General Certificate of Education
The General Certificate of Education (GCE) is a subject specific family of academic qualifications that awarding bodies in England, Wales, Northern Ireland, Crown dependencies and a few Commonwealth countries, notably Sri Lanka and Singapore, confer on students. (The Scottish education system is distinctly different from those in the other countries of the United Kingdom). The GCE traditionally comprised three levels: the Ordinary Level (O Level), the Advanced Level (A Level), and the Scholarship / Special / S-Level / Advanced Extension Award (AEA) (withdrawn in August 2009). In 1989 the Advanced Supplementary Level (AS Level) was introduced to complement the A-level, this was replaced in 2000 by the more accessible Advanced Subsidiary Level (A1 / AS Level).
The General Certificate of Education Advanced Level (GCE A Levels) is an entry qualification for universities in the United Kingdom and worldwide. The US equivalent for that purpose would be the High School Diploma. However, in England and Wales, the high school diploma is considered to be at the level of the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE), which is awarded at Year 11. For college and university admissions, the high school diploma may be accepted in lieu of the GCSE if an average grade of C is obtained in subjects with a GCSE counterpart.
As the more academically rigorous A Levels awarded at Year 13 are expected for university admission, the high school diploma alone is generally not considered to meet university requirements. Students who wish to study in the United Kingdom may additionally participate in the Advanced Placement (AP) or International Baccalaureate (IB) programs, which are considered to be at the level of the A Level qualifications and earn points on the UCAS Tariff, or may opt to take A Level examinations in British international schools or as private candidates. College Entrance Examination Board (CEEB) tests, such as the SAT, SAT Subject Tests, or the ACT, may also be considered.
The Universities and Colleges Admissions Service (UCAS) recommends that in addition to a high school diploma, grades of 3 or above in at least two, or ideally three, Advanced Placement exams may be considered as meeting general entry requirements for admission. The IB Diploma may also be accepted. For the College Entrance Examination Board tests, a minimum score of 600 or higher in all sections of the SAT or a minimum score of 26 or higher in all sections of the ACT along with a minimum score of 600 in relevant SAT Subject Tests may be considered as meeting general entry requirements for admission.
The GCE was first examined in England, Wales and Northern Ireland in 1951. It was intended to cater for the increased range of subjects available to pupils since the raising of the school leaving age from 14 to 15 in 1947. The examinations were graded into ordinary levels for the top 25% academically of 16-year-olds. A-Levels were the subsequent examination for those who studied for a further two years after O-Levels (GCEs). These were often in addition to O-Levels in subjects that the student was particularly adept at.
Letter grades are used with A, B, C, D and E representing a pass and U (unclassified) representing a fail. The A* grade was introduced in 2010 (GCSE, the replacement of GCE and CSE ) for students who achieve 80% and above in the overall A-Level qualification and achieve 90% and over in all A2 (this applies to GCSE and not GCE but may apply to CSE) modules.
Up to now, most schools in Brunei are under GCE, the levels are of O-level, A-level, and AS-level. Examinations are conducted by the Examinations Department of Brunei Darussalam.
The final test of Hong Kong Certificate of Education Examination (HKCEE) and Hong Kong Advanced Level Examination (HKALE),was held respectively in the year of 2010 and 2012. Hong Kong Diploma of Secondary Education (HKDSE) replaced the 2 exam by only having 1 public exam in High school year 3(year12). English Schools Foundation (though scome schools are also adopting the IB Diploma program).
GCE examinations in Malaysia were used to be conducted by the [University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate], when two agencies of the Malaysian Ministry of Education took over the role with UCLES retaining an advisory role on standards.
The GCE O-Level equivalent is the Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia (SPM, formerly known in English as the Malaysian Certificate of Education (MCE)), conducted by the Lembaga Peperiksaan Malaysia (LPM, the Malaysian Examinations Syndicate). The SPM is taken by all fifth-year secondary school students in Malaysia. The SPM English Language paper is graded separately by the LPM and by UCLES (which still awards a GCE O-Level for the paper), and both grades are displayed on the results slip.
The GCE A-Level equivalent is the Sijil Tinggi Persekolahan Malaysia (STPM, formerly known in English as the Malaysian Higher School Certificate (HSC)), conducted by the Majlis Peperiksaan Malaysia (MPM, the Malaysian Examinations Council). The STPM is taken by students after a two-year sixth form course. The STPM is accepted for admission to universities worldwide.
Pakistan also runs the GCE education level. Some of Pakistan's top schools offers this course. A Pakistani student currently holds the world record for attaining the highest number of "As" in A-Level. Ali Moeen Nawazish scored 21 As in GCE Advanced Level. Another student, Syed Zohaib Asad holds the current world record for 28 As in GCE Ordinary Level. Pakistani student Haroon Tariq also holds the world record for most As (47) in O-A levels.
Students take the O-Levels after completing Secondary 4 at age 16 for the Special and Express streams, or Secondary 5 at age 17 for the Normal streams. After that, they have the option to go on to a junior college for two years in preparation for the A-Levels or study a vocational trade and earn a diploma at a polytechnic or technical school. Increasingly, students who perform well in school are given the option to bypass the O-levels and take the A-Levels, in a scheme dubbed the integrated programme (also known as the through-train programme).
In Sri Lanka GCE Ordinary Level and GCE Advanced Level examinations are conducted by the Department of Examinations of the Government of Sri Lanka. The GCE(O/L) is normally conducted in the month of December and GCE (A/L)s are conducted in the month of August. They are conducted on an island-wide examination centres on same time. Examination entrance is restricted by a minimal number of formal school going years and laboratory field work. The majority of candidates enter the exams via their respective schools, while candidates who have finished school education can also apply as a private candidate.
The O/L examination is regarded as the qualification examination for starting on GCE(A/L). Specialization streaming is depended on the grades obtained for subjects in the O/L. The country's reputed schools admit students to their A/L, depending on the O/L grades.
The Sri Lankan University Grants commission determines the cut-off points for the selection of students to the Sri Lankan universities according to the grade points obtained in the A/L examinations based on the standard normal distribution.
Bangladesh also has the GCE A-Level and GCE O-Level. There are many schools which follow the British Curriculum.
In Cameroon, the GCE Ordinary Level examination is a 3-year course program starting from Form 3 to Form 5 (Years 9 to 11). It is usually written in Form 5 (Year 11) in Secondary schools, meanwhile the GCE Advanced Level examinations are written in Upper 6 (Year 13) in High school. Most Secondary schools in Cameroon which do the English form of education and write both the GCE A-Level and O-Level examinations are boarding schools. The gce saw changes in syllabus content at the ordinary and advanced levels in some science subjects in order to adapt to the world's advancing school program.
During Easter break around March, students in these boarding schools stay for GCE courses for a week and a few days in school for extra classes in order to cover up their syllabus. At the end of the school year, all students in other classes except the GCE candidates leave and they stay for their Revisions and preparation towards the upcoming exams in Late-May. Once the candidates finish writing in early June, they all return to their various homes, waiting to hear their results. The same thing applies for GCE candidates in day schools. The results for the GCE O-Level and A-level exams in Cameroon are announced around mid-July.
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- "UCAS Tariff Tables".
- "The University Admissions Policy For Local Candidates". University Grants Commission - Sri Lanka. UGC. Archived from the original on 2 June 2007. Retrieved 11 June 2007.