General American (abbreviated as GA or GenAm) is the umbrella variety of American English—the continuum of accents—spoken by a majority of Americans and popularly perceived, among Americans, as lacking any distinctly regional, ethnic, or socioeconomic characteristics. Americans with high education, or from the North Midland, Western New England, and Western regions of the country, are the most likely to be perceived as having "General American" accents. The precise definition and usefulness of the term continues to be debated, and the scholars who use it today admittedly do so as a convenient basis for comparison rather than for exactness. Some scholars, despite controversy, prefer the term Standard American English.
Standard Canadian English is sometimes considered to fall under the phonological spectrum of General American, especially rather than the United Kingdom's Received Pronunciation; in fact, spoken Canadian English aligns with General American in nearly every situation where British and American English differ.
History and modern definition
The term "General American" was first disseminated by American English scholar George Philip Krapp, who, in 1925, described it as an American type of speech that was "Western" but "not local in character". In 1930, American linguist John Samuel Kenyon, who largely popularized the term, considered it equivalent to the speech of "the North" or "Northern American", but, in 1934, "Western and Midwestern". Now typically regarded as falling under the General American umbrella are the regional accents of the West, Western New England, and the North Midland (a band spanning central Ohio, central Indiana, central Illinois, northern Missouri, southern Iowa, and southeastern Nebraska), plus the accents of highly educated Americans nationwide. Arguably, all Canadian English accents west of Quebec are also General American, though developing Canadian features, including vowel raising, may serve to increasingly distinguish such accents from American ones. Similarly, William Labov et al.'s 2006 Atlas of North American English identified these three accent regions—the Western U.S., Midland U.S., and Canada—as sharing those pronunciation features whose convergence would form a hypothetical "General American" accent.
Regarded as having General American accents in the earlier 20th century, but not by the middle of the 20th century, are the Mid-Atlantic United States, the Inland Northern United States, and Western Pennsylvania. Accents that have never been included, even since the term's popularization in the 1930s, are the regional accents (especially the "r"-dropping ones) of Eastern New England, New York City, and the American South. In 1982, British phonetician John C. Wells wrote that two-thirds of the American population spoke with a General American accent.
English-language scholar William A. Kretzchmar, Jr. explains in a 2004 article that the term "General American" came to refer to "a presumed most common or 'default' form of American English, especially to be distinguished from marked regional speech of New England or the South" and especially to speech associated with the vaguely-defined "Midwest", despite any historical or present evidence supporting this notion. In fact, he argues, a General American accent is merely any in which American speakers have suppressed regional and social features that have become widely noticed and stigmatized.
Since calling one variety of American speech the "general" variety can imply privileging and prejudice, Kretzchmar instead promotes the term Standard American English, which he defines as a level of American English pronunciation "employed by educated speakers in formal settings", while still being variable within the U.S. from place to place, and even from speaker to speaker. However, the term "standard" may also be interpreted as problematically implying a superior or "best" form of speech. The term Standard North American English, in an effort to incorporate Canadian speakers under the accent continuum, was also first suggested by Charles Boberg in 2004.
Modern language scholars discredit the original notion of General American as a single unified accent, or a standardized form of English—except perhaps as used by television networks and other mass media. Today, the term is understood to refer to a continuum of American speech, with some slight internal variation, but otherwise characterized by the absence of "marked" pronunciation features: those perceived by Americans as strongly indicative of a fellow American speaker's regional origin, ethnicity, or socioeconomic status. Despite confusion arising from the evolving definition and vagueness of the term "General American" and its consequent rejection by some linguists, the term persists mainly as a reference point to compare a baseline "typical" American English accent with other Englishes around the world (for instance, see: Comparison of General American and Received Pronunciation).
Though General American accents are not commonly perceived as associated with any region, their sound system does have traceable regional origins: specifically, the English of the non-coastal Northeastern United States in the very early twentieth century. This includes western New England and the area to its immediate west, settled by members of the same dialect community: interior Pennsylvania, upstate New York, and the adjacent "Midwest" or Great Lakes region. However, since the early to middle twentieth century, deviance away from General American sounds started occurring, and may be ongoing, in the eastern Great Lakes region due to its Northern Cities Vowel Shift (NCVS) towards a unique Inland Northern accent (often now associated with the region's urban centers, like Chicago and Detroit) and in the western Great Lakes region towards a unique North Central accent (often associated with Minnesota, Wisconsin, and North Dakota).
Linguists have proposed multiple factors contributing to the popularity of a rhotic "General American" class of accents throughout the United States. Most factors focus on the first half of the twentieth century, though a basic General American pronunciation system may have existed even before the twentieth century, since most American English dialects have diverged very little from each other anyway, when compared to dialects of single languages in other countries where there has been more time for language change (such as the English dialects of England or German dialects of Germany).
One factor fueling General American's popularity was the major demographic change of twentieth-century American society: increased suburbanization, leading to less mingling of different social classes and less density and diversity of linguistic interactions. As a result, wealthier and higher-educated Americans' communications became more restricted to their own demographic. This, alongside their new marketplace that transcended regional boundaries (arising from the century's faster transportation methods), reinforced a widespread belief that highly-educated Americans should not possess a regional accent. A General American sound, then, originated from both suburbanization and suppression of regional accent by highly-educated Americans in formal settings. A second factor was a rise in immigration to the Great Lakes area (one native region of supposed "General American" speech) following the region's rapid industrialization period after the American Civil War, when this region's speakers went on to form a successful and highly mobile business elite, who travelled around the country in the mid-twentieth century, spreading the high status of their accents. A third factor is that various sociological (often race- and class-based) forces repelled socially-conscious Americans away from accents negatively associated with certain minority groups, such as African Americans and poor white communities in the South and with Southern and Eastern European immigrant groups (for example, Jewish communities) in the coastal Northeast. Instead, socially-conscious Americans settled upon accents more prestigiously associated with White Anglo-Saxon Protestant communities in the remainder of the country: namely, the West, the Midwest, and the non-coastal Northeast.
Influential to codifying General American pronunciation standards in writing was John Samuel Kenyon, author of American Pronunciation (1924) and pronunciation editor for the second edition of Webster's New International Dictionary (1934), who used as a basis his native Midwestern (specifically, northern Ohio) pronunciation. Kenyon's home state of Ohio, far from being an area of "non-regional" accents, has emerged now as a crossroads for at least four distinct regional accents, according to late twentieth-century research. Furthermore, Kenyon himself was vocally opposed to the notion of any supreme standard of American speech.
In the media
General American, like the British Received Pronunciation (RP) and prestige accents of many other societies, has never been the accent of the entire nation, and, unlike RP, does not constitute a homogeneous national standard. Starting in the 1930s, nationwide radio networks adopted non-coastal Northern U.S. rhotic pronunciations for their "General American" standard. The entertainment industry similarly shifted from a non-rhotic standard to a rhotic one in the late 1940s, after the triumph of the Second World War, with the patriotic incentive for a more wide-ranging and unpretentious "heartland variety" in television and radio.
General American is thus often associated with the speech of North American radio and television announcers, promoted as prestigious in their industry, where it is sometimes called a "newscaster accent", "television English", or "Network Standard". Instructional classes in the United States that promise "accent reduction", "accent modification", or "accent neutralization" usually attempt to teach General American patterns. A common experience among many American celebrities is having worked hard to lose their native regional accents in favor of a more mainstream General American sound, including television journalist Linda Ellerbee, who stated that "in television you are not supposed to sound like you're from anywhere", as well as political comedian Stephen Colbert, both of whom reduced their Southern accents (Colbert completely so), because of the common portrayal of Southerners as stupid and uneducated on American television.
- Rhoticity (or r-fulness): General American accents are firmly rhotic, pronouncing the r sound in all environments, including after vowels, such as in pearl, car, and court. Americans often realize the phoneme /r/ as postalveolar [ɹ] (listen), as in most varieties of English, but sometimes as retroflex [ɻ] (listen). Non-rhotic American accents, those that do not pronounce r in some positions in a word, such as some Eastern New England, New York, or African American vernacular accents, are often quickly noticed by General American listeners and perceived to sound especially ethnic, regional, or "old-fashioned".
- T-glottalization: /t/ is normally pronounced as unreleased or as a glottal stop [ʔ] when before another consonant (notably including before syllabic [n̩], as in button [ˈbʌʔn̩] (listen)) and often following a vowel at the end of a sentence, as in what [wʌʔ].
- Flapping: /t/ or /d/ becomes a flap [ɾ] (listen) when placed both after a vowel or /r/ and before a weak vowel or syllabic /l/, as in water [ˈwɔɾɚ] (listen), party [ˈpʰɑɹɾi] and model [ˈmɑɾɫ̩]. Flapping before a full vowel is possible only when it begins a word or morpheme, as in what is it? [wʌɾˈɪzɪʔ] and whatever [wʌɾˈɛvɚ] (but not in reduce [ɹəˈdus] or monotone [ˈmɑnətʰoʊn]).
- Yod-dropping: After consonants formed with the tongue touching the ridge on the roof of the mouth (alveolar consonants), a formerly present /j/ is normally "dropped" or "deleted" in syllables bearing full or partial stress, so that, for example, suit /sjut/ has become /sut/, new /nju/ has become /nu/, endure /ɛnˈdjʊr/ has become /ɛnˈdʊr/, and attitude /ˈætətjud/ has become /ˈætətud/.
- L-velarization: The allophonic distinction between a clear l (i.e. [l] (listen)) and a dark l (i.e. [ɫ] (listen)) in the standard English of England, Received Pronunciation (RP), is less sharp in General American. Instead, all l sounds are pronounced more or less "dark", which means that they all have some degree of velarization, though in initial position, perhaps less so than elsewhere.
- Wine–whine merger: The consonants spelled w and wh are usually pronounced the same, as in most modern English dialects worldwide. A separate phoneme /ʍ/ (wh) is present only in certain dialects. /ʍ/ is often analyzed as a consonant cluster of /hw/.
|Diphthongs||aɪ ɔɪ aʊ|
- Vowel length is not phonemic in General American, and therefore vowels such as /i/ are usually transcribed without the length mark. Phonetically, the vowels of GA are short [ɪ, i, ʊ, u, eɪ, oʊ, ɛ, ʌ, ɔ, æ, ɑ, aɪ, ɔɪ, aʊ] when they precede the fortis consonants /p, t, k, tʃ, f, θ, s, ʃ/ within the same syllable and long [ɪˑ, iˑ, ʊˑ, uˑ, eˑɪ, oˑʊ, ɛˑ, ʌˑ, ɔˑ, æˑ, ɑˑ, aˑɪ, ɔˑɪ, aˑʊ] elsewhere. (Listen to the minimal pair of kit and kid) This applies to all vowels but the schwa /ə/ (which is typically very short [ə̆]), so when e.g. /i/ is realized as a diphthong [ɪ̝i] it has the same allophones as the other diphthongs, whereas the sequence /ɜr/ (which corresponds to the NURSE vowel /ɜː/ in RP) has the same allophones as phonemic monophthongs: short [ɚ] before fortis consonants and long [ɚˑ] elsewhere. The short [ɚ] is also used for the sequence /ər/ (the LETTER vowel). All unstressed vowels are also shorter than the stressed ones, and the more unstressed syllables follow a stressed one, the shorter it is, so that /i/ in lead is noticeably longer than in leadership. (See Stress and vowel reduction in English.)
- /i, u, eɪ, oʊ, ɑ/ are considered to compose a natural class of tense monophthongs in General American, especially for speakers with the cot–caught merger. The class manifests in how GA speakers treat loanwords, as in the majority of cases stressed syllables of foreign words are assigned one of these five vowels, regardless of whether the original pronunciation has a tense or a lax vowel. An example of that is the surname of Thomas Mann, which is pronounced with the tense /ɑ/ rather than lax /æ/ (as in RP, which mirrors the German pronunciation /man/, which also has a lax vowel). All of the tense vowels except /ɑ/ can have either monophthongal or diphthongal pronunciations (i.e. [i, u ~ ʉ, e, o] vs [ɪ̝i, ʊ̝u ~ ʊ̝̈ʉ, eɪ, oʊ]). The diphthongs are the most usual realizations of /eɪ/ and /oʊ/, which is reflected in the way they are transcribed. In the case of /i/ and /u/, the monophthongal pronunciations are in free variation with diphthongs. Even the diphthongal pronunciations themselves vary between the very narrow (i.e. [ɪ̝i, ʊ̝u ~ ʊ̝̈ʉ]) and somewhat wider (i.e. [ɪi ~ ɪ̈i, ʊu ~ ʊ̈ʉ]), with the former being more common. As indicated in above phonetic transcriptions, the backness of /u/ varies from fairly back to central; the same applies to /ɑ/, which is realized as [ɑ ~ ä].
- Before the dark l, /i, u/ and sometimes also /eɪ, oʊ/ are realized as centering diphthongs [iə, uə, eə, oə] or even as disyllabic sequences [i.jə, u.wə, e.jə, o.wə]. Therefore, words such as peel and fool and sometimes also rail and role are pronounced [ˈpʰiəɫ ~ ˈpʰi.jəɫ], [ˈfuəɫ ~ ˈfu.wəɫ], [ˈɹeəɫ ~ ˈɹe.jəɫ], [ˈɹoəɫ ~ ˈɹo.wəɫ]. This can even happen word-internally before another morpheme, as in peeling [ˈpiəɫɪŋ ~ ˈpi.jəɫɪŋ] and fooling [ˈfuəɫɪŋ ~ ˈfu.wəɫɪŋ].
- When prosodically salient, the lax vowels /ɪ, ʊ, ɛ, ʌ, æ/ tend to be realized as centering diphthongs [ɪə, ʊə, ɛə, ʌə, æə] instead of the more usual long monophthongs [ɪˑ, ʊˑ, ɛˑ, ʌˑ, æˑ] when they precede a word-final voiced consonant, so that the word good in the sentence that's very good! tends to be pronounced [ɡʊəd] instead of [ɡʊˑd].
- General American does not have the opposition between /ɜr/ and /ər/, which are both rendered [ɚ] (listen); therefore, the vowels in further /ˈfɜrðər/ are typically realized with the same segmental quality as [ˈfɚðɚ] (listen). This also makes homophonous the words forward /ˈfɔrwərd/ and foreword /ˈfɔrwɜrd/ as [ˈfɔɹwɚd], which are distinguished in Received Pronunciation as [ˈfɔːwəd] and [ˈfɔːwɜːd], respectively. Therefore, /ɜ/ is not a true phoneme in General American but merely a different notation of /ə/ preserved for when this phoneme precedes /r/ and is stressed—a convention adopted in literature to facilitate comparisons with other accents. What is historically /ʌr/, as in hurry, is also pronounced [ɚ] (listen), so /ʌ/, /ɜ/ and /ə/ are all neutralized before /r/. Furthermore, some analyze /ʌ/ as an allophone of /ə/ that surfaces when stressed, so /ʌ/, /ɜ/ and /ə/ may be considered to be in complementary distribution and thus comprising one phoneme.
- The phonetic quality of /ʌ/ is typically somewhat advanced [ʌ̟], which is still somewhat more back than the corresponding RP realization [ɐ].
The 2006 Atlas of North American English surmises that "if one were to recognize a type of North American English to be called 'General American'" according to data measurements of vowel pronunciations, "it would be the configuration formed by these three" dialect regions: Canada, the American West, and the American Midland. The following charts (as well as the one above) present the vowels that these three dialects encompass as a perceived General American sound system.
|/æ/||[æ]||bath, trap, yak|
|[eə~ɛə~æ]||ban, tram (/æ/ tensing)|
|/ɑː/||/ɑ/||[ɑ~ä] (listen)||ah, father, spa|
|/ɒ/||bother, lot, wasp (father–bother merger)|
|/ɔ/||[ɑ~ɔ̞]||boss, cloth, dog, off (lot–cloth split)|
|/ɔː/||all, bought, flaunt (cot–caught variability)|
|/oʊ/||/o/||[oʊ~ɔʊ~ʌʊ~o̞] listen||goat, home, toe|
|/ɛ/||[ɛ] (listen)||dress, met, bread|
|/eɪ/||[e̞ɪ~eɪ] (listen)||lake, paid, feint|
|/ə/||[ə] (listen)||about, syrup, arena|
|/ɪ/||[ɪ] (listen)||kit, pink, tip|
|[ɪ̈~ɪ~ə]||private, muffin, wasted (unstressed /ɪ/ allophone)|
|/iː/||/i/||[i (listen)~ɪi]||beam, chic, fleece|
|happy, money, parties (happY tensing)|
|/ʌ/||[ʌ̟] (listen)||bus, flood, what|
|/ʊ/||[ʊ]||book, put, should|
|/uː/||/u/||[u̟~ʊu~ʉu~ɵu] (listen)||goose, new, true|
- Raising of short a before m and n sounds: For most speakers, the short a sound, transcribed as [æ], is pronounced with the tongue raised in the mouth, followed by a backward glide, whenever occurring before a nasal consonant (that is, before /m/, /n/ and, for some speakers, /ŋ/). This sound may be narrowly transcribed as [ɛə] (as in Anne and am), or, based on a specific dialect, variously as [eə] or [ɪə]. This phenomenon is called /æ/-tensing in phonological discourse. For the purposes of the chart below, [eə] represents a very tense vowel, [ɛə] a somewhat tense (or intermediate) vowel, and [æ] a non-tense (or lax) vowel, and the symbol "~" represents a continuous system in which the vowel may variably waver between two pronunciations.
|// raising in North American English|
|Consonant after /æ/||Example words||New York City & New Orleans||Baltimore & Philadelphia||Eastern New England||General American, Midland U.S., & Western U.S.||Canadian, Northwestern U.S., & Upper Midwestern U.S.||Southern U.S. & African American Vernacular||Great Lakes|
|/b/, /d/, /dʒ/, /ʃ/, /v/, /z/, /ʒ/||[eə]||[æ~ɛə]||[æ]|
|/f/, /s/, /θ/||[eə]|
- Father–bother merger (/ɒ/ → [ɑ]): Nearly all American accents merge the short o of words like spot and odd to the sound of ah in words like spa and ah; therefore, sob and Saab are homophones in General American.
- Cot–caught merger in transition: There is no single General American way to pronounce the vowels in words like cot /ɑ/ (the ah vowel) versus caught /ɔ/ (the aw vowel), largely due to a merger occurring between the two sounds in some parts of North America, but not others. American speakers with a completed merger pronounce the two historically separate vowels with the exact same sound (especially in the West, northern New England, West Virginia, western Pennsylvania, and the Upper Midwest), but other speakers have no trace of a merger at all (especially in the South, the Great Lakes region, southern New England, and the Mid-Atlantic and New York metropolitan areas) and so pronounce each vowel with distinct sounds (listen). Among speakers who distinguish between the two, the vowel of cot (usually transcribed in American English as [ɑ] (listen)), may be central [ä] (listen) or advanced back [ɑ̟], while /ɔ/ is pronounced with more rounded lips and/or phonetically higher in the mouth, close to [ɒ] (listen) or [ɔ] (listen), but with only slight rounding. Among speakers who do not distinguish between the two and are thus said to have undergone the cot–caught merger, /ɑ/ usually remains a back vowel, [ɑ], sometimes showing lip rounding as [ɒ]. Therefore, General American speakers vary greatly with this speech feature, with possibilities ranging from a full merger to no merger at all. In the middle of this range, a transitional stage of the merger is also common in random scatterings throughout the U.S., though especially among younger speakers and most consistently in the Midland region lying between the historical North and South. According to a 2003 dialect survey carried out across the United States, about 61% of participants perceive themselves as keeping the two vowels distinct and 39% do not.
- Vowel mergers before r (before a vowel): General American participates in some mergers of vowel sounds only when such a vowel occurs before an /r/ sound that is itself followed by another vowel (intervocalic r).
- Mary–marry–merry merger in transition: According to a 2003 dialect survey of the United States, nearly 57% of participants from around the country merged the sounds /ær/ (as in the first syllable of parish), /ɛr/ (as in the first syllable of perish), and /ɛər/ (as in pear or pair). The merger is in transition, already complete everywhere except along some areas of the Atlantic Coast.
- Hurry–furry merger: The pre-r vowels in words like hurry /ʌ/ and furry /ɜ/ are merged in most General American accents to [ə~ɚ]. Only 10% of English speakers across the U.S. acknowledge the distinct hurry vowel before /r/, according to a 2003 dialect survey.
- Mirror–nearer merger in transition: The pre-r vowels in words like mirror /ɪ/ and nearer /i/ are merged or at least close in General American accents. The quality of the historic mirror vowel in the word miracle is quite variable.
- Unstressed pure vowels:
|English diaphoneme||General American realization||Example words|
|/aɪ/||[äɪ] (listen)||bride, prize, tie|
|[äɪ~ɐɪ~ʌ̈ɪ]||bright, price, tyke|
|/aʊ/||[aʊ~æʊ] (listen)||now, ouch, scout|
|/ɔɪ/||[ɔɪ~oɪ] (listen)||boy, choice, moist|
- Raising of the start of the long i sound before voiceless consonants: The long i vowel (/aɪ/), as in pine or pie—pronounced [aɪ] (listen) in North America—has a starting sound (an "on-glide") in which the tongue is raised towards [ɐɪ] or [ʌ̈ɪ] whenever it appears before a voiceless consonant (such as /t, k, θ, s/, for instance, in pike or python). Because of this sound change, the words rider and writer (listen), for instance, remain distinct from one another by virtue of their difference in height (and length) of the diphthong's starting point, even though the letters d and t represent as alveolar flaps [ɾ]. The sound-change also applies across word boundaries, though the position of a word or phrase's stress may prevent the raising from taking place. For instance, a high school in the sense of "secondary school" is generally pronounced [ˈhɐɪskuɫ]; however, a high school in the literal sense of "a tall school" would be pronounced [ˌhaɪˈskuɫ].
- This sound change began in the Northern, New England, and Mid-Atlantic regions of the country, and is becoming more common. This is one of the two types of so-called Canadian raising, even though it occurs in the U.S. as well as in Canada.
|English diaphoneme||General American realization||Example words|
|/ɑːr/||[ɑɹ] (listen)||barn, car, park|
|/ɛər/||[ɛɹ] (listen)||bare, bear, there|
|/ɜːr/||[ɚ] (listen)||burn, doctor, first, |
herd, learn, murder
|/ɪər/||[iɹ~ɪɹ] (listen)||fear, peer, tier|
|/ɔːr/||[ɔɹ~oɹ] (listen)||horse, storm, war|
|hoarse, store, wore|
|/ʊər/||[ʊɹ~oɹ~ɔɹ] (listen)||moor, poor, tour|
|/jʊər/||[jʊɹ~jɚ] (listen)||cure, Europe, pure|
- Horse–hoarse merger (/ɔr/ + /oʊr/ → [ɔɹ]): As in most modern varieties of English around the world, words like war and wore are pronounced the same in General American English. Words with these r-colored vowels, such as north and horse, are usually transcribed /nɔrθ/ and /hɔrs/, but may be closer in General American English to [no̞ɹθ] and [ho̞ɹs]. In the cot–caught' merged varieties of General American, the [ɔ] before /r/ is therefore best analyzed as an allophone of /oʊ/.
- The vowel sounds of both /ɜr/ and /ər/ are neutralized, resulting in both pronounced as [ɚ] (listen); so the vowels in further /ˈfɜrðər/ are typically realized with the same segmental quality as [ˈfɚðɚ] (listen).
- "Short o" before r before a vowel: In typical North American accents (U.S. and Canada alike), the historical sequence /ɒr/ (a short o sound followed by r and then another vowel, as in orange, forest, moral, and warrant) is realized as [oɹ~ɔɹ], thus further merging with the already-merged /ɔr/–/oʊr/ (horse–hoarse) set. In the U.S., four words (tomorrow, sorry, sorrow, borrow and, for some speakers, morrow) usually contain the sound [ɑɹ] instead, and merge with the /ɑr/ set (thus, sorry and sari become homophones, both rhyming with starry).
|/ɑr/ and /ɔr/ followed by a vowel, compared with other dialectsGeneral American|
|Pronounced /ɒr/ in RP and /ɒr/ or /ɑr/ in eastern coastal American English||Pronounced /ɔːr/ in RP and /ɔr/ in eastern coastal American English|
|Pronounced /or/ in Canadian English|
|Pronounced /ɑr/ in General American||Pronounced /ɔr/ in General American|
|only these four or five words:
||Words containing /ɒr/ in RP:
||Words containing /ɔːr/ in RP:
- List of dialects of the English language
- List of English words from indigenous languages of the Americas
- Accent reduction
- African-American English
- American English
- California English
- Chicano English
- English phonology
- English spelling reform
- Hawaiian Pidgin
- Northern Cities Vowel Shift
- Received Pronunciation
- Regional vocabularies of American English
- Standard Written English
- Transatlantic accent
- Wells (1982), p. 470.
- Van Riper (2014), pp. 123.
- Kövecses, Zoltán (2000). American English. An Introduction. Peterborough, Canada: Broadview Press. pp. 81-2.
- Wells (1982), p. 34.
- Kortmann & Schneider (2004), p. 257.
- Van Riper (2014), pp. 128–9.
- Labov, William; Ash, Sharon; Boberg, Charles (1997). "A National Map of the Regional Dialects of American English" and "Map 1". Department of Linguistics, University of Pennsylvania. "The North Midland: Approximates the initial position|Absence of any marked features"; "On Map 1, there is no single defining feature of the North Midland given. In fact, the most characteristic sign of North Midland membership on this map is the small black dot that indicates a speaker with none of the defining features given"; "Map 1 shows Western New England as a residual area, surrounded by the marked patterns of Eastern New England, New York City, and the Inland North. [...] No clear pattern of sound change emerges from western New England in the Kurath and McDavid materials or in our present limited data."
- Clopper, Cynthia G., Susannah V. Levi, and David B. Pisoni (2006). "Perceptual Similarity of Regional Dialects of American English". The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 119.1. pp. 566–574. See also: map.
- Wells (1982), p. 118.
- Van Riper (2014), pp. 124, 126.
- Kortmann & Schneider (2004), p. 262.
- Labov, Ash & Boberg (2006), p. 263.
- Van Riper (2014), pp. 125–6.
- Boberg, Charles (2004). "Standard Canadian English". In Raymond Hickey. Standards of English: Codified Varieties Around the World. Cambridge University Press. p. 159.
- Wells (1982), p. 491.
- Van Riper (2014), p. 124.
- Van Riper (2014), p. 125.
- Labov, Ash & Boberg (2006), p. 146.
- Van Riper (2014), p. 130.
- Van Riper (2014), pp. 128, 130.
- Van Riper (2014), pp. 129–130.
- Labov, Ash & Boberg (2006), p. 268.
- Harbeck, James (2015). "Why is Canadian English unique?" BBC. BBC.
- Van Riper (2014), pp. 123, 129.
- Kortmann & Schneider (2004), p. 262: 'The term "General American" arose as a name for a presumed most common or "default" form of American English, especially to be distinguished from marked regional speech of New England or the South. "General American" has often been considered to be the relatively unmarked speech of "the Midwest", a vague designation for anywhere in the vast midsection of the country from Ohio west to Nebraska, and from the Canadian border as far south as Missouri or Kansas. No historical justification for this term exists, and neither do present circumstances support its use... [I]t implies that there is some exemplary state of American English from which other varieties deviate. On the contrary, [it] can best be characterized as what is left over after speakers suppress the regional and social features that have risen to salience and become noticeable.'
- : "Standard English may be taken to reflect conformance to a set of rules, but its meaning commonly gets bound up with social ideas about how one's character and education are displayed in one's speech".
- Labov, William (2012). Dialect diversity in America: The politics of language change. University of Virginia Press. pp. 1-2.
- Van Riper (2014), p. 129.
- Labov, Ash & Boberg (2006), p. 190.
- Bonfiglio (2002), p. 43.
- "Talking the Tawk". The New Yorker. Condé Nast. 2005.
- McWhorter, John H. (2001), Word on the Street: Debunking the Myth of a "Pure" Standard English, Basic Books[link to page: ]
- Kortmann & Schneider (2004), pp. 260-262.
- Bonfiglio (2002), pp. 69-70.
- Bonfiglio (2002), pp. 4, 97-98.
- Van Riper (2014), pp. 123, 128-130.
- Seabrook (2005).
- Hunt, Spencer (2012). "Dissecting Ohio's Dialects". The Columbus Dispatch. GateHouse Media, Inc.
- Hampton, Marian E. & Barbara Acker (eds.) (1997). The Vocal Vision: Views on Voice. Hal Leonard Corporation. p. 163.
- Fought, John G. (2005). "Rful Southern". Do You Speak American? MacNeil/Lehrer Productions.
- McWhorter, John H. (2001), Word on the Street: Debunking the Myth of a "Pure" Standard English, Basic Books[link to page: ]
- Gross, Terry (January 24, 2005), "A Fake Newsman's Fake Newsman: Stephen Colbert", Fresh Air, National Public Radio, retrieved 2007-07-11
- Safer, Morley (August 13, 2006), The Colbert Report: Morley Safer Profiles Comedy Central's 'Fake' Newsman, 60 Minutes, retrieved 2006-08-15
- Tsentserensky, Steve (2011-10-20). "You Know What The Midwest Is?". The News Burner. Retrieved 13 December 2018.
- Plag, Ingo; Braun, Maria; Lappe, Sabine; Schramm, Mareile (2009). Introduction to English Linguistics. Walter de Gruyter. p. 53. ISBN 978-3-11-021550-2. Retrieved 4 July 2013.
- Collins, Beverley; Mees, Inger M. (2002). The Phonetics of Dutch and English (PDF) (5 ed.). Leiden/Boston: Brill Publishers. p. 178.
- Hallé, Best & Levitt (1999:283) citing Delattre & Freeman (1968), Zawadzki & Kuehn (1980), and Boyce & Espy-Wilson (1997)
- Collins, Beverley; Mees, Inger M. (2002). The Phonetics of Dutch and English (PDF) (5 ed.). Leiden/Boston: Brill Publishers. pp. 181, 306.
- Wolchover, Natalie (2012). "Why Do Americans and Brits Have Different Accents?" LiveScience. Purch.
- Wells (1982), p. 247.
- Grzegorz Dogil; Susanne Maria Reiterer; Walter de Gruyter, eds. (2009). Language Talent and Brain Activity: Trends in Applied Linguistics. Walter de Gruyter GmbH. p. 299. ISBN 978-3-11-021549-6.
- Jones, Roach & Hartman (2006), p. xi.
- Wells (1982), pp. 120, 480–481.
- Wells (2008).
- Lindsey (1990).
- Wells (1982), pp. 476, 487.
- Wells (1982), p. 487.
- Wells (1982), p. 485.
- Wells (1982), p. 121.
- Wells (1982), pp. 480–1.
- Wells (1982), p. 132.
- Roca & Johnson (1999), p. 190.
- Labov, Ash & Boberg (2006), p. 144
- Kortmann & Schneider (2004), pp. 263–4.
- Labov et al. (2006), p. 180.
- Kortmann & Schneider (2004), pp. 315, 340.
- Wells (1982), p. 476.
- Wells (1982), p. 145.
- Heggarty, Paul; et al., eds. (2015). "Accents of English from Around the World". Retrieved 24 September 2016. See under "Std US + ‘up-speak’"
- Kortmann & Schneider (2004), p. 343.
- Labov, Ash & Boberg (2006), p. 104.
- Kortmann & Boberg (2004), pp. 154, 343, 361.
- Boberg, Charles (Spring 2001). "Phonological Status of Western New England". American Speech, Volume 76, Number 1. pp. 3-29 (Article). Duke University Press. p. 11: "The vowel /æ/ is generally tensed and raised [...] only before nasals, a raising environment for most speakers of North American English".
- Labov, William; Ash, Sharon; Boberg, Charles (2006). The Atlas of North American English. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. p. 182. ISBN 3-11-016746-8.
- Trager, George L. (1940) One Phonemic Entity Becomes Two: The Case of 'Short A' in American Speech: 3rd ed. Vol. 15: Duke UP. 256. Print.
- Labov (2006), p. 61.
- Vaux, Bert and Scott Golder (2003). "Do you pronounce 'cot' and 'çaught' the same?" The Harvard Dialect Survey. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Linguistics Department.
- Vaux, Bert and Scott Golder (2003). "How do you pronounce Mary / merry / marry?" The Harvard Dialect Survey. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Linguistics Department.
- Kortmann & Schneider (2004), p. 295.
- Vaux, Bert and Scott Golder (2003). "flourish Archived 2015-07-11 at the Wayback Machine". The Harvard Dialect Survey. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Linguistics Department.
- Vaux, Bert and Scott Golder (2003). "the first vowel in "miracle"". The Harvard Dialect Survey. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Linguistics Department.
- Wells (2008), p. xxi.
- Boberg, Charles (2010). The English Language in Canada: Status, History and Comparative Analysis. Cambridge University Press. p. 156. ISBN 978-1-139-49144-0.
- Labov et al. (2006:114): "where Canadian raising has traditionally been reported: Canada, Eastern New England, Philadelphia, and the North"
- Wells (1982), p. 479.
- Boyce, S.; Espy-Wilson, C. (1997). "Coarticulatory stability in American English /r/" (PDF). Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 101 (6): 3741–3753. Bibcode:1997ASAJ..101.3741B. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.16.4174. doi:10.1121/1.418333. PMID 9193061.
- Bonfiglio, Thomas Paul (2002). Race and the Rise of Standard American (17 ed.). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. ISBN 9783110171891.
- Delattre, P.; Freeman, D.C. (1968). "A dialect study of American R's by x-ray motion picture". Linguistics. 44: 29–68.
- Hallé, Pierre A.; Best, Catherine T.; Levitt, Andrea (1999). "Phonetic vs. phonological influences on French listeners' perception of American English approximants". Journal of Phonetics. 27 (3): 281–306. doi:10.1006/jpho.1999.0097.
- Jones, Daniel; Roach, Peter; Hartman, James (2006). Cambridge English Pronouncing Dictionary (17 ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Kortmann, Bernd; Schneider, Edgar W., eds. (2004). A Handbook of Varieties of English. Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter. ISBN 978-3-11-017532-5.
- Labov, William; Ash, Sharon; Boberg, Charles (2006). The Atlas of North American English. Berlin: Mouton-de Gruyter. pp. 187–208. ISBN 978-3-11-016746-7.
- Lindsey, Geoff (1990). "Quantity and quality in British and American vowel systems". In Ramsaran, Susan (ed.). Studies in the Pronunciation of English: A Commemorative Volume in Honour of A.C. Gimson. Routledge. pp. 106–118. ISBN 978-0-41507180-2.
- Mannell, R.; Cox, F.; Harrington, J. (2009a), An Introduction to Phonetics and Phonology, Macquarie University
- Roca, Iggy; Johnson, Wyn (1999). A Course in Phonology. Blackwell Publishing.
- Rogers, Henry (2000). The Sounds of Language: An Introduction to Phonetics. Essex: Pearson Education Limited. ISBN 978-0-582-38182-7.
- Seabrook, John (May 19, 2005). "The Academy: Talking the Tawk". The New Yorker. Retrieved 2008-05-14.
- Shitara, Yuko (1993). "A survey of American pronunciation preferences". Speech Hearing and Language. 7: 201–232.
- Silverstein, Bernard (1994). NTC's Dictionary of American English Pronunciation. Lincolnwood, Illinois: NTC Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-8442-0726-1.
- Thomas, Erik R. (2001). "An acoustic analysis of vowel variation in New World English". Publication of the American Dialect Society. 85. Duke University Press for the American Dialect Society. ISSN 0002-8207.
- Van Riper, William R. (2014) . "General American: An Ambiguity". In Allen, Harold B.; Linn, Michael D. (eds.). Dialect and Language Variation. Elsevier. ISBN 978-1-4832-9476-6.
- Wells, John C. (1982). Accents of English. Volume 1: An Introduction (pp. i–xx, 1–278), Volume 3: Beyond the British Isles (pp. i–xx, 467–674). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-52129719-2 , 0-52128541-0 .
- Wells, John C. (2008). Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (3rd ed.). Longman. ISBN 978-1-4058-8118-0.
- Zawadzki, P.A.; Kuehn, D.P. (1980). "A cineradiographic study of static and dynamic aspects of American English /r/". Phonetica. 37 (4): 253–266. doi:10.1159/000259995. PMID 7443796.
- The CMU Pronouncing Dictionary
- 'Hover & Hear' pronunciations in a General American accent, and compare side by side with other English accents from the US and around the World.
- Hollywords Audiovisual Industry Dictionary Project Style Guide (Includes pronunciation guides based on the American Broadcast English (ABE) accent)[permanent dead link]