General Electric LM2500
|An LM2500 on USS Ford (FFG-54)|
|Type||Aeroderivative gas turbine|
|National origin||United States|
|Developed from||General Electric CF6|
As of 2004, the U.S. Navy and at least 29 other navies had used a total of more than one thousand LM2500/LM2500+ gas turbines to power warships. Other uses include hydrofoils, hovercraft and fast ferries.
In 2012, GE developed an FPSO version to serve the oil and gas industry's demand for a lighter, more compact version to generate electricity and drive compressors to send natural gas through pipelines.
Design and development
The LM2500 was first used on the US Navy GTS Admiral W. M. Callaghan in 1969, after the original FT-4 gas turbines experienced many technical problems. Later, they were used in US Navy warships in the Spruance class class of destroyers and the related Kidd class, which were constructed from 1970. In this configuration it was rated to 21,500 shp (16,000 kW). This configuration was subsequently used into the 1980s in the Oliver Hazard Perry-class frigates, and Ticonderoga-class cruisers. It was also used by one of People's Republic of China's Type 052 Luhu Class Missile Destroyer (Harbin 112) acquired before the embargo.
The LM2500 was uprated to 26,500 shp (19,800 kW) for the Arleigh Burke-class destroyers, which were initiated in the 1980s and started to see service in the early 1990s, and the T-AOE-6 class of fast combat tanker.
In 2001 the LM2500 (20 MW) was installed in a sound-proof capsule in the South African Navy Valour class (Meko A-200 SAN) frigates as part of a CODAG propulsion system with two MTU 16V 1163 TB93 Propulsion Diesels.
The current generation was uprated in the late 1990s to over 30,000 shp (22,000 kW).
LM2500 installations place the engine inside a metal container for sound and heat isolation from the rest of the machinery spaces. This container is very near the size of a standard 40-foot (12 m) intermodal shipping container – but not the same, the engine size very slightly exceeds those dimensions. The air intake ducting may be designed and shaped appropriately for easy removal of the LM2500 from their ships.
The LM2500+ is an evolution of the LM2500, delivering up to 40,200 shp (30,000 kW) or 28.6 MW of electric energy when combined with an electrical generator. Two of such turbo-generators have been installed in the superstructure near the funnel of Queen Mary 2, the world's largest transatlantic ocean liner, for additional electric energy when the ship's four diesel-generators are working at maximum capacity or fail. Celebrity Cruises uses two LM2500+ engines in their Millennium-class cruise ships in a COGAS cycle.
- Italian aircraft carrier Cavour (C 550) (Italian Navy)
- HTMS Chakri Naruebet (Royal Thai Navy)
- Spanish aircraft carrier Príncipe de Asturias (Spanish Navy)
- INS Vikrant (Indian Navy)
- America-class amphibious assault ship (United States Navy)
- Canberra-class landing helicopter dock (Royal Australian Navy)
- Spanish ship Juan Carlos I (L61) (Spanish Navy)
- USS Makin Island (LHD-8) (United States Navy)
- Ticonderoga-class cruiser (United States Navy)
- Arleigh Burke-class destroyer (United States Navy)
- Hobart-class destroyer (Royal Australian Navy)
- Atago-class destroyer (Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force)
- Durand de la Penne-class destroyer (Italian Navy)
- Gwanggaeto the Great-class destroyer (Republic of Korea Navy)
- Kidd-class destroyer (Republic of China Navy)
- Sejong the Great-class destroyer (Republic of Korea Navy)
- Kongō-class destroyer (Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force)
- Spruance-class destroyer (United States Navy)
- Type 052 destroyer (People's Liberation Army Navy)
- Adelaide-class frigate (Royal Australian Navy)
- Álvaro de Bazán-class frigate (Spanish Navy)
- Anzac-class frigate (Royal Australian Navy, Royal New Zealand Navy)
- Baden-Württemberg-class frigate (German Navy)
- Barbaros-class frigate (Turkish Navy)
- Brandenburg-class frigate (German Navy)
- Bremen-class frigate (German Navy)
- Cheng Kung-class frigate (Republic of China Navy)
- Constellation-class frigate (United States Navy)
- FREMM multipurpose frigate (French Navy, Italian Navy, Royal Moroccan Navy)
- Fridtjof Nansen-class frigate (Royal Norwegian Navy)
- Halifax-class frigate (Royal Canadian Navy)
- Horizon-class frigate (French Navy, Italian Navy)
- Hydra-class frigate (Hellenic Navy)
- Jinnah-class frigate (Pakistan Navy)
- Naresuan-class frigate (Royal Thai Navy)
- Nilgiri-class frigate (Indian Navy)
- Oliver Hazard Perry-class frigate (United States Navy)
- Sachsen-class frigate (German Navy)
- Santa María-class frigate (Spanish Navy)
- Shivalik-class frigate (Indian Navy)
- Valour-class frigate (South African Navy)
- Vasco da Gama-class frigate (Portuguese Navy)
- Ulsan-class frigate (Republic of Korea Navy)
- Supply-class fast combat support ship (United States Navy)
- Watson-class vehicle cargo ship (United States Navy)
- Independence-class littoral combat ship (United States Navy)
- Pohjanmaa-class corvette (Finnish Navy)
- Ada-class corvette (Turkish Navy)
- Niels Juel-class corvette (Royal Danish Navy)
- Sa'ar 5-class corvette (Israeli Navy)
- BRP Conrado Yap (PS-39) (Philippine Navy)
- Inhauma-class corvette (Brazilian Navy)
- Pegasus-class hydrofoil (United States Navy)
The LM2500 is available in 3 different versions:
- The LM2500 delivers 33,600 shp (25,100 kW) with a thermal efficiency of 37 percent at ISO conditions. When coupled with an electric generator, it delivers 24 MW of electricity at 60 Hz with a thermal efficiency of 36 percent at ISO conditions.
- The improved, 3rd generation, LM2500+ version of the turbine delivers 40,500 shp (30,200 kW) with a thermal efficiency of 39 percent at ISO conditions. When coupled with an electric generator, it delivers 29 MW of electricity at 60 Hz with a thermal efficiency of 38 percent at ISO conditions.
- The latest, 4th generation, LM2500+G4 version was introduced in November 2005 and delivers 47,370 shp (35,320 kW) with a thermal efficiency of 39.3 percent at ISO conditions.
- The GE TM2500 is derived from the LM2500, and mounted on a trailer that makes it possible to move it to wherever 30 MW of temporary electricity generation is required. It can be installed and commissioned in 11 days.
The basic LM2500 has a single shaft gas generator derived from the CF6, comprising a 16 stage compressor driven by a two stage air-cooled HP turbine. The combustion chamber is annular. Shaft power is generated by a 6-stage power turbine mounted in the gas generator exhaust stream Additional power is obtained from the LM2500+ by the addition of a zero stage to the compressor, making 17 stages in all. Specifications for three models of LM2500 series gas turbine engines:
|Output||33,600 shp (25,060 kW)||40,500 shp (30,200 kW)||47,370 shp (35,320 kW)|
|Fuel consumption||0.373 lb/shp-hr (227 g/kW-hr)||0.354 lb/shp-hr (215 g/kW-hr)||0.325 lb/shp-hr (214 g/kW-hr)|
|Heat rate||6,860 Btu/shp-hr (9,705 kJ/kW-hr)||6,522 Btu/shp-hr (9,227 kJ/kW-hr)||6,469 Btu/shp-hr (9,150 kJ/kW-hr)|
|Exhaust gas flow||155 lb/s (70.5 kg/s)||189 lb/s (85.9 kg/s)||205 lb/s (93 kg/s)|
|Exhaust gas temperature||1,051⁰F (566°C)||965⁰F (518°C)||1,020⁰F (549°C)|
|Turbine speed (rpm)||3,600||3,600||3,600|
|Weight||4.7 ton||5.25 ton||5.25 ton|
- "GE Marine to Supply IHI with LM2500 Gas Turbines to Power Japan's 15DDG AEGIS Destroyer" (Press release). GE Aviation. 6 May 2004. Archived from the original on 17 October 2006.
- "From aircraft to blowout preventer, GE's global technology cross-pollinates". World Oil Online. 10 September 2012. Archived from the original on 14 March 2014. Retrieved 10 September 2012.
- "GTS Admiral W.M. Callaghan | MARAD". www.maritime.dot.gov. Retrieved 11 August 2020.
- GE Marine Solutions Military page
- "LM2500 Marine Gas Turbine Data Sheet" (PDF). GE Aviation. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 September 2012. Retrieved 4 January 2014.
- "LM2500+ Marine Gas Turbine Data Sheet" (PDF). GE Aviation. Archived from the original on 29 July 2012.CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
- Ramsdal, Roald (27 October 2014). "På disse plattformene fyrer de minst for måkene". Teknisk Ukeblad. Archived from the original on 28 October 2014.
- "LM2500+G4 Marine Gas Turbine Data Sheet" (PDF). GE Aviation. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 March 2014. Retrieved 27 July 2012.
- "GE TM2500 Gas Turbine". VBR Turbine Partners. Retrieved 30 August 2019.
- "Mobile Aeroderivative Gas Turbine TM2500". general Electric. Retrieved 30 August 2019.
- "LM2500". Archived from the original on 13 May 2016. Retrieved 16 May 2016.
- "LM2500 engine" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 22 October 2016. Retrieved 16 May 2016.
- "LM2500 series gas turbine engine". Archived from the original on 25 March 2016. Retrieved 16 May 2016.
- "LM2500+". Archived from the original on 14 May 2016. Retrieved 16 May 2016.
- "LM2500+ engine" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 22 October 2016. Retrieved 16 May 2016.
- "LM2500+G4". Archived from the original on 14 May 2016. Retrieved 16 May 2016.
- "LM2500+G4 engine" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 10 January 2017. Retrieved 16 May 2016.
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