General Behavior Inventory
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The General Behavior Inventory (GBI) is a 73-question psychological self-report assessment tool designed by Richard Depue[not in citation given] and colleagues to identify the presence and severity of manic and depressive moods in adults, as well as to assess for cyclothymia. It is one of the most widely used psychometric tests for measuring the severity of bipolar disorder and the fluctuation of symptoms over time. The GBI is intended to be administered for adult populations; however, it has been adapted into versions that allow for juvenile populations (for parents to rate their offspring), as well as a short version that allows for it to be used as a screening test.
- 1 Versions
- 2 Psychometric properties
- 3 Interpretation
- 4 Limitations
- 5 Mechanism
- 6 Research
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 External links
Parent GBI (P-GBI)
The P-GBI is an adaptation of the GBI, consisting of 73 Likert scale items rated on a scale from 0 ("Never or Hardly Ever") to 3 ("Very often or Almost Constantly"). It consists of two scales: a depressive symptoms (46 items) and a hypomanic/biphasic (mixed) symptoms (28 items).
Parent GBI-10-Item Mania Scale (PGBI-10M)
|Parent GBI-10-Item Mania Scale|
The PGBI-10M  is a brief (10-item) version of the PGBI that was validated for clinical use for patients presenting with a variety of different diagnoses, including frequent comorbid conditions. It is administered to parents for them to rate their children between ages 5–17. The 10 items include symptoms such as elated mood, high energy, irritability and rapid changes in mood and energy as indicators of potential juvenile bipolar disorder. The PhenX Toolkit uses this instrument as its child protocol for Hypomania/Mania Symptoms.
7 Up 7 Down Inventory (7U7D)
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The 7U7D  is a 14-item measure of manic and depressive tendencies that was carved from the full length GBI. This version is designed to be applicable for both youths and adults, and to improve separation between both mania and depressive conditions. It was developed via factor analysis from nine separate samples pooled into two age groups, ensuring applicability for use in youth and adults.
The GBI has been used extensively in research, including clinical samples, college students, longitudinal, treatment, and other studies. However, no normative data exist to calibrate scores in the general population.
The GBI has exceptionally high internal consistency because it has long scales with a large number of items. The GBI shows high reliability whether completed as a self report or as a caregiver report about youth behavior.
Retest reliability also is good over a week or two week period, although the GBI's length makes it tedious to complete frequently.
|Criterion||Rating||Explanation with references|
|Norms||Adequate||Multiple convenience samples and research studies, including both clinical and nonclinical samples|
|Internal consistency||Excellent; too good for some contexts||Cronbach's alphas routinely over .94 for both scales, suggesting that scales could be shortened for many uses|
|Inter-rater reliability||Not applicable||Designed originally as a self-report scale; parent and youth report correlate about the same as cross-informant scores correlate in general|
|Test-retest reliability (stability)||Good||r = .73 over 15 weeks. Evaluated in initial studies, with data also showing high stability in clinical trials|
|Repeatability||Not published||No published studies formally checking repeatability|
|Criterion||Rating||Explanation with references|
|Content validity||Excellent||Covers both DSM diagnostic symptoms and a range of associated features|
|Construct validity (e.g., predictive, concurrent, convergent, and discriminant validity)||Excellent||Shows convergent validity with other symptom scales, longitudinal prediction of development of mood disorders, criterion validity via metabolic markers and associations with family history of mood disorder. Factor structure complicated; the inclusion of “biphasic” or “mixed” mood items creates a lot of cross-loading|
|Discriminative validity||Excellent||Multiple studies show that GBI scores discriminate cases with unipolar and bipolar mood disorders from other clinical disorders effect sizes are among the largest of existing scales|
|Validity generalization||Good||Used both as self-report and caregiver report; used in college student as well as outpatient and inpatient clinical samples; translated into multiple languages with good reliability|
|Treatment sensitivity||Good||Multiple studies show sensitivity to treatment effects comparable to using interviews by trained raters, including placebo-controlled, masked assignment trials Short forms appear to retain sensitivity to treatment effects while substantially reducing burden|
|Clinical utility||Good||Free (public domain), strong psychometrics, extensive research base. Biggest concerns are length and reading level. Short forms have less research, but are appealing based on reduced burden and promising data|
The current[when?] GBI questionnaire includes 73 Likert-type items which reflect symptoms of different moods. The original version of the GBI used case scoring where items were given values ranging from 1-4. Symptoms that were rated as 1 or 2 were considered to be absent and symptoms rated as 3 or 4 were considered to be present. However, if each item were to receive one of four scores, the authors of the GBI decided Likert scaling would be a better scoring option. The items on the GBI are now scaled from 0-3 rated as 0 (never or hardly ever present), 1 (sometimes present), 2 (often present), and 3 (very often or almost constantly present).
For the PGBI-10M, the scores from each question are added together to form a total score, with higher scores indicating a greater severity of symptoms. Scores range from 0 to 30. Low scores of 5 and below indicate a very low risk of a bipolar diagnosis. High scores of 18 and over indicate a high risk of a diagnosis of bipolar disorder, increasing the likelihood by a factor of seven or greater. Several peer-reviewed research studies support the P-GBI as a reliable and valid measure of bipolar in children and adolescents. It is recommended to be used as part of an assessment battery in the diagnosis of juvenile bipolar disorder.
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The GBI is free for use clinically and in research. The reading level and length make it challenging for some people to complete. Being a self-report questionnaire, the GBI is not known to have any adverse effects on patients beyond the potential of causing minor distress.
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The GBI takes about 10 to 30 minutes to complete, and it has a 12th grade reading level.
Shorter versions of the GBI have been validated for research and clinical use. For instance, the PGBI-10M is currently[when?] being tested as part of a large longitudinal study investigating the course of early symptoms of mania in children, with preliminary studies indicating its clinical efficacy in differentiating juvenile bipolar disorder from youth with other diagnoses.
- List of articles that have the PGBI-10M
- Society of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
- Diagnostic classification and rating scales used in psychiatry
- Rating scales for depression
- Bipolar disorder
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