancy; prejudice based on gender stereotypes at home, at school and in the community; violence on the way to school, or in and around schools; long distances to schools; vulnerability to the HIV epidemic; school fees, which often lead to parents sending only their sons to school; lack of gender sensitive approaches and materials in classrooms.[155][156][157] According to OHCHR, there have been multiple attacks on schools worldwide during the period 2009–2014 with "a number of these attacks being specifically directed at girls, parents and teachers advocating for gender equality in education".[158] The United Nations Population Fund says:[159]

About two thirds of the world's illiterate adults are women. Lack of an education severely restricts a woman's access to information and opportunities. Conversely, increasing women's and girls' educational attainment benefits both individuals and future generations. Higher levels of women's education are strongly associated with lower infant mortality and lower fertility, as well as better outcomes for their children.

According to UNESCO, extreme exclusion still characterizes some countries, and pockets of exclusion remain in others. In Afghanistan, where girls have been banned again from secondary schools, there had been rapid progress in completion rates. For example, girls' primary completion increased from 8% in 2000 to 56% in 2020, although the gender gap remained at 20 percentage points. In some provinces, such as Uruzgan, just 1% of girls completed primary in 2015. A 20 percentage point gender gap in access to upper secondary education is also observed in sub-Saharan African countries, including Chad and Guinea.[160]

Political participation of women

Map showing countries which since independence have had (counting Governors-General as heads of state, but excluding monarchs):
  Female head of government[b]
  Female head of state[c]
  Female head of state/government (combined)
  Female head of state and female head of government
Three former sovereign states (East Germany, Tannu Tuva, and Yugoslavia) have also had a female Head of State or Head of Government
A world map showing countries governmental participation by women, 2010

Women are underrepresented in most countries' National Parliaments.[161] The 2011 UN General Assembly resolution on women's political participation called for female participation in politics, and expressed concern about the fact that "women in every part of the world continue to be largely marginalized from the political sphere".[162][xlii] Only 22 percent of parliamentarians globally are women and therefore, men continue to occupy most positions of political and legal authority.[6] As of November 2014, women accounted for 28% of members of the single or lower houses of parliaments in the European Union member states.[XLVII]

In some Western countries[which?] women have only recently[when?] obtained the right to vote.[xliii]

In 2015, 61.3% of Rwanda's Lower House of Parliament were women, the highest proportion anywhere in the world, but worldwide that was one of only two such bodies where women were in the majority, the other being Bolivia's Lower House of Parliament.[164] (See also Gender equality in Rwanda).

Marriage, divorce and property laws and regulations

Equal rights for women in marriage, divorce, and property/land ownership and inheritance are essential for gender equality. The Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) has called for the end of discriminatory family laws.[165] In 2013, UN Women stated that "While at least 115 countries recognize equal land rights for women and men, effective implementation remains a major challenge".[166]

The legal and social treatment of married women has been often discussed as a political issue from the 19th century onwards.[xliv][xlv] Until the 1970s, legal subordination of married women was common across European countries, through marriage laws giving legal authority to the husband, as well as through marriage bars.[xlvi][xlvii] In 1978, the Council of Europe passed the Resolution (78) 37 on equality of spouses in civil law.[167] Switzerland was one of the last countries in Europe to establish gender equality in marriage, in this country married women's rights were severely restricted until 1988, when legal reforms providing for gender equality in marriage, abolishing the legal authority of the husband, come into force (these reforms had been approved in 1985 by voters in a referendum, who narrowly voted in favor with 54.7% of voters approving).[168][169][170][42] In the Netherlands, it was only in 1984 that full legal equality between husband and wife was achieved: prior to 1984 the law stipulated that the husband's opinion prevailed over the wife's regarding issues such as decisions on children's education and the domicile of the family.[171][172][173]

In the United States, a wife's legal subordination to her husband was fully ended by the case of Kirchberg v. Feenstra, 450 U.S. 455 (1981), a United States Supreme Court case in which the Court held a Louisiana Head and Master law, which gave sole control of marital property to the husband, unconstitutional.[174]

There have been and sometimes continue to be unequal treatment of married women in various aspects of everyday life. For example, in Australia, until 1983 a husband had to authorize an application for an Australian passport for a married woman.[175] Other practices have included, and in many countries continue to include, a requirement for a husband's consent for an application for bank loans and credit cards by a married woman, as well as restrictions on the wife's reproductive rights, such as a requirement that the husband consents to the wife's acquiring contraception or having an abortion.[176][177] In some places, although the law itself no longer requires the consent of the husband for various actions taken by the wife, the practice continues de facto, with the authorization of the husband being asked in practice.[178]

Although dowry is today mainly associated with South Asia, the practice has been common until the mid-20th century in parts of Southeast Europe.[xlviii]

Laws regulating marriage and divorce continue to discriminate against women in many countries.[xlix] In Iraq husbands have a legal right to "punish" their wives, with paragraph 41 of the criminal code stating that there is no crime if an act is committed while exercising a legal right.[l] In the 1990s and the 21st century there has been progress in many countries in Africa: for instance in Namibia the marital power of the husband was abolished in 1996 by the Married Persons Equality Act; in Botswana it was abolished in 2004 by the Abolition of Marital Power Act; and in Lesotho it was abolished in 2006 by the Married Persons Equality Act.[179] Violence against a wife continues to be seen as legally acceptable in some countries; for instance in 2010, the United Arab Emirates Supreme Court ruled that a man has the right to physically discipline his wife and children as long as he does not leave physical marks.[180] The criminalization of adultery has been criticized as being a prohibition, which, in law or in practice, is used primarily against women; and incites violence against women (crimes of passion, honor killings).[li]

Social and ideological

Political gender equality

Two recent movements in countries with large Kurdish populations have implemented political gender equality. One has been the Kurdish movement in southeastern Turkey led by the Democratic Regions Party (DBP) and the Peoples' Democratic Party (HDP), from 2006 or before. The mayorships of 2 metropolitan areas and 97 towns[citation needed] are led jointly by a man and a woman, both called co-mayors. Party offices are also led by a man and a woman. Local councils were formed, which also had to be co-presided over by a man and a woman together. However, in November 2016 the Turkish government cracked down on the HDP, jailing ten of its members of Parliament, including the party's male and female co-leaders.[181]

A movement in northern Syria, also Kurdish, has been led by the Democratic Union Party (PYD).[182] In northern Syria all villages, towns and cities governed by the PYD were co-governed by a man and a woman. Local councils were formed where each sex had to have 40% representation, and minorities also had to be represented.[182]

Gender stereotypes

Series of photographs lampooning women drivers
1952 portrayal of stereotypes about women drivers, based on the stereotype that women cannot drive well. Features Bettie Page.

Gender stereotypes arise from the socially approved roles of women and men in the private or public sphere, at home or in the workplace. In the household, women are typically seen as mother figures, which usually places them into a typical classification of being "supportive" or "nurturing". Women are expected to want to take on the role of a mother and take on primary responsibility for household needs.[183] Their male counterparts are seen as being "assertive" or "ambitious" as men are usually seen in the workplace or as the primary breadwinner for his family.[184] Due to these views and expectations, women often face discrimination in the public sphere, such as the workplace.[184] Women are stereotyped to be less productive at work because they are believed to focus more on family when they get married or have children.[185] A gender role is a set of societal norms dictating the types of behaviors which are generally considered acceptable, appropriate, or desirable for people based on their sex. Gender roles are usually centered on conceptions of femininity and masculinity, although there are exceptions and variations.

Portrayal of women in the media

The way women are represented in the media has been criticized as perpetuating negative gender stereotypes. The exploitation of women in mass media refers to the criticisms that are levied against the use or objectification of women in the mass media, when such use or portrayal aims at increasing the appeal of media or a product, to the detriment of, or without regard to, the interests of the women portrayed, or women in general. Concerns include the fact that all forms of media have the power to shape the population's perceptions and portray images of unrealistic stereotypical perceptions by portraying women either as submissive housewives or as sex objects.[186] The media emphasizes traditional domestic or sexual roles that normalize violence against women. The vast array of studies that have been conducted on the issue of the portrayal of women in the media have shown that women are often portrayed as irrational, fragile, not intelligent, submissive and subservient to men.[187] Research has shown that stereotyped images such as these have been shown to negatively impact on the mental health of many female viewers who feel bound by these roles, causing amongst other problems, self-esteem issues, depression and anxiety.[187]

According to a study, the way women are often portrayed by the media can lead to: "Women of average or normal appearance feeling inadequate or less beautiful in comparison to the overwhelming use of extraordinarily attractive women"; "Increase in the likelihood and acceptance of sexual violence"; "Unrealistic expectations by men of how women should look or behave"; "Psychological disorders such as body dysmorphic disorder, anorexia, bulimia and so on"; "The importance of physical appearance is emphasized and reinforced early in most girls' development." Studies have found that nearly half of females ages six–eight have stated they want to be slimmer. (Striegel-Moore & Franko, 2002)".[188][189]

Statistics on women's representation in the media

  • Women have won only a quarter of Pulitzer prizes for foreign reporting and only 17 per cent of awards of the Martha Gellhorn Prize for Journalism.[190] In 2015 the African Development Bank began sponsoring a category for Women's Rights in Africa, designed to promote gender equality through the media, as one of the prizes awarded annually by One World Media.[191]
  • Created in 1997, the UNESCO/Guillermo Cano World Press Freedom Prize is an annual award that honors a person, organization or institution that has made a notable contribution to the defense and/or promotion of press freedom anywhere in the world. Nine out of 20 winners have been women.[192]
  • The Poynter Institute since 2014 has been running a Leadership Academy for Women in Digital Media, expressly focused on the skills and knowledge needed to achieve success in the digital media environment.
  • The World Association of Newspapers and News Publishers (WAN-IFRA), which represents more than 18,000 publications, 15,000 online sites and more than 3,000 companies in more than 120 countries, leads the Women in the News (WIN) campaign together with UNESCO as part of their Gender and Media Freedom Strategy. In their 2016 handbook, WINing Strategies: Creating Stronger Media Organizations by Increasing Gender Diversity, they highlight a range of positive action strategies undertaken by a number of their member organizations from Germany to Jordan to Colombia, with the intention of providing blueprints for others to follow.[193]

Informing women of their rights

While in many countries, the problem lies in the lack of adequate legislation, in others the principal problem is not as much the lack of a legal framework, but the fact is that most women do not know their legal rights. This is especially the case as many of the laws dealing with women's rights are of recent date. This lack of knowledge enables to abusers to lead the victims (explicitly or implicitly) to believe that their abuse is within their rights. This may apply to a wide range of abuses, ranging from domestic violence to employment discrimination.[194][195] The United Nations Development Programme states that, in order to advance gender justice, "Women must know their rights and be able to access legal systems".[196]

The 1993 UN Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women states at Art. 4 (d) [...] "States should also inform women of their rights in seeking redress through such mechanisms".[197] Enacting protective legislation against violence has little effect, if women do not know how to use it: for example a study of Bedouin women in Israel found that 60% did not know what a restraining order was;[198] or if they do not know what acts are illegal: a report by Amnesty International showed in Hungary, in a public opinion poll of nearly 1,200 people in 2006, a total of 62% did not know that marital rape was an illegal (it was outlawed in 1997) and therefore the crime was rarely reported.[199][200] Ensuring women have a minimum understanding of health issues is also important: lack of access to reliable medical information and available medical procedures to which they are entitled hurts women's health.[201]

Gender mainstreaming

Gender mainstreaming is described as the public policy of assessing the different implications for women and men of any planned policy action, including legislation and programmes, in all areas and levels, with the aim of achieving gender equality.[202][203] The concept of gender mainstreaming was first proposed at the 1985 Third World Conference on Women in Nairobi, Kenya. The idea has been developed in the United Nations development community.[204] Gender mainstreaming "involves ensuring that gender perspectives and attention to the goal of gender equality are central to all activities".[205]

According to the Council of Europe definition: "Gender mainstreaming is the (re)organization, improvement, development and evaluation of policy processes, so that a gender equality perspective is incorporated in all policies at all levels and at all stages, by the actors normally involved in policy-making."[163]

An integrated gender mainstreaming approach is "the attempt to form alliances and common platforms that bring together the power of faith and gender-equality aspirations to advance human rights."[206] For example, "in Azerbaijan, UNFPA conducted a study on gender equality by comparing the text of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women with some widely recognized Islamic references and resources. The results reflect the parallels between the Convention and many tenets of Islamic scripture and practice. The study showcased specific issues, including VAW, child marriage, respect for the dignity of women, and equality in the economic and political participation of women. The study was later used to produce training materials geared towards sensitizing religious leaders."[206]

See also

General issues

Specific issues


Organizations and ministries

Other related topics


  1. ^ The ILO similarly defines gender equality as "the enjoyment of equal rights, opportunities and treatment by men and women and by boys and girls in all spheres of life"
  2. ^ Although the Peruvian constitution and the government itself state that the President is the Head of Government,[207][208] other sources name the President of the Council of Ministers as the head of government.[209]
  3. ^ Including female representatives of heads of state, such as Governors-General and French Representatives of Andorra
  1. ^ For example, many countries now permit women to serve in the armed forces, the police forces and to be fire fighters – occupations traditionally reserved for men. Although these continue to have a male majority, an increasing number of women are now active, especially in directive fields such as politics, and occupy high positions in business.
  2. ^ For example, the Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam declared that women have equal dignity but not equal rights, and this was accepted by many predominantly Muslim countries.
  3. ^ In some Christian churches, the practice of churching of women may still have elements of ritual purification and the Ordination of women to the priesthood may be restricted or forbidden.
  4. ^ An example is Finland, which has offered very high opportunities to women in public/professional life but has had a weak legal approach to the issue of violence against women, with the situation in this country having been called a paradox.[I][II] "Finland is repeatedly reminded of its widespread problem of violence against women and recommended to take more efficient measures to deal with the situation. International criticism concentrates on the lack of measures to combat violence against women in general and in particular on the lack of a national action plan to combat such violence and on the lack of legislation on domestic violence. (...) Compared to Sweden, Finland has been slower to reform legislation on violence against women. In Sweden, domestic violence was already illegal in 1864, while in Finland such violence was not outlawed until 1970, over a hundred years later. In Sweden the punishment of victims of incest was abolished in 1937 but not until 1971 in Finland. Rape within marriage was criminalised in Sweden in 1962, but the equivalent Finnish legislation only came into force in 1994 — making Finland one of the last European countries to criminalise marital rape. In addition, assaults taking place on private property did not become impeachable offences in Finland until 1995. Only in 1997 did victims of sexual offences and domestic violence in Finland become entitled to government-funded counselling and support services for the duration of their court cases."[III]
  5. ^ Denmark received harsh criticism for inadequate laws in regard to sexual violence in a 2008 report produced by Amnesty International,[III] which described Danish laws as "inconsistent with international human rights standards".[IV] This led to Denmark reforming its sexual offenses legislation in 2013.[V][VI][VII]
  6. ^ "Mainstreaming a gender perspective is the process of assessing the implications for women and men of any planned action, including legislation, policies or programmes, in all areas and at all levels. It is a strategy for making women's as well as men's concerns and experiences an integral dimension of the design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of policies and programmes in all political, economic and societal spheres so that women and men benefit equally and inequality is not perpetuated. The ultimate goal is to achieve gender equality."[VIII]
  7. ^ In Switzerland in 1985, a referendum guaranteed women legal equality with men within marriage.[IX][X] The new reforms came into force in January 1988.[42]
  8. ^ In Greece in 1983, legislation was passed guaranteeing equality between spouses, abolishing dowry, and ending legal discrimination against illegitimate children.[XI][XII]
  9. ^ In 1981, Spain abolished the requirement that married women must have their husbands' permission to initiate judicial proceedings[XIII]
  10. ^ Although married women in France obtained the right to work without their husbands' permission in 1965,[XIV] and the paternal authority of a man over his family was ended in 1970 (before that parental responsibilities belonged solely to the father who made all legal decisions concerning the children), it was only in 1985 that a legal reform abolished the stipulation that the husband had the sole power to administer the children's property.[XV]
  11. ^ In 2002, Widney Brown, advocacy director for Human Rights Watch, pointed out that "crimes of passion have a similar dynamic [to honor killings] in that the women are killed by male family members and the crimes are perceived [in those relevant parts of the world] as excusable or understandable".[43]
  12. ^ Especially of the French Napoleonic Code,[XVI] which was extremely powerful in its influence over the world (historian Robert Holtman regards it as one of the few documents that have influenced the whole world[XVII]) and which designated married women a subordinate role, and provided for leniency with regard to 'crimes of passion' (which was the case in France until 1975[XVIII])
  13. ^ Forms of violence against women include Sexual violence (including War Rape, Marital rape, Date rape by drugs or alcohol, and Child sexual abuse, the latter often in the context of Child marriage), Domestic violence, Forced marriage, Female genital mutilation, Forced prostitution, Sex trafficking, Honor killing, Dowry killing, Acid attacks, Stoning, Flogging, Forced sterilisation, Forced abortion, violence related to accusations of witchcraft, mistreatment of widows (e.g. widow inheritance). Fighting against violence against women is considered a key issue for achieving gender equality. The Council of Europe adopted the Convention on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence (Istanbul Convention).
  14. ^ The UN Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women defines violence against women as "any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual or psychological harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in public or in private life" and states that:"violence against women is a manifestation of historically unequal power relations between men and women, which have led to domination over and discrimination against women by men and to the prevention of the full advancement of women, and that violence against women is one of the crucial social mechanisms by which women are forced into a subordinate position compared with men."[XIX]
  15. ^ As of 2004–2009, former and current partners were responsible for more than 80% of all cases of murders of women in Cyprus, France, and Portugal.[80]
  16. ^ According to UNFPA:[XX]
    "In some developing countries, practices that subjugate and harm women – such as wife-beating, killings in the name of honour, female genital mutilation/cutting and dowry deaths – are condoned as being part of the natural order of things."
  17. ^ In its explanatory report at para 219, it states:
    "There are many examples from past practice in Council of Europe member states that show that exceptions to the prosecution of such cases were made, either in law or in practice, if victim and perpetrator were, for example, married to each other or had been in a relationship. The most prominent example is rape within marriage, which for a long time had not been recognised as rape because of the relationship between victim and perpetrator."[XXI]
  18. ^ In Opuz v Turkey, the European Court of Human Rights recognized violence against women as a form discrimination against women: "[T]he Court considers that the violence suffered by the applicant and her mother may be regarded as gender-based violence which is a form of discrimination against women."[XXII] This is also the position of the Istanbul Convention which reads:"Article 3 – Definitions, For the purpose of this Convention: a "violence against women" is understood as a violation of human rights and a form of discrimination against women [...]".[XXIII]
  19. ^ She writes "To know what is wrong with rape, know what is right about sex. If this, in turn, is difficult, the difficulty is as instructive as the difficulty men have in telling the difference when women see one. Perhaps the wrong of rape has proved so difficult to define because the unquestionable starting point has been that rape is defined as distinct from intercourse, while for women it is difficult to distinguish the two under conditions of male dominance."[XXIV]
  20. ^ According to the World Health Organization: "Sexual violence is also more likely to occur where beliefs in male sexual entitlement are strong, where gender roles are more rigid, and in countries experiencing high rates of other types of violence."[XXV]
  21. ^ Rebecca Cook wrote in Submission of Interights to the European Court of Human Rights in the case of M.C. v. Bulgaria, 12 April 2003: "The equality approach starts by examining not whether the woman said 'no', but whether she said 'yes'. Women do not walk around in a state of constant consent to sexual activity unless and until they say 'no', or offer resistance to anyone who targets them for sexual activity. The right to physical and sexual autonomy means that they have to affirmatively consent to sexual activity."
  22. ^ UNFPA says that, "since 1990, the world has seen a 45 per cent decline in maternal mortality – an enormous achievement. But in spite of these gains, almost 800 women still die every day from causes related to pregnancy or childbirth. This is about one woman every two minutes."[XXVI] According to UNFPA:[98]
    "Preventable maternal mortality occurs where there is a failure to give effect to the rights of women to health, equality, and non-discrimination. Preventable maternal mortality also often represents a violation of a woman's right to life."
  23. ^ Amnesty International's Secretary General has stated that: "It is unbelievable that in the twenty-first century some countries are condoning child marriage and marital rape while others are outlawing abortion, sex outside marriage and same-sex sexual activity – even punishable by death."[XXVII]
  24. ^ High Commissioner for Human Rights Navi Pillay has called for full respect and recognition of women's autonomy and sexual and reproductive health rights, stating:
    "Violations of women's human rights are often linked to their sexuality and reproductive role. Women are frequently treated as property, they are sold into marriage, into trafficking, into sexual slavery. Violence against women frequently takes the form of sexual violence. Victims of such violence are often accused of promiscuity and held responsible for their fate, while infertile women are rejected by husbands, families, and communities. In many countries, married women may not refuse to have sexual relations with their husbands, and often have no say in whether they use contraception."[XXVIII]
    These practices infringe on the right of achieving reproductive and sexual health.
  25. ^ Females' risk of acquiring sexually transmitted infections during unprotected sexual relations is two to four times that of males'.[XXIX]
  26. ^ High Commissioner for Human Rights, Navi Pillay, has stated on domestic violence against women: "The reality for most victims, including victims of honor killings, is that state institutions fail them and that most perpetrators of domestic violence can rely on a culture of impunity for the acts they commit – acts which would often be considered as crimes, and be punished as such, if they were committed against strangers."[XXX]
  27. ^ According to Amnesty International, "Women who are victims of gender-related violence often have little recourse because many state agencies are themselves guilty of gender bias and discriminatory practices."[XXXI]
  28. ^ For example, nations of the Arab world that deny equality of opportunity to women were warned in a 2008 United Nations-sponsored report that this disempowerment is a critical factor crippling these nations' return to the first rank of global leaders in commerce, learning, and culture.[XXXII] That is, Western bodies are less likely to conduct commerce with nations in the Middle East that retain culturally accepted attitudes towards the status and function of women in their society in an effort to force them to change their beliefs in the face of relatively underdeveloped economies.
  29. ^ UN Women states that: "Investing in women's economic empowerment sets a direct path towards gender equality, poverty eradication and inclusive economic growth."[130]
  30. ^ The UN Population Fund says that, "Six out of 10 of the world's poorest people are women. Economic disparities persist partly because much of the unpaid work within families and communities falls on the shoulders of women, and because women continue to face discrimination in the economic sphere."[6]
  31. ^ For example, studies have shown that women are charged more for services especially tailoring, hair cutting and laundering.[132]
  32. ^ In 2011, Jose Manuel Barroso, then president of the European Commission, stated "Germany, but also Austria and the Netherlands, should look at the example of the northern countries [...] that means removing obstacles for women, older workers, foreigners and low-skilled job-seekers to get into the workforce".[XXXIII]
  33. ^ The Netherlands and Ireland are among the last Western countries to accept women as professionals; despite the Netherlands having an image as progressive on gender issues, women in the Netherlands work less in paid employment than women in other comparable Western countries. In the early 1980s, the Commission of the European Communities report Women in the European Community, found that the Netherlands and Ireland had the lowest labour participation of married women and the most public disapproval of it.[XXXIV]
  34. ^ In Ireland, until 1973, there was a marriage bar.[XXXV]
  35. ^ In the Netherlands, from the 1990s onwards, the numbers of women entering the workplace have increased, but with most of the women working part time. As of 2014, the Netherlands and Switzerland were the only OECD members where most employed women worked part-time,[XXXVI] while in the United Kingdom, women made up two-thirds of workers on long term sick leave, despite making up only half of the workforce and even after excluding maternity leave.[XXXVII]
  36. ^ In the European Union (EU) the policies vary significantly by country, but the EU members must abide by the minimum standards of the Pregnant Workers Directive and Parental Leave Directive.[XXXVIII]
  37. ^ For example, some countries have enacted legislation explicitly outlawing or restricting what they view as abusive clauses in employment contracts regarding reproductive rights (such as clauses which stipulate that a woman cannot get pregnant during a specified time) rendering such contracts void or voidable.[XXXIX]
  38. ^ Being the victim of a forced abortion compelled by the employer was ruled a ground of obtaining political asylum in the US.[XL]
  39. ^ For instance, in Yemen, marriage regulations stipulate that a wife must obey her husband and must not leave home without his permission.[XLI]
  40. ^ For example, purdah, a religious and social practice of female seclusion prevalent among some Muslim communities in Afghanistan and Pakistan as well as upper-caste Hindus in Northern India, such as the Rajputs, which often leads to the minimizing of the movement of women in public spaces and restrictions on their social and professional interactions;[XLII] or namus, a cultural concept strongly related to family honor.
  41. ^ Common especially among Pashtun tribes in Pakistan and Afghanistan, whereby a girl is given from one family to another (often though a marriage), in order to settle the disputes and feuds between the families. The girl, who now belongs to the second family, has very little autonomy and freedom, her role being to serve the new family.[XLIII][XLIV][XLV][XLVI][154]
  42. ^ The Council of Europe states that:[163]
    "Pluralist democracy requires balanced participation of women and men in political and public decision-making. Council of Europe standards provide clear guidance on how to achieve this."
  43. ^ Notably in Switzerland, where women gained the right to vote in federal elections in 1971;[XLVIII] but in the canton of Appenzell Innerrhoden women obtained the right to vote on local issues only in 1991, when the canton was forced to do so by the Federal Supreme Court of Switzerland.[XLIX]
  44. ^ John Stuart Mill, in The Subjection of Women (1869) compared marriage to slavery and wrote that: "The law of servitude in marriage is a monstrous contradiction to all the principles of the modern world, and to all the experience through which those principles have been slowly and painfully worked out."[L]
  45. ^ In 1957, James Everett, then Minister for Justice in Ireland, stated: "The progress of organised society is judged by the status occupied by married women".[LI]
  46. ^ In France, married women obtained the right to work without their husband's consent in 1965;[LII] while the paternal authority of a man over his family was ended in 1970 (before that parental responsibilities belonged solely to the father who made all legal decisions concerning the children); and a new reform in 1985 abolished the stipulation that the father had the sole power to administer the children's property.[LIII]
  47. ^ In Austria, the marriage law was overhauled between 1975 and 1983, abolishing the restrictions on married women's right to work outside the home, providing for equality between spouses, and for joint ownership of property and assets.[LIV]
  48. ^ For example, in Greece dowry was removed from family law only in 1983 through legal changes which reformed marriage law and provided gender equality in marriage.[LV] These changes also dealt with the practice of women changing their surnames to that of the husbands upon getting married, a practice which has been outlawed or restricted in some jurisdictions, because it is seen as contrary to women's rights. As such, women in Greece are required to keep their birth names for their whole life.[LVI]
  49. ^ For example, in Yemen, marriage regulations state that a wife must obey her husband and must not leave home without his permission.[XLI]
  50. ^ Examples of legal rights include: "The punishment of a wife by her husband, the disciplining by parents and teachers of children under their authority within certain limits prescribed by law or by custom".[LVII]
  51. ^ A Joint Statement by the United Nations Working Group on discrimination against women in law and in practice in 2012 stated:[LVIII] "the United Nations Working Group on discrimination against women in law and in practice is deeply concerned at the criminalization and penalization of adultery whose enforcement leads to discrimination and violence against women." UN Women also stated that "Drafters should repeal any criminal offenses related to adultery or extramarital sex between consenting adults".[LIX]


  1. ^ Clarke, Kris (August 2011). "The paradoxical approach to intimate partner violence in Finland". International Perspectives in Victimology. 6 (1): 9–19. doi:10.5364/ipiv.6.1.9 (inactive 31 January 2024). Archived from the original on 2015-12-08.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of January 2024 (link)
  2. ^ McKie, Linda; Hearn, Jeff (August 2004). "Gender-neutrality and gender equality: comparing and contrasting policy responses to 'domestic violence' in Finland and Scotland" (PDF). Scottish Affairs. 48 (1): 85–107. doi:10.3366/scot.2004.0043. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 21, 2013.
  3. ^ a b Danish, Swedish, Finnish and Norwegian sections of Amnesty International (March 2010), "Rape and human rights in Finland", in Danish, Swedish, Finnish and Norwegian sections of Amnesty International (ed.), Case closed: rape and human rights in the Nordic countries, Amnesty International, pp. 89–91, archived from the original on October 17, 2017, retrieved 2015-12-02.{{citation}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  4. ^ Amnesty International (May 2011). Denmark: human rights violations and concerns in the context of counter-terrorism, immigration-detention, forcible return of rejected asylum-seekers and violence against women (PDF). Amnesty International. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2015-02-24. Retrieved 2015-06-11. Amnesty International submission to the UN Universal Periodic Review, May 2011.
  5. ^ "Ny voldtægtslovgivning er en sejr for danske kvinders retssikkerhed". Amnesty.dk – Amnesty International. Archived from the original on 2 July 2015. Retrieved 14 June 2015.
  6. ^ "Slut med "konerabat" for voldtægt". www.b.dk. 3 June 2013. Archived from the original on 3 April 2016. Retrieved 14 June 2015.
  7. ^ "Straffeloven – Bekendtgørelse af straffeloven". Retsinformation.dk. Archived from the original on 15 December 2018. Retrieved 14 June 2015.
  8. ^ United Nations. Report of the Economic and Social Council for 1997. A/52/3.18 September 1997, p 28.
  9. ^ "Switzerland profile – Timeline". Bbc.com. 28 December 2016. Archived from the original on 17 June 2018. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  10. ^ Switzerland, Markus G. Jud, Lucerne. "The Long Way to Women's Right to Vote in Switzerland: a Chronology". History-switzerland.geschichte-schweiz.ch. Archived from the original on 21 November 2019. Retrieved 14 November 2017.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  11. ^ "AROUND THE WORLD; Greece Approves Family Law Changes". The New York Times. Reuters. 26 January 1983. Archived from the original on 16 June 2012. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  12. ^ Demos, Vasilikie. (2007) "The Intersection of Gender, Class and Nationality and the Agency of Kytherian Greek Women." Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association. August 11.
  13. ^ "Women Business and the Law 2014 Key Findings" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-08-24. Retrieved 2014-08-25.
  14. ^ "Modern and Contemporary France: Women in France" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2016-04-03.
  15. ^ Ferrand, Frédérique. "National Report: France" (PDF). Parental Responsibilities. Commission on European Family Law. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2014-08-11. Retrieved 2015-01-05.
  16. ^ Raja., Rhouni (2010-01-01). Secular and Islamic feminist critiques in the work of Fatima Mernissi. Brill. p. 52. ISBN 978-90-04-17616-4. OCLC 826863738.
  17. ^ Holtman, Robert B. (1979). The Napoleonic revolution. Louisiana State University Press. ISBN 978-0-8071-0487-3. OCLC 492154251.
  18. ^ Rheault, Magali; Mogahed, Dalia (May 28, 2008). "Common Ground for Europeans and Muslims Among Them". Gallup Poll. Gallup, Inc. Archived from the original on September 7, 2008. Retrieved February 5, 2016.
  19. ^ "Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women". United Nations General Assembly. Archived from the original on 4 August 2018. Retrieved 14 June 2015.
  20. ^ "Gender equality". United Nations Population Fund. Archived from the original on 20 October 2014. Retrieved 14 June 2015.
  21. ^ "Explanatory Report to the Council of Europe Convention on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence (CETS No. 210)". Conventions.coe.int. Archived from the original on 20 July 2015. Retrieved 14 June 2015.
  22. ^ "Case of Opuz v. Turkey". European Court of Human Rights. September 2009. Retrieved 14 June 2015.
  23. ^ Council of Europe. "Convention on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence (CETS No. 210)". Conventions.coe.int. Archived from the original on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 14 June 2015.
  24. ^ Toward a Feminist Theory of the State, by Catharine A. MacKinnon, pp 174
  25. ^ "World report on violence and health: summary" (PDF). World Health Organization. 2002. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2019-03-05. Retrieved 2020-10-04.
  26. ^ "Maternal health: UNFPA – United Nations Population Fund". United Nations Population Fund. Archived from the original on 29 November 2020. Retrieved 14 June 2015.
  27. ^ "Sexual and reproductive rights under threat worldwide". Amnesty International. March 6, 2014. Archived from the original on 2014-12-06. Retrieved 2014-07-15.
  28. ^ Pillay, Navi (May 15, 2012). "Valuing Women as Autonomous Beings: Women's sexual and reproductive rights" (PDF). University of Pretoria, Centre for Human Rights. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 13, 2017. Retrieved July 15, 2014.
  29. ^ "Giving Special Attention to Girls and Adolescents". Unfpa.org. Archived from the original on 7 July 2015. Retrieved 14 June 2015.
  30. ^ "High Commissioner speaks out against domestic violence and "honour killing" on occasion of International Women's Day"". Ohchr.org. Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  31. ^ "Violence Against Women Information". Amnesty International USA. Archived from the original on 2016-04-04. Retrieved 2015-12-19.
  32. ^ "Gender equality in Arab world critical for progress and prosperity, UN report warns". UN News Service Section. 2006-12-07. Archived from the original on 2017-03-29. Retrieved 2017-03-28.
  33. ^ "Germany's persistently low birthrate gets marginal boost". Deutsche Welle. 18 August 2011. Archived from the original on 15 November 2017. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  34. ^ "Women in the European Community" (PDF). 1984. p. 14. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2015-11-17. Retrieved 2016-04-08. It is in the Netherlands (17.6%) and in Ireland (13.6%) that we see the smallest numbers of married women working and the least acceptance of this phenomenon by the general public
  35. ^ "Martindale Center – Lehigh Business" (PDF). Martindale.cc.lehigh.edu. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 October 2015. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  36. ^ "LMF1.6: Gender differences in employment Outcomes" (PDF). OECD - Social Policy Division. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 4, 2016. Retrieved April 25, 2021.
  37. ^ Watts, Joseph (11 February 2014). "Women make up two-thirds of workers on long-term sick leave". London Evening Standard. p. 10.
  38. ^ "Professional, private and family life – European Commission". Ec.europa.eu. Archived from the original on 22 November 2017. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  39. ^ Smits, Jan (October 2006). "Private Law and Fundamental Rights: a sceptical view". University of Maastricht. Archived from the original on May 9, 2016. Retrieved April 25, 2021.
  40. ^ "US asylum rule on forced abortion". News.bbc.co.uk. Archived from the original on 15 November 2017. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  41. ^ a b "Yemen's Dark Side: Discrimination and violence against women and girls" (PDF). 2.ohchr.org. Archived (PDF) from the original on 26 March 2016. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  42. ^ Papanek, Hanna (1973). "Purdah: Separate Worlds and Symbolic Shelter". Comparative Studies in Society and History. 15 (3): 289–325. doi:10.1017/S001041750000712X. S2CID 144508005.
  43. ^ United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. "Afghan Girls Suffer for Sins of Male Relatives". Refworld. Archived from the original on 2015-10-18. Retrieved 2015-10-10.
  44. ^ "Vani: Pain of child marriage in our society". News Pakistan. 2011-10-26. Archived from the original on 2014-06-03. Retrieved 2015-10-10.
  45. ^ Nasrullah, M.; Muazzam, S.; Bhutta, Z. A.; Raj, A. (2013). "Girl Child Marriage and Its Effect on Fertility in Pakistan: Findings from Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey, 2006–2007". Maternal and Child Health Journal: 1–10.
  46. ^ Hashmi, Anwar; Koukab, Rifat (July 2004). "Vani a social evil". The Fact. Archived from the original on November 17, 2018. Retrieved April 25, 2021.
  47. ^ "Gender balance in decision-making positions". Ec.europa.eu. Archived from the original on 17 November 2017. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  48. ^ "The Long Way to Women's Right to Vote in Switzerland: a Chronology". History-switzerland.geschichte-schweiz.ch. Archived from the original on 2019-11-21. Retrieved 2011-01-08.
  49. ^ "United Nations press release of a meeting of the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW), issued on 14 January 2003". Un.org. Archived from the original on 2013-06-18. Retrieved 2011-09-02.
  50. ^ "The Subjection of Women by John Stuart Mill". Marxists.org. Archived from the original on 18 September 2015. Retrieved 14 June 2015.
  51. ^ "Married Women's Status Bill, 1956—Second Stage: Minister for Justice (Mr. Everett)". Oireachtas. 16 January 1957. Archived from the original on 26 September 2015. Retrieved 6 September 2015.
  52. ^ "Modern & Contemporary France: Women in France" (PDF). Routledge. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 4, 2016. Retrieved April 25, 2021.
  53. ^ "National Report: France" (PDF). Ceflonline.net. Archived (PDF) from the original on 11 August 2014. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  54. ^ Women and Politics in Contemporary Ireland: From the Margins to the Mainstream, by Yvonne Galligan, pp.90
  55. ^ Demos, Vasilikie. (2007) "The Intersection of Gender, Class and Nationality and the Agency of Kytherian Greek Women." Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association. August 11.
  56. ^ Long, Heather (2013-10-06). "Should women change their names after marriage? Ask a Greek woman". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 2013-10-06. Retrieved 2016-12-11.
  57. ^ "The Penal-Code with Amendments" (PDF). 1969. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 21, 2012. Retrieved April 25, 2021.
  58. ^ "Statement by the United Nations Working Group on discrimination against women in law and in practice". Archived from the original on 2015-03-06.
  59. ^ "Decriminalization of adultery and defenses". Endvawnow.org. Archived from the original on 8 January 2016. Retrieved 14 June 2015.


 This article incorporates text from a free content work. Licensed under CC BY SA 3.0 IGO (license statement/permission). Text taken from World Trends in Freedom of Expression and Media Development Global Report 2017/2018​, 202, University of Oxford, UNESCO.

 This article incorporates text from a free content work. Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 IGO. Text taken from Global education monitoring report 2022: gender report, deepening the debate on those still left behind​, 70, Global Education Monitoring Report Team, UNESCO. UNESCO.

 This article incorporates text from a free content work. Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 (license statement/permission). Text taken from The status of women in agrifood systems – Overview​, FAO, FAO.


  1. ^ "Gender Equality, what does it mean ? – Egalité Femmes/Hommes". gender-equality.essec.edu. Archived from the original on 2023-03-27. Retrieved 2022-10-14.
  2. ^ LeMoyne, Roger (2011). "Promoting Gender Equality: An Equity-based Approach to Programming" (PDF). Operational Guidance Overview in Brief. UNICEF. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-10-20. Retrieved 2011-01-28.
  3. ^ De Vos, M. (2020). The European Court of Justice and the march towards substantive equality in European Union anti-discrimination law. International Journal of Discrimination and the Law, 20(1), 62-87.
  4. ^ a b Meriküll, Jaanika; Mõtsmees, Pille (2017-09-04). "Do you get what you ask? The gender gap in desired and realised wages". International Journal of Manpower. 38 (6): 893–908. doi:10.1108/ijm-11-2015-0197. ISSN 0143-7720. S2CID 155152121.
  5. ^ Fineman, Martha (2000). "Cracking the Foundational Myths: Independence, Autonomy, and Self-Sufficiency". Journal of Gender, Social Policy and the Law. 8: 13–29 – via HeinOnline.
  6. ^ a b c "Gender equality". United Nations Population Fund. UNFPA. Archived from the original on 20 May 2019. Retrieved 14 June 2015.
  7. ^ Eisler, Riane (2007). The Real Wealth of Nations: Creating a Caring Economics. Berrett-Koehler Publishers. p. 72. ISBN 978-1-57675-388-0.
  8. ^ de Pizan, Christine (2001), "From The Book of the City of Ladies (1404)", Available Means, University of Pittsburgh Press, pp. 33–42, doi:10.2307/j.ctt5hjqnj.11, ISBN 978-0-8229-7975-3
  9. ^ Evans, Frederick William (1859). Shakers: Compendium of the Origin, History, Principles, Rules and Regulations, Government, and Doctrines of the United Society of Believers in Christ's Second Appearing. New York: D. Appleton & Co. p. 34.
  10. ^ Glendyne R. Wergland, Sisters in the Faith: Shaker Women and Equality of the Sexes (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2011).
  11. ^ Wendy R. Benningfield, Appeal of the Sisterhood: The Shakers and the Woman's Rights Movement (University of Kentucky Lexington doctoral dissertation, 2004), p. 73.
  12. ^ United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. "Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action". United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. Archived from the original on 25 June 2018. Retrieved 14 June 2015.
  13. ^ Organization of American States (August 2009). "Follow-up Mechanism to the Belém do Pará Convention (MESECVI): About the Belém do Pará Convention". Organization of American States. Archived from the original on 26 June 2015. Retrieved 14 June 2015.
  14. ^ Directive 2002/73/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of European Communities (PDF). EUR-Lex Access to European Union law. 9 February 1976. Archived from the original on 4 February 2014. Retrieved 28 January 2014.
  15. ^ The Convention of Belém do Pará and the Istanbul Convention: a response to violence against women worldwide (PDF). Organization of American States, Council of Europe, Permanent Mission of France to the United Nations and Permanent Mission of Argentina to the United Nations. March 2014. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2014-11-24. CSW58 side event flyer 2014.
  16. ^ Council of Europe, Committee of Ministers, CM document (CM). "Committee of Ministers – Gender Equality Commission (GEC) – Gender Equality Strategy 2014–2017 [1183 meeting]". Wcd.coe.int. Archived from the original on 17 June 2015. Retrieved 14 June 2015.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  17. ^ Zainulbhai, Hani (2016-03-08). "Strong global support for gender equality, especially among women". Pew Research. Archived from the original on 2016-08-12. Retrieved 2016-08-12.
  18. ^ Coulombeau, Sophie (1 November 2014). "Why should women change their names on getting married?". BBC News. BBC. Archived from the original on 14 May 2015. Retrieved 14 June 2015.
  19. ^ Odhiambo, George. "Women and higher education leadership in Kenya: a critical analysis". Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management.
  20. ^ Featherstone, Brid; Rivett, Mark; Scourfield, Jonathan (2007). Working with men in health and social care. SAGE Publications. pp. 27. ISBN 978-1-4129-1850-3.
  21. ^ Htun, Mala; Weldon, S. Laurel (2007). "When and why do governments promote women's rights? Toward a comparative politics of states and sex equality". Delivery at the Conference Toward a Comparative Politics of Gender: Advancing the Discipline Along Interdisciplinary Boundaries, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, October. Archived from the original on 2021-09-25. Retrieved 2018-06-25. Work in progress pdf. Paper prepared for delivery at the American Political Science Association, Annual Meeting, Chicago, 29 August – 2 September 2007.
  22. ^ Jordan, Tim (2002). Social Change (Sociology and society). Blackwell. ISBN 978-0-631-23311-4.
  23. ^ "Universal Declaration of Human Rights" (PDF). Wwda.org. United Nations. December 16, 1948. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 28, 2019. Retrieved October 31, 2016.
  24. ^ a b World Bank (September 2006). "Gender Equality as Smart Economics: A World Bank Group Gender Action Plan (Fiscal years 2007–10)" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on May 5, 2011. Retrieved April 25, 2021.
  25. ^ United Nations Millennium Campaign (2008). "Goal #3 Gender Equity". United Nations Millennium Campaign. Archived from the original on 2012-08-26. Retrieved 2008-06-01.
  26. ^ Javier Pereira Bruno (January 2006). "Third World Critiques of Western Feminist Theory in the Post-Development Era" (PDF). The University of Texas at Austin. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 8, 2021. Retrieved April 25, 2021.
  27. ^ "BBC Radio 4 - You're Dead To Me - Six spellbinding facts about the European Witch Craze". Bbc.co.uk. 2019-10-28. Archived from the original on 2022-02-08. Retrieved 2022-02-19.
  28. ^ "Appenzell Inner Rhodes: The last Swiss canton to give women the vote". 2 February 2021.
  29. ^ Krys, Kuba; Capaldi, Colin A.; van Tilburg, Wijnand; Lipp, Ottmar V.; Bond, Michael Harris; Vauclair, C.-Melanie; Manickam, L. Sam S.; Domínguez-Espinosa, Alejandra; Torres, Claudio; Lun, Vivian Miu-Chi; Teyssier, Julien; Miles, Lynden K.; Hansen, Karolina; Park, Joonha; Wagner, Wolfgang (October 2018). "Catching up with wonderful women: The women-are-wonderful effect is smaller in more gender egalitarian societies: CATCHING UP WITH WONDERFUL WOMEN". International Journal of Psychology. 53: 21–26. doi:10.1002/ijop.12420. hdl:2164/12046. PMID 28295294. S2CID 31983366.
  30. ^ Fors Connolly, Filip; Goossen, Mikael; Hjerm, Mikael (2020-07-01). "Does Gender Equality Cause Gender Differences in Values? Reassessing the Gender-Equality-Personality Paradox". Sex Roles. 83 (1): 101–113. doi:10.1007/s11199-019-01097-x. ISSN 1573-2762.
  31. ^ Sheila, Jeffreys (2012-01-01). Man's dominion : religion and the eclipse of women's rights in world politics. Routledge. p. 94. ISBN 978-0-415-59673-2. OCLC 966913723.
  32. ^ Lombardo, Emanuela (1 May 2003). "EU Gender Policy: Trapped in the 'Wollstonecraft Dilemma'?". European Journal of Women's Studies. 10 (2): 159–180. doi:10.1177/1350506803010002003. S2CID 143732030.
  33. ^ Lombardo, Emanuela; Jalušiè, Vlasta; Maloutas, Maro Pantelidou; Sauer, Birgit (2007). "III. Taming the Male Sovereign? Framing Gender Inequality in Politics in the European Union and the Member States". In Verloo, Mieke (ed.). Multiple meanings of gender equality : a critical frame analysis of gender policies in Europe. New York: Central European University Press Budapest. pp. 79–108. ISBN 978-615-5211-39-3. OCLC 647686058.
  34. ^ Gracia, Enrique; Martín-Fernández, Manuel; Lila, Marisol; Merlo, Juan; Ivert, Anna-Karin (2019). "Prevalence of intimate partner violence against women in Sweden and Spain: A psychometric study of the 'Nordic paradox'". PLOS ONE. 14 (5): e0217015. Bibcode:2019PLoSO..1417015G. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0217015. PMC 6522122. PMID 31095614.
  35. ^ Gracia, Enrique; Merlo, Juan (2016). "Intimate partner violence against women and the Nordic paradox". Social Science & Medicine. 157: 27–30. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2016.03.040. PMID 27058634.
  36. ^ Wemrell, Maria; Stjernlöf, Sara; Lila, Marisol; Gracia, Enrique; Ivert, Anna-Karin (2022). "The Nordic Paradox. Professionals' Discussions about Gender Equality and Intimate Partner Violence against Women in Sweden". Women & Criminal Justice. 32 (5): 431–453. doi:10.1080/08974454.2021.1905588.
  37. ^ "'The world's best place to be a woman' is being sued for misogyny". 20 December 2021.
  38. ^ "Nordic countries do not define rape on the basis of lack of consent". 3 April 2019.
  39. ^ Sedghi, Ami; Sedghi, Amy (5 March 2014). "Violence against women: What the EU-wide survey tells us". The Guardian.
  40. ^ Montoya, Celeste; Rolandsen Agustín, Lise (1 December 2013). "The Othering of Domestic Violence: The EU and Cultural Framings of Violence against Women". Social Politics. 20 (4): 534–557. doi:10.1093/sp/jxt020. S2CID 22204941.
  41. ^ Alison, Stone (2008). An introduction to feminist philosophy. Polity Press. pp. 209–211. ISBN 978-0-7456-3883-6. OCLC 316143234.
  42. ^ a b Schreir, Sally, ed. (1988). Women's movements of the world : an international directory and reference guide. Cartermill International. p. 254. ISBN 978-0-582-00988-2. OCLC 246811744.
  43. ^ a b Mayell, Hillary (February 12, 2002). "Thousands of Women Killed for Family "Honor"". National Geographic News. National Geographic Society. Archived from the original on 5 September 2015. Retrieved 14 June 2015.
  44. ^ Alkhawaja, Assim (2015). Complexity of Women's Liberation in the Era of Westernization: Egyptian Islamic and Secular Feminists in their Own Context (Thesis). University of San Francisco. Archived from the original on September 11, 2015. Retrieved April 25, 2021.
  45. ^ "Non! Nein! No! A Country That Wouldn't Let Women Vote Till 1971". News.nationalgeographic.com. 26 August 2016. Archived from the original on 1 November 2017. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  46. ^ "Swiss suffragettes were still fighting for the right to vote in 1971". Independent.co.uk. 26 September 2015. Archived from the original on 15 November 2017. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  47. ^ Squires, Nick (21 March 2017). "Italian TV programme axed after portraying Eastern European women as submissive sex objects". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 2022-01-11. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  48. ^ "Women in business 2015 results". Grant Thornton International Ltd. Home. Archived from the original on 13 April 2019. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  49. ^ Fiscutean, Andrada. "Women in tech: Why Bulgaria and Romania are leading in software engineering – ZDNet". Zdnet.com. Archived from the original on 5 November 2017. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  50. ^ Transmediterranean: Diasporas, Histories, Geopolitical Spaces, edited by Joseph Pugliese pg.60–61
  51. ^ Magazine, Contexts. "What Gender Is Science? – Contexts". contexts.org. Archived from the original on 21 March 2019. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  52. ^ Association, The Executive Board, American Anthr (December 1947). "Statement on Human Rights" (PDF). American Anthropologist. 49 (4): 539–543. doi:10.1525/aa.1947.49.4.02a00020. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 1, 2014. Retrieved April 25, 2021.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  53. ^ Raday, F. (30 March 2012). "Gender and democratic citizenship: the impact of CEDAW". International Journal of Constitutional Law. 10 (2): 512–530. doi:10.1093/icon/mor068.
  54. ^ EU Non-Discrimination Law in the Courts: Approaches to Sex and Sexualities, Discrimination in the EU law, by Jule Mulder, pg 35–39
  55. ^ Philosophy Matters (9 January 2017). "Why I Am A Feminist : An Interview with Simone de Beauvoir (1975)". YouTube. Archived from the original on 2018-09-28. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  56. ^ Madsen, Mikael Rask; Cebulak, Pola; Wiebusch, Micha (2018). "Backlash against international courts: Explaining the forms and patterns of resistance to international courts". International Journal of Law in Context. 14 (2): 197–220. doi:10.1017/S1744552318000034. S2CID 44099059.
  57. ^ "European Court upholds French full veil ban". BBC News. July 2014.
  58. ^ "UN Human Rights Committee Condemns "Burqa Ban," Countering European Court". 14 November 2018.
  59. ^ De Hoon, Marieke (2017). "The Future of the International Criminal Court. On Critique, Legalism and Strengthening the icc's Legitimacy". International Criminal Law Review. 17 (4): 591–614. doi:10.1163/15718123-01704002. S2CID 148713827.
  60. ^ Shany, Yuval (2012). "Assessing the Effectiveness of International Courts: A Goal-Based Approach". American Journal of International Law. 106 (2): 225–270. doi:10.5305/amerjintelaw.106.2.0225. JSTOR 10.5305/amerjintelaw.106.2.0225. S2CID 147638769.
  61. ^ Ingiyimbere, Fidèle (2017). "Humanitarian Intervention as Neocolonialism". Domesticating Human Rights. Philosophy and Politics - Critical Explorations. Vol. 4. pp. 57–121. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-57621-3_3. ISBN 978-3-319-57620-6.
  62. ^ Caserta, Salvatore (2021). "Western centrism, contemporary international law, and international courts". Leiden Journal of International Law. 34 (2): 321–342. doi:10.1017/S0922156521000017. S2CID 233732933.
  63. ^ "Sexual abuse by UN and non-UN peacekeepers". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 15 June 2020.
  64. ^ "The European Union's new Gender Action Plan 2016–2020: gender equality and women's empowerment in external relations". odi.org. 26 October 2015. Archived from the original on 2018-12-15. Retrieved 2017-11-16.
  65. ^ "Strategy for Gender Equality in Kazakhstan 2006–2016" (PDF). NDI.org. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2022-02-19. Retrieved 2017-11-16.
  66. ^ "Gender equality". UNFPA. 10 May 2018. Key issues. Archived from the original on 17 June 2023.
  67. ^ "Engaging Men and Boys: A Brief Summary of UNFPA Experience and Lessons Learned". UNFPA: United Nations Population Fund. 2013. p. 2. Archived from the original on 2018-01-08. Retrieved 2017-03-28.
  68. ^ a b c The status of women in agrifood systems - Overview. Rome: FAO. 2023. doi:10.4060/cc5060en. S2CID 258145984.
  69. ^ "WHO: World Health Organization". Who.int. Archived from the original on July 7, 2004. Retrieved 14 June 2015.
  70. ^ a b "WHO: World Health Organization". Who.int. Archived from the original on July 27, 2003. Retrieved 14 June 2015.
  71. ^ "Maternal mortality ratio". Our World in Data. Retrieved 30 March 2024.
  72. ^ a b "Female genital mutilation". Archived from the original on 2021-01-29. Retrieved 2019-03-18.
  73. ^ a b "Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting: A Global Concern" (PDF). New York: United Nations Children's Fund. 2016. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-02-10. Retrieved 2020-12-26.
  74. ^ "Gender equality could help men in Europe live longer: report". Euronews. September 20, 2018. Archived from the original on February 7, 2019. Retrieved February 6, 2019.
  75. ^ "Countries where men hold the power are really bad for men's health". Quartz. September 17, 2018. Archived from the original on February 7, 2019. Retrieved February 6, 2019.
  76. ^ "Gender Inequality Is Bad for Men's Health, Report Says". Global Citizen. September 18, 2018. Archived from the original on February 7, 2019. Retrieved February 6, 2019.
  77. ^ "Men's health and well-being in the WHO European Region". WHO. 2019-06-06. Archived from the original on 2019-02-22. Retrieved 2019-02-06.
  78. ^ Bachman, Ronet (January 1994). "Violence Against Women: A National Crime Victimization Survey Report" (PDF). U.S. Department of Justice. Archived (PDF) from the original on August 10, 2019. Retrieved April 25, 2021.
  79. ^ Hellemans, Sabine; Loeys, Tom; Buysse, Ann; De Smet, Olivia (1 November 2015). "Prevalence and Impact of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) Among an Ethnic Minority Population". Journal of Interpersonal Violence. 30 (19): 3389–3418. doi:10.1177/0886260514563830. hdl:1854/LU-5815751. PMID 25519236. S2CID 5958973. Archived from the original on 1 August 2020. Retrieved 11 December 2019.
  80. ^ a b c "Femicide: A Global Problem" (PDF). Small Arms Survey. Research Notes: Armed Violence. February 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 3, 2012.
  81. ^ a b "Supplement to the Handbook for Legislation on Violence Against Women: Harmful Practices Against Women" (PDF). UN Women. 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-06-10. Retrieved 2015-06-10.
  82. ^ "Many Voices One Message: Stop Violence Against Women in PNG" (PDF). Activist Toolkit, Amnesty International. 2009–2010. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-10-20. Retrieved 2017-03-28.
  83. ^ Sex and Reason, by Richard A. Posner, page 94.
  84. ^ "Ethics: Honour crimes". Bbc.co.uk. Archived from the original on 21 September 2013. Retrieved 14 June 2015.
  85. ^ Harter, Pascale (2011-06-14). "Libya rape victims 'face honour killings'". BBC News. Archived from the original on 2013-09-21. Retrieved 14 June 2015.
  86. ^ "Rape and Sexual Violence: Human rights law and standards in the international criminal court" (PDF). Amnesty International. 1 March 2011. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 June 2015. Retrieved 14 June 2015.
  87. ^ "Hungary: Cries Unheard: The Failure To Protect Women From Rape And Sexual Violence In The Home" (PDF). Amnesty International. 2007. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 June 2015. Retrieved 14 June 2015.
  88. ^ WHO (July 1997). Violence against women: Definition and scope of the problem, 1, 1-3 (PDF). World Health Organization. Archived (PDF) from the original on 30 November 2018. Retrieved 30 November 2013.
  89. ^ Rosche, Daniela; Dawe, Alexandra (2013). Oxfam Briefing Note: Ending violence against women the case for a comprehensive international action plan (PDF). Oxford: Oxfam GB. p. 2. ISBN 978-1-78077-263-9. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 September 2017. Retrieved 2 December 2013.
  90. ^ UN (17 December 1999). International Day for the Elimination of Violence against Women. United Nations. Archived from the original on 13 February 2021. Retrieved 3 April 2016. {{cite book}}: |website= ignored (help)
  91. ^ Watts, Charlotte; Zimmerman, Cathy (6 April 2002). "Violence against women: global scope and magnitude". The Lancet. 359 (9313). Elsevier: 1232–1237. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(02)08221-1. PMID 11955557. S2CID 38436965.
  92. ^ Hagemann-White, Carol (February 2014). "Analytical study of the results of the 4th round of monitoring the implementation of Recommendation Rec(2002)5 on the protection of women against violence in Council of Europe member states". Council of Europe Equality Division. pp. 7, 8, 11. Archived from the original on 3 August 2020. Retrieved 5 April 2020.
  93. ^ Jagland, Thorbjørn (May 2014). "State of democracy, human rights and the rule of law in Europe (2014)". Report by the Secretary General of the Council of Europe. Council of Europe. p. 48. Archived from the original on 24 April 2020. Retrieved 5 April 2020.
  94. ^ Wareham, Jamie (November 11, 2020). "Murdered, Suffocated and Burned Alive - 350 Transgender People Killed in 2020". Forbes. Archived from the original on February 19, 2022. Retrieved April 25, 2021.
  95. ^ Rodríguez-Madera, Sheilla L.; Padilla, Mark; Varas-Díaz, Nelson; Neilands, Torsten; Guzzi, Ana C. Vasques; Florenciani, Ericka J.; Ramos-Pibernus, Alíxida (2017-01-28). "Experiences of Violence Among Transgender Women in Puerto Rico: An Underestimated Problem". Journal of Homosexuality. 64 (2): 209–217. doi:10.1080/00918369.2016.1174026. ISSN 0091-8369. PMC 5546874. PMID 27054395.
  96. ^ Campaign, Human Rights. "A National Epidemic: Fatal Anti-Transgender Violence in America". Human Rights Campaign. Archived from the original on 2019-03-01. Retrieved 2019-02-25.
  97. ^ "Country Comparison: Maternal Mortality Rate". Central Intelligence Agency. Archived from the original on December 9, 2020. Retrieved April 25, 2021.
  98. ^ a b Hunt, Paul; Mezquita de Bueno, Julia (2010). Reducing Maternal Mortality: The contribution of the right to the highest attainable standard of health (PDF). United Nations Population Fund: University of Essex. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-11-07. Retrieved 2017-03-28.
  99. ^ Duncan, Stephanie Kirchgaessner Pamela; Nardelli, Alberto; Robineau, Delphine (11 March 2016). "Seven in 10 Italian gynaecologists refuse to carry out abortions". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 20 April 2019. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  100. ^ "Doctors' Refusal to Perform Abortions Divides Croatia". Balkan Insight. 2017-02-14. Archived from the original on 2018-11-16. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  101. ^ "Family planning: UNFPA – United Nations Population Fund". United Nations Population Fund. Archived from the original on 30 March 2019. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  102. ^ Anderson, Natalae (September 22, 2010). "Documentation Center of Cambodia, Memorandum: Charging Forced Marriage as a Crime Against Humanity," (PDF). D.dccam.org. Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 October 2017. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  103. ^ Jiang, Quanbao; Liu, Yixiao (2016-10-01). "Low fertility and concurrent birth control policy in China". The History of the Family. 21 (4): 551–577. doi:10.1080/1081602X.2016.1213179. ISSN 1081-602X. S2CID 157905310.
  104. ^ "Mass sterilisation scandal shocks Peru". News.bbc.co.uk. 24 July 2002. Archived from the original on 21 May 2019. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  105. ^ "Impunity for violence against women is a global concern". Ohchr.org. Archived from the original on 10 August 2018. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  106. ^ "Femicide and Impunity in Mexico: A context of structural and generalized violence" (PDF). 2.ohchr.org. Archived (PDF) from the original on 24 April 2021. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  107. ^ "Femicide in Latin America". Un Women – Headquarters. 4 April 2013. Archived from the original on 7 December 2017. Retrieved 14 June 2015.
  108. ^ "Central America: Femicides and Gender-Based Violence". Cgrs.uchastings.edu. Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 14 June 2015.
  109. ^ "Progress of the World's Women 2015–2016". My Favorite News. Archived from the original on 23 April 2015. Retrieved 14 June 2015.
  110. ^ a b c "National Gender Based Violence & Health Programme". Gbv.scot.nhs.uk. Archived from the original on 8 December 2014. Retrieved 14 June 2015.
  111. ^ a b c d e f "Fact Sheet No.23, Harmful Traditional Practices Affecting the Health of Women and Children" (PDF). Ohchr.org. Archived (PDF) from the original on 10 September 2019. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  112. ^ "CASTE DISCRIMINATION AGAINST DALITS OR SO-CALLED UNTOUCHABLES IN INDIA" (PDF). 2.ohchr.org. Archived (PDF) from the original on 28 July 2018. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  113. ^ "Biggest caste survey: One in four Indians admit to practising untouchability". The Indian Express. 29 November 2014. Archived from the original on 18 December 2017. Retrieved 14 June 2015.
  114. ^ Backshall, Steve (6 January 2008). "Bitten by the Amazon". The Sunday Times. London. Archived from the original on 22 February 2014. Retrieved 13 July 2013.
  115. ^ Wadesango, Newman; Rembe, Symphorosa; Chabaya, Owence. "Violation of Women's Rights by Harmful Traditional Practices" (PDF). Krepublishers.com. Archived (PDF) from the original on 24 October 2018. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  116. ^ "The impact of harmful traditional practices on the girl child" (PDF). Un.org. Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 July 2019. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  117. ^ "Breast Ironing... A Harmful Practice That Has Been Silenced For Too Long" (PDF). Ohchr.org. Archived (PDF) from the original on 26 February 2015. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  118. ^ "Exchange on HIV/AIDS, Sexuality and Gender". 2008. Archived from the original on 19 August 2014. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  119. ^ "Female genital mutilation". United Nations Population Fund. Archived from the original on May 27, 2019. Retrieved April 25, 2021.
  120. ^ "UNFPA-UNICEF Joint Programme on Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting: Accelerating Change". United Nations Population Fund. Archived from the original on 9 April 2017. Retrieved 4 April 2017.
  121. ^ "Child marriage". UNICEF. 22 October 2014. Archived from the original on 7 September 2018. Retrieved 14 June 2015.
  122. ^ "Child Marriage". Human Rights Watch. Archived from the original on 12 July 2018. Retrieved 14 June 2015.
  123. ^ "Resolution adopted by the General Assembly : 69/XX. Child, Early and Forced Marriage" (PDF). Who.int. Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 October 2017. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  124. ^ a b "End Child Marriage". United Nations Population Fund. Archived from the original on 14 July 2015. Retrieved 14 June 2015.
  125. ^ "Women's Fears and Men's Anxieties : The Impact of Family Planning on Gender Relations in Northern Ghana" (PDF). Popcouncil.org. Archived from the original on 20 April 2019. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  126. ^ "Equality Now (2007) Protecting the girl child: Using the law to end child, early and forced marriage and related human rights violations" (PDF). Equalitynow.org. 7 January 2014. Archived (PDF) from the original on 28 May 2015. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  127. ^ Lelieveld, M. (2011). "Child protection in the Somali region of Ethiopia. A report for the BRIDGES project Piloting the delivery of quality education services in the developing regional states of Ethiopia" (PDF). Savethechildren.org.uk. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 17 April 2015.
  128. ^ Stange, Mary Zeiss, and Carol K. Oyster, Jane E. Sloan (2011). Encyclopedia of Women in Today's World, Volume 1. SAGE. p. 496. ISBN 978-1-4129-7685-5.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  129. ^ "The situation in the EU". European Commission. Archived from the original on December 19, 2017. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
  130. ^ a b "What we do: Economic empowerment: UN Women – Headquarters". headQuarters. Archived from the original on 25 August 2017. Retrieved 14 June 2015.
  131. ^ "Roadmap for Promoting Women's Economic Empowerment". Womeneconroadmap.org. Archived from the original on 7 October 2018. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  132. ^ a b Harvard Law Review Association (May 1996), Civil rights – gender discrimination: California prohibits gender-based pricing
  133. ^ Duesterhaus, Megan; Grauerholz, Liz; Weichsel, Rebecca; Guittar, Nicholas A. (2011). "The Cost of Doing Femininity: Gendered Disparities in Pricing of Personal Care Products and Services". Gender Issues. 28 (4): 175–191. doi:10.1007/s12147-011-9106-3. S2CID 145812818.
  134. ^ a b "Bridging the Gender Gap in Access to Finance". www.ifc.org. Retrieved 2023-02-28.
  135. ^ a b "Expanding Women's Access to Financial Services". World Bank. Retrieved 2023-02-28.
  136. ^ a b c "Women's solutions stories create a world where everyone thrives". European Investment Bank. Retrieved 2023-02-28.
  137. ^ Feloni, Richard (2019-03-08). "If we closed the gender gap by 2025, the global economy could see a $28 trillion windfall". Business Insider Nederland (in Dutch). Retrieved 2023-02-28.
  138. ^ "Boosting gender equality around the world: EIB expands SheInvest initiative and strengthens cooperation with Development Bank of Rwanda". European Investment Bank. Retrieved 2023-02-28.
  139. ^ "Boosting gender equality around the world: European Investment Bank expands SheInvest initiative..." BusinessGhana. Retrieved 2023-02-28.
  140. ^ "Finance in Common FICS Progress Report" (PDF).
  141. ^ Bjørnholt, M. (2014). "Changing men, changing times; fathers and sons from an experimental gender equality study" (PDF). The Sociological Review. 62 (2): 295–315. doi:10.1111/1467-954X.12156. S2CID 143048732. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2018-10-21. Retrieved 2014-09-11.
  142. ^ Vachon, Marc and Amy (2010). Equally Shared Parenting. United States: Perigree Trade. ISBN 978-0-399-53651-9.; Deutsch, Francine (April 2000). Halving It All: How Equally Shared Parenting Works. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-00209-8.; Schwartz, Pepper (September 1995). Love Between Equals: How Peer Marriage Really Works. Touchstone. ISBN 978-0-02-874061-4.
  143. ^ Bowles, Nellie (September 23, 2017). "Push for Gender Equality in Tech? Some Men Say It's Gone Too Far". The New York Times. Archived from the original on September 23, 2017. Retrieved April 25, 2021. ...Silicon Valley has for years accommodated a fringe element of men who say women are ruining the tech world.... backlash against the women in technology movement ... surveys show there is no denying the travails women face in the male-dominated industry ...
  144. ^ Schmid, Thacher (March 12, 2018). "While Startups Increasingly Move to Portland, a New York Times Reporter Warns That There's a "Gender Problem" in Tech". Willamette Week. Archived from the original on March 12, 2021. Retrieved April 25, 2021. ...Bowles has written a number of groundbreaking stories on the "gender problem" in tech, including a profile of a "contrarian" fringe element of men leading a backlash against women asserting their rights....
  145. ^ Ward, Jodie; Johnson, Rebecca N.; Wilson-Wilde, Linzi (2019-07-29). "Gender equity: how do the forensic sciences fare?". Australian Journal of Forensic Sciences. 51 (sup1): S263–S267. doi:10.1080/00450618.2019.1568556. ISSN 0045-0618. S2CID 86587238.
  146. ^ "Modern workplaces, maternity rights, and gender equality". Fawcett Society. November 2012. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-05-09. Retrieved 2016-04-26.
  147. ^ For example, "Law n. 202/2002, Art. 10 (4) and Art. 37". Romanian Law Online (in Romanian). Archived from the original on 2016-05-09. Retrieved 2016-04-26.
  148. ^ "Details of indicators for labour exploitation" (PDF). Ilo.org. Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 October 2017. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  149. ^ "HRW calls on Indonesia to scrap 'virginity tests' for female police". Dw.com. Archived from the original on 15 November 2017. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  150. ^ "THE CONVENTION ON THE ELIMINATION OF ALL FORMS OF DISCRIMINATION AGAINST WOMEN (CEDAW)" (PDF). Igfm-muenchen.de. Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 October 2017. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  151. ^ Liberating Women's History:Theoretical and Critical Essays, edited by Berenice A. Carroll, pp. 161–2
  152. ^ "Why can't women drive in Saudi Arabia?". BBC. 27 October 2013. Archived from the original on 5 November 2017. Retrieved 14 June 2015.
  153. ^ "CEDAW 29th Session 30 June to 25 July 2003". Archived from the original on April 6, 2011. Retrieved 14 June 2015.
  154. ^ Ahsan, I. (2009). PANCHAYATS AND JIRGAS (LOK ADALATS): Alternative Dispute Resolution System in Pakistan. Strengthening Governance Through Access To Justice
  155. ^ "Global issues affecting women and girls". National Union of Teachers. Archived from the original on 29 April 2015. Retrieved 14 June 2015.
  156. ^ "Global Campaign For Education United States Chapter". Archived from the original on 16 September 2018. Retrieved 14 June 2015.
  157. ^ "Progress and Obstacles to Girls' Education in Africa". Plan International. 16 July 2015. Archived from the original on 29 July 2013. Retrieved 21 June 2014.
  158. ^ "Attacks against girls' education occurring with "increasing regularity" – UN human rights report". Ohchr.org. 9 February 2015. Archived from the original on 2018-08-10. Retrieved 2017-03-27.
  159. ^ "Gender equality". United Nations Population Fund. Archived from the original on 20 May 2019. Retrieved 17 January 2015.
  160. ^ Global Education Monitoring Report Team (2022). Global education monitoring report 2022: gender report, deepening the debate on those still left behind. UNESCO. ISBN 978-92-3-100524-4.
  161. ^ "Women in Parliaments: World and Regional Averages". Ipu.org. Archived from the original on 30 March 2007. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  162. ^ "Women and Political Participation: resolution". United Nations. March 19, 2012. Archived from the original on 3 March 2018. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  163. ^ a b "Gender Equality Strategy 2014–2017". Council of Europe. Archived from the original on 16 May 2019. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  164. ^ Inter-Parliamentary Union (1 August 2015). "Women in national parliaments". Archived from the original on 28 March 2014. Retrieved 31 August 2015.
  165. ^ "Equality in family relations: recognizing women's rights to property". Ohchr.org. Archived from the original on 10 August 2018. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  166. ^ "Women's land rights are human rights, says new UN report". Un Women – Headquarters. 11 November 2013. Archived from the original on 22 December 2017. Retrieved 2 March 2018.
  167. ^ "RESOLUTION (78) 37 ON EQUALITY OF SPOUSES IN CIVIL LAW". Council of Europe. 27 September 1978. Archived from the original on 21 January 2016.
  168. ^ Times, Special to the New York (23 September 1985). "SWISS GRANT WOMEN EQUAL MARRIAGE RIGHTS". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 11 November 2020. Retrieved 8 February 2017.
  169. ^ "Switzerland Profile: Timeline". BBC News. 21 December 2017. Archived from the original on 17 June 2018. Retrieved 21 July 2018.
  170. ^ Markus G. Jud, Lucerne, Switzerland. "The Long Way to Women's Right to Vote in Switzerland: a Chronology". History-switzerland.geschichte-schweiz.ch. Archived from the original on 21 November 2019. Retrieved 14 November 2017.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  171. ^ The Economics of Imperfect Labor Markets: Second Edition, by Tito Boeri, Jan van Ours, pp. 105
  172. ^ "Dutch gender and LGBT-equality policy 2013–2016". Archived from the original on 6 September 2017.
  173. ^ "2015 Review Report of the Netherlands Government in the context of the twentieth anniversary of the Fourth World Conference on Women and the adoption of the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action" (PDF). Unece.org. Archived (PDF) from the original on 5 October 2015. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  174. ^ "Kirchberg v. Feenstra :: 450 U.S. 455 (1981) :: Justia U.S. Supreme Court Center". Justia Law. Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2015-10-10.
  175. ^ "The History of Passports in Australia". Archived from the original on 14 June 2006. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  176. ^ "Women's Lives Women's Rights: Campaigning for maternal health and sexual and reproductive rights" (PDF). Amnesty.ca. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 June 2014. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  177. ^ "Left without a choice : Barriers to reproductive health in Indonesia" (PDF). 2.ohchr.org. Archived (PDF) from the original on 23 April 2018. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  178. ^ Rao, D. Bhaskara (2004). Education For Women. Discovery Publishing House. p. 161. ISBN 978-81-7141-873-2.
  179. ^ Buhle Angelo Dube (February 2008). "The Law and Legal Research in Lesotho". Archived from the original on 2010-06-20. Retrieved 2010-07-04.
  180. ^ "Court in UAE says beating wife, child OK if no marks are left". Edition.cnn.com. Archived from the original on 15 November 2017. Retrieved 14 June 2015.
  181. ^ Nordland, Rod (2016-12-07). "Crackdown in Turkey Threatens a Haven of Gender Equality Built by Kurds". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 2019-02-27. Retrieved 2018-01-23.
  182. ^ a b Mogelson, Luke (2017-10-30). "Dark Victory in Raqqa". The New Yorker. ISSN 0028-792X. Archived from the original on 2018-04-14. Retrieved 2018-01-23.
  183. ^ Shaw and Lee, Susan and Janet. Women Voices and Feminist Visions. p. 450. Women are expected to want to be mothers
  184. ^ a b "How Does Gender Bias Really Affect Women in the Workplace?". 2016-03-24. Archived from the original on 2017-11-15. Retrieved 2016-09-23.
  185. ^ Durbin, Susan (2010). "Gender inequality in employment: Editors' introduction". Equality, Diversity and Inclusion. 29 (3): 221–238. doi:10.1108/02610151011028831.
  186. ^ "Women and Girls as Subjects of Media's Attention and Advertisement Campaigns : The Situation in Europe, Best Practices and Legislations" (PDF). Europarl.europa.eu. Archived (PDF) from the original on 18 November 2017. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  187. ^ a b Acevedo et al. 2010. 'A Content Analysis of the Roles Portrayed by Women in Commercials: 1973 – 2008', Revista Brasileira de Marketing Vol. 9. Universidade Nove de Julho, Sao Paulo.
  188. ^ "The Myriad: Westminster's Interactive Academic Journal". Archived from the original on 2016-04-28.
  189. ^ Kelly, Gretchen (November 23, 2015). "The Thing All Women Do That You Don't Know About". Huffington Post. Archived from the original on 20 October 2017. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  190. ^ Asquith, Christina (2016-03-07). "Why Don't Female Journalists Win More Awards?". The Atlantic. Archived from the original on 2019-01-26. Retrieved 2019-08-21.
  191. ^ "African Development Bank promotes gender equality in the media through 'Women's Rights in Africa' Award". African Development Bank – Building today, a better Africa tomorrow. 2019-02-13. Archived from the original on 2019-08-21. Retrieved 2019-08-21.
  192. ^ World Trends in Freedom of Expression and Media Development Global Report 2017/2018. UNESCO. 2018. p. 202.
  193. ^ "WINning Strategies – Creating Stronger News Media Organizations by Increasing Gender Diversity (2018 update) – WAN-IFRA". www.wan-ifra.org. Archived from the original on 2020-09-21. Retrieved 2019-08-21.
  194. ^ "Help is available if you or someone you know is a victim of Domestic Violence" (PDF). 2.gov.bc.ca. Archived (PDF) from the original on 8 November 2018. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  195. ^ "Know your rights – get your rights!". Maternityaction.org.uk. 2015-01-14. Archived from the original on 2018-11-03. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  196. ^ "Eight Point Agenda for Women's Empowerment and Gender Equality". Undp.org. Archived from the original on 9 May 2017. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  197. ^ Assembly, United Nations General. "A/RES/48/104 – Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women – UN Documents: Gathering a body of global agreements". Un-documents.net. Archived from the original on 4 August 2018. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  198. ^ Khoury, Jack (30 April 2012). "Study: Most Bedouin Victims of Domestic Violence Believe It's a 'Decree From God'". Haaretz. Archived from the original on 15 November 2017. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  199. ^ "Hungary : Cries unheard : The failure to protect women from rape and sexual violence in the home" (PDF). Refworld.org. Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 October 2017. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  200. ^ "Hungary law 'fails rape victims'". BBC. 10 May 2007. Archived from the original on 26 October 2017. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  201. ^ "Women and health : today's evidence tomorrow's agenda" (PDF). Who.int. Archived (PDF) from the original on 25 November 2018. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  202. ^ Booth, C.; Bennett (2002). "Gender Mainstreaming in the European Union". European Journal of Women's Studies. 9 (4): 430–46. doi:10.1177/13505068020090040401. S2CID 143702617.
  203. ^ "Definition of Gender Mainstreaming". International Labor Organization. Archived from the original on 21 October 2018. Retrieved 14 June 2015.
  204. ^ "II. The Origins of Gender Mainstreaming in the EU". Harvard Law School. Archived from the original on July 8, 2001. Retrieved April 25, 2021.
  205. ^ "Gender Mainstreaming". UN Women. Archived from the original on 20 September 2018. Retrieved 14 June 2015.
  206. ^ a b "Gender at the Heart of ICPD: The UNFPA Strategic Framework on Gender Mainstreaming and Women's Empowerment". United Nations Population Fund. 2011. Archived from the original on 17 August 2015. Retrieved 14 June 2015.
  207. ^ "Portal del Estado Peruano". Oficina Nacional de Gobierno Electrónico e Informática. Archived from the original on September 3, 2016. Retrieved September 6, 2016. El Poder Ejecutivo está constituido por el Presidente, quien desarrolla las funciones de Jefe de Estado. El simboliza y representa los intereses permanentes del país. A su vez, como Jefe de Gobierno, es quien dirige la política gubernamental, respaldado por la mayoría político-electoral.
  208. ^ "Constitución Política del Perú 1993" (PDF). Government of Peru. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 10, 2016. Retrieved September 6, 2016. Artículo 118°.- Atribuciones del Presidente de la República Corresponde al Presidente de la República: 1. Cumplir y hacer cumplir la Constitución y los tratados, leyes y demás disposiciones legales. [...] 3. Dirigir la política general del Gobierno.
  209. ^ UN Protocol and Liaison Service (August 24, 2016). "List of Heads of State, Heads of Government, and Ministers for Foreign Affairs" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on November 3, 2021. Retrieved September 6, 2016.

External links