General History of Africa

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The General History of Africa (GHA) is a two-phase project launched by UNESCO in 1964.[1] The 1964 General Conference of UNESCO, during its 13th Session, instructed the Organization to undertake this initiative after the newly independent African Member States expressed a strong desire to reclaim their cultural identity, to rectify widespread ignorance about their Continent's history, and to break free of discriminatory prejudices. Phase One, which began in 1964 and was completed in 1999, consisted of writing and publishing eight volumes which highlight the shared heritage of the peoples of Africa. Phase Two, which began in 2009, focuses on the elaboration of history curricula and pedagogical materials for primary and secondary schools on the basis of the eight volumes of the GHA. Phase Two also focuses on the promotion of the use and harmonization of the teaching of this collection in higher education institutions throughout the Continent. Phase Two also concerns the implementation of these materials in schools in Africa and the diaspora. The objective of both Phase One and Phase Two of the project is to re-appropriate the interpretation and writing of African histories and to demonstrate the contribution of African cultures past and present to the history of humanity at large.

General History of Africa (in Portuguese).

Volumes and contributors[edit]

Volume 1: Methodology and African Historiography (1981)[edit]

Chapter No. Chapter Title[2] Author (and Nationality)[2]
General Introduction Joseph Ki-Zerbo (Burkina Faso)[nb 1]
1 The development of African historiography John Donnelly Fage (U.K.)
2 The place of history in African society Boubou Hama (Niger) and Joseph Ki-Zerbo (Burkina Faso)
3 Recent trends in African historiography and their contribution to history in general Philip Dearmond Curtin (U.S.A.)
4 Sources and specific techniques used in African history: general outline Théophile Obenga (Republic of the Congo)
5 Written sources before the fifteenth century Hichem Djait (Tunisia)
6 Written sources from the fifteenth century onwards Ivan Hrbek [cs] (Czech Republic)[nb 2]
7 Oral tradition and its methodology Jan Vansina (Belgium)
8 The living tradition Amadou Hampâté Bâ (Mali)
9 African archeology and its techniques including dating techniques Zaky Iskander (Egypt)
10 History and linguistics Pathé Diagne (Senegal)
Editorial Note: Theories on the 'races' and history of Africa Joseph Ki-Zerbo (Burkina Faso)
11 Migrations and ethnic and linguistic differentiations Dmitri Olderogge (Russia)[nb 3]
12 African linguistic classification Joseph Harold Greenberg (U.S.A.)
Appendix to Chapter 12: The language map of Africa David Dalby (U.K.)
13 Historical geography: physical aspects Sékouba Diarra (Mali)
14 Historical geography: economic aspects Akin Ladipo Mabogunje (Nigeria)
15 The interdisciplinary methods adopted in this study Joseph Ki-Zerbo (Burkina Faso)
16 Chronological framework: African pluvial and glacial epochs Rushdi Said (Egypt) and Hugues Faure (France)
17 Homonization: General problems Yves Coppens (France) and Lionel Balout (France)
18 African fossil man Richard Leakey (Kenya)[nb 4]
19 The prehistory of East Africa John Edward Giles Sutton (U.K.)
20 The prehistory of Southern Africa John Desmond Clark (U.S.A.)
21 The prehistory of Central Africa Roger de Bayle des Hermens (France) and Francis Van Noten (Belgium) with Pierre de Maret (Belgium), Jan Moeyersons (Belgium), K. Muya and Emile Roche (France)
22 The prehistory of North Africa Lionel Balout (France)
23 The prehistory of the Sahara Henri Jean Hougot (France)
24 The prehistory of West Africa Charles Thurstan Shaw (U.K.)
25 The prehistory of the Nile Valley Fernand Debono (U.K.)
26 African prehistoric art Joseph Ki-Zerbo (Burkina Faso)
27 The origins, development and expansion of agricultural techniques Roland Portères [fr] (France) and Jacques Barrau (France)
28 Discovery and diffusion of metals and the development of social systems until the fifth century before the Christian era Jean Vercoutter (France)
Conclusion: From nature in the raw to liberated humanity Joseph Ki-Zerbo (Burkina Faso)

Volume 2: Ancient Civilizations of Africa (1981)[edit]

Chapter No. Chapter Title[3] Author (and Nationality)[3]
Introduction Gamal Eddin Mokhtar (Egypt) with Jean Vercoutter (France)
1 Origin of the Ancient Egyptians Cheikh Anta Diop (Senegal)
[nb 5] Annex to Chapter 1: Report on the symposium on 'The Peopling of Ancient Egypt and the Deciphering of the Meroitic Script' (Cairo, 28 January-3 February 1974)
2 Pharaonic Egypt Abdel Moneim Abu Bakr (Egypt)
3 Pharaonic Egypt: society, economy and culture Jean Yoyotte (France)
4 Egypt's relations with the rest of Africa Abd el Hamid Zayid (Egypt) with Jean Devisse [fr] (France)
5 The legacy of Pharaonic Egypt Rashid El Nadoury (Egypt) with Jean Vercoutter (France)
6 Egypt in the Hellenistic era Henry Riad (Egypt) with Jean Devisse [fr] (France)
7 Egypt under Roman domination Sergio Donadoni (Italy)
8 The importance of Nubia: a link between Central Africa and the Mediterranean S. Adam (Egypt) with Jean Vercoutter (France)
9 Nubia before Napata (-3100 to -750) Negm-el-Din Mohammed Sherif (Sudan)
10 The Empire of Kush: Napata and Meroë Jean Leclant (France)
11 The civilization of Napata and Meroë Ahmed Ali Hakem (Sudan) with Ivan Hrbek [cs] (Czech Republic) and Jean Vercoutter (France)
12 The spreading of Christianity in Nubia Kazimierz Michałowski (Poland)
13 Pre-Axumite culture H. de Contension (France)
14 The civilization of Axum from the first to the seventh century Francis Anfray (France)
15 Axum: political system, economics and culture, first to fourth century Yuri Mikhailovich Kobishanov (Russia)[nb 6]
16 Christian Axum Tekle Tsadik Mekouria (Ethiopia)
17 The proto-Berbers Jehan Desanges (France)
18 The Carthaginian period Brian Herbert Warmington (U.K.)
19 The Roman and post-Roman period in North Africa Ammar Mahjoubi [fr] (Tunisia) and Pierre Salama (France)[nb 7]
20 The Sahara in classical antiquity Pierre Salama (France)
21 Introduction to the later prehistory of Sub-Saharan Africa Merrick Posnansky (U.K.)
22 The East African coast and its role in maritime trade Abdul Sheriff (Tanzania)
23 East Africa before the seventh century John Edward Giles Sutton (U.K.)
24 West Africa before the seventh century Bassey Wai-Andah (Nigeria)
25 Central Africa Francis Van Noten (Belgium) with Daniel Cahen (Belgium) and Pierre de Maret (Belgium)
26 Southern Africa: hunters and food-gatherers John Parkington (U.K.)
27 The beginnings of the Iron Age in Southern Africa David Walter Phillipson (U.K.)
28 Madagascar Pierre Vérin [fr] (France)
29 The societies of Africa south of the Sahara in the Early Iron Age Merrick Posnansky (U.K.)
Conclusion Gamal Eddin Mokhtar (Egypt)

Volume 3: Africa from the Seventh to the Eleventh Century (1988)[edit]

Chapter No. Chapter Title[8] Author (and Nationality)[8]
1 Africa in the context of world history Ivan Hrbek [cs] (Czech Republic)
2 The coming of Islam and the expansion of the Muslim empire Muhammad al-Fasi (Morocco) and Ivan Hrbek [cs] (Czech Republic)
3 Stages in the development of Islam and its dissemination in Africa
4 Islam as a social system in Africa since the seventh century Zakari Dramani-Issifou [fr] (Benin)
5 The peoples of the Sudan: Population movements Francois de Medeiros (Benin)
6 The Bantu-speaking peoples and their expansion Samwiri Lwanga-Lunyiigo (Uganda) and Jan Vansina (Belgium)
7 Egypt from the Arab conquest until the end of the Fatimid state (1171) Thierry Bianquis (France)
8 Christian Nubia at the height of its civilization Stefan Jakobielski (Poland)
9 The conquest of North Africa and the Berber resistance H. Mones (Egypt)
10 The independence of the Maghrib Mohamed Talbi (Tunisia)
11 The role of the Sahara and Saharians in relationships between North and South Tadeusz Lewicki [pl] (Poland)
12 The emergence of the Fatimids Ivan Hrbek [cs] (Czech Republic)
13 The Almovarids Ivan Hrbek [cs] (Czech Republic) and Jean Devisse [fr] (France)
14 Trade and trade routes in West Africa Jean Devisse [fr] (France)
15 The Chad region as a crossroads Dierk Lange (Germany) and Bawuro Barkindo (Nigeria)
16 The Guinea zone: General situation Thurston Shaw (U.K.)
17 The Guinean belt: The peoples between Mount Cameroon and the Ivory Coast Bassey Wai Andah (Nigeria) with James Anquandah (Ghana)
18 The peoples of Upper Guinea (between Ivory Coast and the Casamance) Bassey Wai Andah (Nigeria)
19 The Horn of Africa Tekle-Tsadik Mekouria (Ethiopia)
20 Ethiopia's relations with the Muslim world Enrico Cerulli (Italy)
21 The East African coast and the Comoro Islands Fidelis T. Masao (Tanzania) and Henry W. Mutoro (Kenya)
22 The East African interior Christopher Ehret (U.S.A.)
23 Central Africa to the north of the Zambezi David Walter Phillipson (U.K.)
24 Southern Africa to the south of the Zambezi Thomas N. Huffman (U.S.A.)
25 Madagascar Madame Bakoly Domenichini-Ramiaramanana (Madagascar)
26 The African diaspora in Asia Yusof Talib (Singapore) with F. El-Samir (Iraq)
27 Relations between different regions of Africa Abdoulaye Bathily (Senegal) with Claude Meillassoux (France)
28 Africa from the seventh to the eleventh century: Five formative centuries Jean Devisse [fr] (France) and Jan Vansina (Belgium)

Volume 4: Africa from the Twelfth to the Sixteenth Century (1984)[edit]

Chapter No. Chapter Title[9] Author (and Nationality)[9]
1 Introduction Djibril Tamsir Niane (Guinea)[nb 8]
2 The unification of the Maghreb under the Alhomads O. Saidi (Tunisia)
3 The spread of civilization in the Maghreb and its impact on Western civilization Mohamed Talbi (Tunisia)
4 The disintrigation of the political unity of the Maghreb Ivan Hrbek [cs] (Czech Republic)
5 Society in the Maghrib after the disappearance of the Alhomads R. Idris (France)
6 Mali and the second Mandigo expansion Djibril Tamsir Niane (Guinea)
7 The decline of the Mali empire Madina Ly-Tall (Mali)
8 The Songhay from the 12th to the 16th century Sékéné Mody Cissoko (Senegal)
9 The peoples and kingdoms of the Niger Bend and the Volta basin from the 12th to 16th century Michel Izard (France)
10 The kingdoms and peoples of Chad Dierk Lange (Germany)
11 The Hausa and their neighbours in central Sudan Mahdi Adamu (Nigeria) with André Salifou (Niger)
12 The coastal peoples: From Casamance to the Ivory Coast lagoons Yves Person (France)
13 From the Ivory coast lagoons to the Volta Pierre Kipré (Ivory Coast)
14 From the Volta to the Cameroon Alan Frederick Charles Ryder (U.K.)
15 Egypt and the Muslim world Jean-Claude Garcin [fr] (France)
16 Nubia from the late 12th century to the Funj conquest in the early 15th century Luboš Kropáček [cs] (Czech Republic)
17 The Horn of Africa: The Solomonids in Ethiopia and the states of the Horn of Africa Taddesse Tamrat (Ethiopia)
18 The development of Swahili civlization Victor V. Matveiev (U.S.S.R.)
19 Between the coast and the great lakes Christopher Ehret (U.S.A.)
20 The Great Lakes region Bethwell Allan Ogot (Kenya)
21 The Zambezi and Limpopo basins: 1100-1500 Brian Murray Fagan (U.K.)
22 Equatorial Africa and Angola: Migrations and the emergence of the first states Jan Vansina (Belgium)
23 Southern Africa: Its peoples and social structures Leonard Diniso Ngcongco (Botswana) with Jan Vansina (Belgium)
24 Madagascar and the neighbouring islands from the 12th to the 16th century Faranirina Esoavelomandroso (Madgascar)
25 Relationships and exchanges among the different groups Djibril Tamsir Niane (Guinea)
26 Africa in inter-continental relations Jean Devisse [fr] (France) with S. Labib (Egypt)
27 Conclusion Djibril Tamsir Niane (Guinea)

Volume 5: Africa from the Sixteenth to the Eighteenth Century (1992)[edit]

Chapter No. Chapter Title[10] Author (and Nationality)[10]
1 The struggle for international trade and its implications for Africa Marian Małowist [pl] (Poland)
2 African political, economic and social structures during this period Pathé Diagne (Senegal)
3 Population movements and the emergence of new social-political forms in Africa Jan Vansina (Belgium)
4 Africa in world history: the export slave trade from Africa and the emergence of an Atlantic economic order Joseph E. Inikori (Nigeria)
5 The African diaspora in the old and new worlds Joseph E. Harris (U.S.A.)
6 The Ottoman conquest of Egypt Rudolf Vesely (Czechoslovakia)
7 The Sudan, 1500-1800 Yusuf Fadl Hasan (Sudan) and Bethwell Allan Ogot (Kenya)
8 Morocco Mohammad El Fasi (Morocco)
9 Algeria, Tunisia and Libya: The Ottomans and their heirs Mohamed Hédi Chérif (Tunisia)
10 Senegambia from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century: evolution of the Wolof, Sereer and Tukuloor Boubacar Barry (Senegal)
11 The end of the Songhay empire Michel Abitbol (Israel)
12 From the Niger to the Volta Michel Izard [fr] (France) and Joseph Ki-Zerbo (Burkina Faso)
13 The states and cultures of the Upper Guinea coast Christophe Wondji (Ivory Coast)
14 The states and cultures of the Lower Guinea coast Albert Adu Boahen (Ghana)
15 Fon and Yoruba: the Niger delta and Cameroon Ebiegberi Joe Alagoa (Nigeria)
16 The Hausa states Diouldé Laya (Niger)
17 Kanem-Borno: its relations with the Meditteranean sea, Bagirmi and other states in the Chad basin Bawuro M. Barkindo (Nigeria)
18 From the Cameroon grasslands to the Upper Nile Elikia M'Bokolo [fr] (Democratic Republic of Congo)[nb 9]
19 The Kongo kingdom and its neighbours Jan Vansina (Belgium) based on a contribution by Theophile Obenga (Republic of Congo)
20 The political system of the Luba and Lunda: its emergence and expansion Isidore Ndaywel è Nziem (Democratic Republic of Congo)[nb 10]
21 The northern Zambezia-Lake Malawi region Kings Mbacazwa Phiri (Malawi), Owen J. M. Kalinga (Malawi) and Hoyini H. K. Bhila (Zimbabwe)
22 Southern Zambezia Hoyini H. K. Bhila (Zimbabwe)
23 Southern Africa Donald Denoon (U.K.)
24 The Horn of Africa Eike Haberland (Germany)
25 East Africa: The coast Ahmed Idha Salim (Kenya)
26 The Great Lakes region: 1500-1800 James Bertin Webster (Canada), Bethwell Allan Ogot (Kenya) and Jean-Pierre Chrétien [fr] (France)
27 The interior of East Africa: The peoples of Kenya and Tanzania, 1500-1800 William Robert Ochieng (Kenya)
28 Madagascar and the islands of the Indian Ocean Raymond K. Kent (U.S.A.)
29 The historical development of African societies, 1500-1800: Conclusion Bethwell Allan Ogot (Kenya)

Volume 6: Africa from the Nineteenth century until the 1880s (1989)[edit]

Chapter No. Chapter Title[11] Author (and Nationality)[11]
1 Africa at the beginning of the nineteenth century: Issues and prospects Jacob Festus Ade Ajayi (Nigeria)
2 Africa and the world economy Immanuel Wallerstein (U.S.A.)
3 New trends and processes in Africa in the nineteenth century Albert Adu Boahen (Ghana)
4 The abolition of the slave trade Serge Daget (France)
5 The Mfecane and the rise of the new African states Leonard Diniso Ngcongco (Botswana)
6 The impact of Mfecane on the Cape colony Elleck Kufakunesu Mashingaidze (Zimbabwe)
7 The British, Boers and Africans in South Africa, 1850-80 Ngwabi Mulunge Bhebe (Zimbabwe)
8 The countries of the Zambezi basin Allen F. Isaacman (U.S.A.)
9 The East African coast and hinterland, 1800-45 Ahmed Idha Salim (Kenya)
10 The East African coast and hinterland, 1845-80 Isaria Ndelahiyosa Kimambo (Tanzania)
11 Peoples and states of the Great Lakes region David William Cohen (U.S.A.)
12 The Congo basin and Angola Jean-Luc Vellut (Belgium)
13 The renaissance of Egypt, 1805-81 Anouar Abdel-Malek (Egypt)
14 The Sudan in the nineteenth century H. A. Ibrahim (Sudan) with Bethwell Allan Ogot (Kenya)
15 Ethiopia and Somalia Richard Pankhurst (U.K.) with Lee V. Cassanelli (U.S.A.)
16 Madagascar 1800-80 Phares Mukasa Mutibwa (Uganda) with Faranirina V. Esoavelomandroso (Madagascar)
17 New trends in the Maghreb: Algeria, Tunisia and Libya Mohamed Hédi Chérif (Tunisia)
18 Morocco from the beginning of the nineteenth century to 1880 Abdallah Laroui (Morocco)
19 New patterns of European intervention in the Maghreb Nikolay A. Ivanov (U.S.S.R.)
20 The Sahara in the nineteenth century Stephen Baier (U.S.A.)
21 The nineteenth-century Islamic revolutions in West Africa Aziz A. Batran (Sudan)
22 The Sokoto caliphate and Borno Murray Last (U.K.)
23 Massina and Torodbe (Tukuloor) empire until 1878 Madina Ly-Tall (Mali)
24 States and peoples of Senegambia and Upper Guinea Y. Person (France)
25 States and peoples of the Niger Bend and the Volta Kwame Arhin (Ghana) and Joseph Ki-Zerbo (Burkina Faso)
26 Dahomy, Yorubaland, Borgu and Benin in the nineteenth century Anthony Ijaola Asiwaju (Nigeria)
27 The Niger delta and the Cameroon region Ebiegberi Joe Alagoa (Nigeria) with Lovett Zephaniah Elango (Cameroon) and Nicolas Metegue N'nah (Gabon)
28 The African diaspora Franklin W. Knight (Jamaica) with Yusof Talib (Singapore) and Philip D. Curtin (U.S.A.)
29 Conclusion: Africa on the eve of the European conquest Jacob Festus Adeniyi Ayaji (Nigeria)

Volume 7: Africa under colonial domination, 1880-1935 (1985)[edit]

Chapter No. Chapter Title[12] Author (and Nationality)[12]
1 Africa and the colonial challenge Albert Adu Boahen (Ghana)
2 European partition and conquest of Africa: An overview Godfrey Nwanoruo Uzoigwe (Nigeria)
3 African initiatives and resistance in the face of partition and conquest Terence Osborn Ranger (U.K.)
4 African initiatives and resistance in North-East Africa H. A. Ibrahim (Sudan) with Abbas I. Ali (Sudan)
5 African initiatives and resistance in North Africa and the Sahara Abdallah Laroui (Morocco)
6 African initiatives and resistance in West Africa, 1880-1914 M'Baye Gueye (Senegal) and Albert Adu Boahen (Ghana)
7 African initiatives and resistance in East Africa, 1880-1914 Henry A. Mwanzi (Kenya)
8 African initiatives and resistance in Central Africa, 1880-1914 Allen F. Isaacman (U.S.A.) and Jan Vansina (Belgium)
9 African initiatives and resistance in Southern Africa David Chanaiwa (Zimbabwe)
10 Madagascar, 1880s-1930s: African initiatives and reaction to colonial conquest and domination M. Esoavelomandroso (Madagascar)
11 Liberia and Ethiopia, 1880-1914: The survival of two African states M. B. Akpan (Nigeria) with A. B. Jones (Liberia) and Richard Pankhurst (U.K.)
12 The First World War and its consequences Michael Crowder (U.K.)
13 Methods and institutions of European domination R. F. Betts (U.S.A.) with Anthony Ijaola Asiwaju (Nigeria)[nb 11]
14 The colonial economy Walter Rodney (Guyana)
15 The colonial economy of the former French, Belgian and Portuguese zones, 1914-35 Catherine Coquery-Vidrovitch (France)
16 The colonial economy: The former British zones Martin H. Y. Kaniki (Tanzania)
17 The colonial economy: North Africa Ahmed Kassab (Tunisia), A. A. Abdussalam (Libya) and F. S. Abusedra (Egypt)
18 The social repercussions of colonial rule: Demographic aspects John Charles Caldwell (Australia)
19 The social repercussions of colonial rule: The new social structures Adiele Eberechukwu Afigbo (Nigeria)
20 Religion in Africa during the colonial era Kofi Asare Opoku (Ghana)
21 The arts in Africa during the period of colonial rule Wole Soyinka (Nigeria)
22 African politics and nationalism, 1919-35 B. Olatunji Oloruntimehin (Nigeria)
23 Politics and nationalism in North-East Africa, 1919-35 H. A. Ibrahim (Sudan)
24 Politics and nationalism in the Maghrib and the Sahara, 1919-35 Jacques Berque (France)
25 Politics and nationalism in West Africa, 1919-35 Albert Adu Boahen (Ghana)
26 Politics and nationalism in East Africa, 1919-35 Eisha Stephen Atieno Odhiambo (Kenya)
27 Politics and nationalism in Central and Southern Africa, 1919-35 Apollon Borisovich Davidson (Russia)[nb 12], Allen Isaacman (U.S.A.) and R. Pélissier (France)
28 Ethiopia and Liberia, 1914-35: Two independent African states in the colonial era M. B. Akpan (Nigeria) with A. B. Jones (Liberia) and Richard Pankhurst (U.K.)
29 Africa and the New World R. D. Ralston (U.S.A.) with Fernando Augusto Albuquerque Mourão (Brazil)
30 Colonialism in Africa: Its impact and significance Albert Adu Boahen (Ghana)
Y. Kwarteng (Ghana)
(Editorial assistant)

Volume 8: Africa since 1935 (1993)[edit]

Chapter No. Chapter Title[14] Author (and Nationality)[14]
1 Introduction Ali Al'amin Mazrui (Kenya)
2 The Horn and North Africa, 1935-45: Crises and change Tayeb Chenntouf (Algeria)
3 Tropical and equatorial Africa under French, Portuguese and Spanish domination, 1935-45 Majhemout Diop (Senegal) with David Birmingham (U.K.), Ivan Hrbek [cs] (Czech Republic), Alfredo Margarido (Portugal) and Djibril Tamsir Niane (Guinea)
4 Africa under British and Belgium domination, 1935-45 Michael Crowder (U.K.)
5 Seek ye first the political kingdom Ali Al'amin Mazrui (Kenya)
6 North Africa and the Horn Ivan Hrbek [cs] (Czech Republic)
7 West Africa, 1945-60 Jean Suret-Canale (France) and Albert Adu Boahen (Ghana)
8 Equatorial West Africa Elikia M'Bokolo [fr] (Democratic Republic of Congo)[nb 13]
9 The struggle for political sovereignty in Eastern Africa, 1945 to independence Michael Twaddle (U.K.) with Lucille Rabearimanana (Madagascar) and Isaria Ndelahiyosa Kimambo (Tanzania)
10 Southern Africa since 1945 David Chanaiwa (Zimbabwe)
11 Economic changes in Africa in the world context Catherine Coquery-Vidrovitch (France)
12 Agriculture and rural development since 1935 Maxwell Owusu (Ghana)
13 Industrial development and urban growth, 1935-80 Pierre Kipré (Ivory Coast)
14 Comparative strategies of economic decolonization in Africa Adebayo Adedeji (Nigeria)
15 Nation-building and changing political structures Jonah Isawa Elaigwu (Nigeria) with Ali Al'amin Mazrui (Kenya)
16 Nation-building and changing political values Joseph Ki-Zerbo (Burkina Faso), Ali Al'amin Mazrui (Kenya) and Christophe Wondji (Ivory Coast) with Albert Adu Boahen (Ghana)
17 Religion and social evolution Tshishiku Tshibangu (Democratic Republic of Congo)[nb 14]with Jacob Festus Ade Ajayi (Nigeria) and Lemin Sanneh (Ghana))
18 Language and social change Alfa Ibrahima Sow [fr] (Guinea) and Mohamed Hassan Abdulaziz (Ghana)
19 The development of modern literature since 1935 Ali Al'amin Mazrui (Kenya) with Mario de Andrade (Angola), M'hamed Alaoui Abdalaoui (Morocco), Daniel P. Kunene (South Africa) and Jan Vansina (Belgium)
20 Arts and society since 1935 Jan Vansina (Belgium)
21 Trends in philosophy and science in Africa Ali Al'amin Mazrui (Kenya) and Jacob Festus Ade Ajayi (Nigeria) with Albert Adu Boahen (Ghana) and Tshishiku Tshibangu (Democratic Republic of Congo)
22 Education and social change Aklilu Habte (Ethiopia) and Teshome Wagaw (Ethiopia)[nb 15] with Jacob Festus Ade Ajayi (Nigeria)
23 Africa and its diaspora since 1935 Joseph E. Harris (U.S.A.) with Slimane Zeghidour (Algeria)
24 Pan-Africanism and regional integration Samuel Kingsley Botwe Asante (Ghana) with David Chanaiwa (Zimbabwe)
25 Pan-Africanism and Liberation Edem Kodjo (Togo) and David Chanaiwa (Zimbabwe)
26 Africa and the capitalist countries Chinweizu (Nigeria)
27 Africa and the socialist countries Iba Der Thiam (Senegal) and James Mulira (Uganda) with Christophe Wondji (Ivory Coast)
28 Africa and the developing regions Locksley Edmonson (Jamaica)
29 Africa and the United Nations since 1945 Edmund Kwam Kouassi (Togo)
30 Toward the year 2000 Ali Al'amin Mazrui (Kenya)

Volume 9 (to be published)[edit]

A future ninth volume is planned which will "update the knowledge of previous volumes [...] in the light of new developments in research".[15]

This volume will be made up of four sections:

  • Section 1 – Will explore the "epistemological, methodological and theoretical foundations of writing on the history of Africa and people of African descent in the twenty-first century".[15]
  • Section 2 – Reviewing content from the first eight volumes.[15]
  • Section 3 – Updating of early history of Africa.[15]
  • Section 4 – New developments in historical studies over the past two thousand years.[15]

Volume 10 (to be published)[edit]

This volume will include "critical observation of the dynamics of the relationship between Africa and its diasporas, the movements between Africa and the rest of the world, and the ways in which Africa connects with the rest of the world".[15]

  • Section 1 – The historical contexts in which the concept of Race emerged and how Africans and African-descended people perceive themselves and others.[15]
  • Section 2 – Mapping of the African diaspora and how cultural identities have been recreated in the diaspora.[15]
  • Section 3 – Biographies of Africans.[15]

Volume 11 (to be published)[edit]

This volume will "[address] contemporary challenges for Africa and its diasporas around the world".[15]

  • Section 1 – Exploring the concept of "Global Africa".[15]
  • Section 2 – The current situation of "gloablized Africans" on the continent and beyond the continent.[15]
  • Section 3 – How Africa is "participating in the challenges of the contemporary world".[15]

History[edit]

"My own background, the experience I gained as a teacher and as chairman... taught me how necessary it was for the education of young people and for the information of the public at large to have a history book produced by scholars with inside knowledge of the problems and hopes of Africa and with the ability to apprehend the Continent in its entirety."
- Amadou Mahtar M'Bow, former Director General of UNESCO (1974-1987)


The project encompasses two of UNESCO's key priorities - Africa and Education. Africa, in terms of a response to urgent development needs at the national level and to accompany the regional integration process; and education because this issue is a fundamental human right and the very basis of development and responsible citizenry. African peoples expressed their desire to “decolonize” the history of their Continent in order to deconstruct the traditional prejudices and clarify the truth of the African past. The project also takes into consideration modern teaching tools, such as internet resources and multimedia platforms, to ensure that learning is an interactive discovery process. Africa was never cut off from the rest of the world, and benefitted from mutual exchange and influences with Asia, the Middle East, Europe, and the Americas. The slave trade, slavery, and colonization had a considerable impact on the fragmentation of the Continent. The African Diaspora that resulted contributed in a significant manner to the creation of new cultures and societies. The Pedagogical Use of the General History of Africa aims to develop curriculum that highlights the African contribution to the progress of Humanity, African shared values, interaction with the rest of the world.

In this perspective, the creation of the African Union (AU) and the implementation of the NEPAD philosophy of developing Africa-led solutions to African challenges offered a new and favorable context for a political leadership committed to African regional integration and provided a mechanism for addressing history teaching within the continent as a whole. Furthermore, the Action Plan of the Second Decade for Education in Africa (2006 to 2015), which emphasizes the strengthening of the links between education and culture and improving the quality of pedagogical content, constitutes an ideal framework for the implementation of the project.

Article 7 of the Charter of African Cultural Renaissance adopted in 2006 in Khartoum at the Heads of State Summit stipulates that:

“African States commit themselves to work for African Renaissance. They agree on the need for reconstruction of the historical memory and conscience of Africa and the African Diaspora. They consider that the general History published by UNESCO constitutes a valid base for teaching the History of Africa and recommend its dissemination, including in African languages, as well as the publication of its abridged and simplified versions for wider audiences.”
1977 Meeting for the General History of Africa
2010 Scientific Committee Meeting for the General History of Africa

Phase One[edit]

(1964–1999) Following their decolonization in the early 1960s, African countries expressed a strong desire to recover their ownership of their past and the production of knowledge regarding their heritage. The African member states of UNESCO were then called upon to re-affirm their cultural identities and reinforce the common aspiration to achieve African unity. Part of these efforts included combating certain preconceptions including the assumption that the lack of written sources made it difficult to engage in serious study or production of African history. The conventional reading of history also needed to be challenged in order to depict a more accurate picture of the African continent, of its cultural diversity, and its contribution to the general progress of humankind. Thus, at its 16th Session (1964), the General Conference of UNESCO invited the Director-General to undertake the elaboration of a General History of Africa. In this framework, the General History of Africa was written and published in eight volumes, with a main edition in English, French and Arabic. Additional publications have been produced in Chinese, Portuguese, Russian, German, Italian, Spanish, and Japanese. Furthermore, twelve studies and documents on related themes as well as an abridged version of the main edition in English, French, Kiswahili, Hausa and Fulfulde were published. This tremendous undertaking represented thirty five years of cooperation between three hundred and fifty experts from Africa and from the rest of the world. This work involved some of the most eminent African scholars such as Cheikh Anta Diop, Joseph Ki-Zerbo, Theophile Obenga, Ali Mazrui, Gamal Mokhtar, Bethwell A. Ogot, etc. It also included non-African experts, such as Jan Vansina, Jean Devisse [fr] and Philip Curtin.

The main preoccupation of Phase 1 was to provide a culturally relevant perspective based on an interdisciplinary approach with a focus on the history of ideas and civilizations, societies and institutions. To that end, it was envisaged to develop an African centered point of view using African sources, such as oral traditions, art forms and linguistics. It was decided as well to adopt a continental perspective of Africa as a whole avoiding the usual dichotomy between North Africa and Sub-Saharan Africa. This shift in perspective is reflected by the significant number of renowned African scholars who contributed to this project as members of the International Scientific Committee, editors and authors.

To tackle this task, made all the more complex and difficult by the vast range of sources and the fact that documents were widely scattered, UNESCO had to proceed in stages. The first stages (1965 to 1969) consisted of gathering documentation and planning the work. Several meetings were held and campaigns were conducted in the field to collect oral traditions and establish regional documentation centers. In addition, several activities were undertaken: including the collection of unpublished manuscripts in Arabic and Ajami (manuscripts in African languages written with Arabic alphabet), the compilation of archival inventories and the preparation of a Guide to the Sources of the History of Africa, culled from the archives and libraries of a number of European and Asian countries and later published in nine volumes.

The second stage (1969 to 1971) was devoted to the deliberation of complex substantial and methodological questions raised by the compilation of the GHA. It was decided that the GHA should cover three million years of African history, in eight volumes, published in English, Arabic, French, and in African languages such as Kiswahili, Hausa, and Fulfulde.

The next stage (1971 to 1999) consisted of the drafting and publication. This began with the establishment of the International Scientific Committee to ensure the intellectual and scientific responsibility of the work and oversee the drafting and publication of the volumes. During this period, UNESCO organized scientific colloquia and symposia on topics related to the history of Africa most of which were overlooked by researchers. The results of these meetings were published in a series of books entitled “UNESCO Studies and Documents -The General History of Africa”. Twelve studies were published covering a wide range of subjects including: the Slave trade, relations between Africa and the Arab world, relations between Africa and the Indian Ocean, and the role of youth and women.

Bearing in mind that history teaching is instrumental in shaping peoples’ identities and in understanding the common ties underlying the cultural diversity in any region, and in order to implement one of the goals initially set for the General History of Africa by its initiators, UNESCO, in collaboration with the African Union Commission, launched in March 2009, Phase II of GHA entitled the “Pedagogical Use of the General History of Africa” project.

Eight volumes of the General History of Africa

Phase Two[edit]

In 2009 UNESCO launched the second phase of the project focusing on the implementation of the GHA entitled, the “Pedagogical Use of the General History of Africa.” This phase, which constitutes a priority in the cooperation between UNESCO and the African Union, falls within the framework of the Action Plan of the Second Decade for Education in Africa (2006–2015). The Action Plan emphasizes the strengthening of the links between education and culture and improving the quality of pedagogical contents such as internet resources and audiovisual materials. It further corresponds to recommendations made following several meetings organized by UNESCO before and after the completion of the first phase of the GHA.

In order to successfully implement the second phase of the project, UNESCO has had to have the project validated by different African institutional and academic stakeholders including the Ministers of Education and various professional associations including historians, history teachers, pedagogues, et al. At the Ministers of Education of the COMEDAF meeting in November 2009, the African Ministers reaffirmed their support for the project and recalled the political leadership of the African Union on the Project. This continued cooperation between the Commission of the African Union and UNESCO has been necessary to facilitate the appropriation of the project.

Objectives:
“This project gives us a formidable opportunity to develop a pan-African vision that also highlights the contribution of African cultures and civilizations to humankind.” [16]

- Irina Bokova, Director General of UNESCO June 16, 2010
The Pedagogical Use of the General History of Africa Brochure

The main objective of Phase Two, entitled "The Pedagogical Use of the General History of Africa" is to contribute to the regenerating of the teaching of African history on the basis of the General History of Africa in African Union member States with the view to promote the African regional integration process. In particular, the project aims to:

  • develop common content for use in African primary and secondary schools, for three different age groups (under 12, 13-16 and 17-19) as well as an historical atlas and an educational CD-Rom. The content could, if necessary, be adapted to local circumstances without changing the regional scope;
  • improve teacher training in light of the latest findings in historical research and advances made in the methodology and methods of history teaching. A teachers’ guide will be elaborated and guidelines to reinforce initial and in-service training of primary and secondary school teachers will be defined.
  • promote the teaching of and harmonize the use of the GHA in higher education institutions across the continent.

Implementation:
To implement the project, UNESCO established a ten-member Scientific Committee (SC) representing the five sub regions of the Continent, entrusted with the intellectual and scientific responsibility of the project. The committee members were designated by the Director General of UNESCO in February 2009 after a series of consultations held with different partners and stakeholders including: the African Union, the Africa Group of UNESCO, the donor country, the African Historian Association, the International Association of Historians, and members of the former International Scientific Committee established for the first phase of the Project. These members are: Professor Alaa El-din Shaheen (Egypt), Professor Taieb El Bahloul (Libyan Arab Jamahiriya), Professor Sifiso Ndlovu (South Africa), Professor Amakobe Florida Karani (Kenya), Professor Adame Ba Konaré (Mali), Professor Jean Michel Mabeko-Tali (Congo), Professor Lily Mafela (Botswana), Professor Elikia M’bokolo (D.R. Congo), Professor Mamadou N’doye (Senegal), Professor Bahru Zewde (Ethiopia).

The aforementioned members were installed on February 24, 2009 in the framework of the Forum for African Regional and Sub-Regional Organizations to Support Cooperation between UNESCO and NEPAD (FORASUN) that took place in Tripoli (Libya) from February 20–24, 2009,[17] UNESCO organized an Expert Meeting on March 16–17, 2009 [18] to discuss the proposed methodology for the implementation of the project. This meeting was immediately followed by the first meeting of the Scientific Committee (SC), which took place from March 18–20, 2009.

Major developments since the launch of Phase Two:

1. Organization of an expert meeting:
UNESCO organized on March 16–17, 2009 an Expert Meeting which gathered 35 experts from the different African sub regions, including members of the former International Scientific Committee for the first Phase of the GHA, editors and authors of the GHA volumes, representatives of African sub regional organizations et al. During the meeting, the experts discussed the proposed methodology for the implementation of the project and made concrete recommendations to the SC.

2. Organization of the 1st meeting of the SC:
The SC for the Pedagogical Use of the General History of Africa held its First Meeting from March 18–20, 2009 at UNESCO HQ.[7] The Committee:

  • Elected its Bureau (Prof. Mbokolo, Chairman; Prof. N’doye, 1st Vice-Chairman; Prof. El Bahloul, 2nd Vice-Chairman; Prof. Mafela, Rapporteur)
  • Determined the functioning of the Committee
  • Discussed the methodology and activities proposed for the implementation of the project
  • Examined the recommendations formulated to that end by the Experts Meeting
  • Stressed the need to make the most of any relevant political and cultural events to present the Project and to advocate for it

3. Endorsement by the Executive Council of the African Union (AU)

  • During its Sixth Ordinary Session held in Khartoum, on 24–25 January 2006, the African Union Heads of States took a decision regarding the strengthening of the links between education and culture (Assembly/AU/dec.96 (VI)), as one of the main focus areas of the Plan of Action for the Second Decade of Education for Africa (2006-2015)
  • During its Fifteenth Ordinary Session held in Syrte (Libya) from 24 to 30 June 2009, the Council adopted a decision in which it expressed its support for the project and urged the African Union Member States to contribute to its implementation (Decision EX.CL/Dec. 492 (XV) Rev.1).

4. Endorsement by the Conference of Ministers of Education of the African Union (COMEDAF)

  • During their Second Extraordinary Session (COMEDAF II+), which took place from 4 to 8 September 2006 in Maputo (Mozambique), the African Ministers of Education pointed out in their Declaration the teaching of African history as one of the issues critical to successfully eradicate deficiencies in Africa's Education systems and to ensure that education plays its role in the vision of the African Union and this, within the Second Decade of Education for Africa.
  • During their Fourth Ordinary Session (COMEDAF IV) held in Mombasa (Kenya), 23–26 November 2009, the African Ministers, in their communiqué, reaffirmed their support for the project and recalled the political leadership of the African Union on the project.

5. Designation of focal points within the African Ministers of Education (MoE):
46 African Ministers of Education out of 51 have designated focal points within their ministries to participate in and follow up the implementation of the project.

6. Designation of the drafting committees for the elaboration of pedagogical tools on the basis of the GHA:
The SC for the project met from 24 to 28 October 2010 to designate members of the drafting committees for the common pedagogical content and teachers guides. The Committee selected 30 experts who will compose the above-mentioned committees taking into account competency, gender, and geographical balance.

Conflicting views between historians[edit]

Due to the nature of the series, different historians had contrasting and conflicting views on certain subject matters.

Cheikh Anta Diop's "Origin of the ancient Egyptians" chapter[edit]

Cheikh Anta Diop's contribution to the second volume focused on the ancient Egyptian race controversy and his argument that the "the whole of the [ancient] Egyptian population [...] was negro, barring an inflitration of white nomads in the proto-dynastic epoch",[19] and that "the black population of Upper Egypt began to retreat only at the time of the Persian occupation".[20] This argument was not universally accepted by the other contributors to the UNESCO series. Diop's chapter had a note from editor Gamal Mokhtar warning the reader that "The opinions expressed by Professor Cheikh Anta Diop in this chapter are those which he presented and developed at the Unesco symposium on 'The peopling of ancient Egypt' [...] The arguments put forward in this chapter have not been accepted by all the experts interested in the problem."[21] In the introduction to the volume, Mokhtar himself argued that "it is highly doubtful whether the inhabitants that introduced civilization into the Nile valley ever belonged to one single, pure race".[22] Diop's chapter was followed by a summary of the 1974 Cairo symposium where Diop presented his ideas to 19 other historians.[23]

The reactions to Diop's arguments at the symposion were wide-ranging. French professor Jean Leclant stressed the "African character of Egyptian civilization" but felt it was important to differenciate between 'race' and 'culture' and that there was no reason to rely on "outmoded studies" from Ernest Chantre, Grafton Elliot Smith, Giuseppe Sergi and Douglas Erith Derry as Diop had done.[24] Sudanese professor Abdelgadir M. Abdalla noted that iconographic evidence showed that the "creators of the Napata culture had nothing in common with the Egyptians" and had "completely different" anatomical characteristics.[25] He further argued that Diop's linguistic comparisons between Egyptian and Wolof were "neither convincing nor conclusive" and "it was hazardous to make too uncompromising a correlation between a language and an ethnic structure ".[25] Abdalla's criticism of Diop's arguments lead to a "lively exchange of views on linguistic matters between Professors Abdalla and Diop".[25] Egyptian professor Abu Bakr argued that "Egyptians had never been isolated from other peoples" and "never constituted a pure race".[26] Although, French professor Jean Vercoutter agreed with Diop that "that the populations of the Egyptian reaches of the Nile Valley was homogenous as far as the southern extremity of the Delta" during the proto-dynastic and pre-dynastic periods.[27] Congolese professor Theophile Obenga was however more supportive of Diop's views. He argued that "morphological, lexicological and syntactic similarities" provided "convincing proof of the close relationship between ancient Egyptian and negro-African languages of today" and that this was not the case "between Semitic, Berber and Egyptian".[28] Overall, Diop's chapter was credited in the general conclusion of the 1974 symposium report as a "painstakingly researched contribution" which nevertheless lead to a "real lack of balance" in the discussion among participants.[29][30]

Jan Vansina, who contributed chapters to volumes 1, 3–5, 7 and 8, noted that there had previously been a "clash" between Cheikh Anta Diop and Gamal Mokhtar on the matter of topics that would be included in the second volume.[31] The committee then decided on the "principle of heterogeneity" and that uniformity on the interpretation of historical evidence would not be imposed on any historian writing for the UNESCO General History of Africa.[31]

John Parkington's "Southern Africa" chapter[edit]

John Parkington contributed a chapter on hunters and food-gatherers in Southern Africa for the second volume of the UNESCO series.[32] The committee behind the UNESCO series however expressed "serious reservations" on the methods used in the chapter by the author, as these would cause confusion for the reader by presenting them with information on both the Palaeolithic era and contemporary southern Africa at the same time.[33] Parkington was asked to partially alter his text but did not consider it possible.[33] An agreement was therefore reached that the chapter be published in this form but with a note warning the reader of reservations expressed by the committee.[33]

Chapter on the Bantu Expansion[edit]

Volume 3 included a chapter on the Bantu expansion written by Samwiri Lwanga-Lunyiigo and Jan Vansina.[34] The editor's note on this chapter explained that the two authors had "different scientific training and divergent opinions", though could agree on "the most important questions".[35] There was however one remaining "serious disagreement" on a theory presented by Samwiri Lwanga-Lunyiigo that differs from the opinion of most specialists on the field of the Bantu expansion but this had been retained for inclusion in the volume.[35]

Withdrawn chapter from Volume 3[edit]

An unnamed author was asked to write a chapter on the east African coast and supported Neville Chittick's belief that cities on the east African coast were "basically Asian".[31] All but two of the committee members disagreed with this argument and the committee as a whole agreed that Chittick's position did not account for all known archaeological evidence.[31] This chapter was replaced by another written by Fidelis T. Masao and Henry W. Mutoro.[31]

Map in Volume 5[edit]

A debate arose over the correct terminology to use for a map to accompany the chapter "The African diaspora in the old and new worlds". Delegates from different countries were sent to UNESCO to argue either for the use of the term "Persian Gulf" or "Arabian Gulf".[36] The debate over this minor point would block the publication of the fifth volume until 1992.[36]

Reception[edit]

Volumes 1 and 2[edit]

Christopher Ehret reviewed volume 1 for the African Studies Review and described it as an "essential reference book", referring to the first seven chapters as "useful summaries" for non-specialists. Ehret commended the selection of "most contributors in most volumes were scholastically apt choices" across the eight-volume series. However, he noted a number of limitations with the first volume such as the broad focus on historical geography and non-written sources across several chapters.[37] Also, he criticised the over-representation of older, non-African scholars as contributors with some scholars "thwarting Ki-Zerbo's aspirations "to bring the picture up to date",[having] no more to tell us than in the 1950s".[38] Similarly, he criticised the inclusion of speculative, theories of David Dalby into chapters which examine African linguistic classification and the lack of focus on the current developments in the linguistic field.[39]

In his review on the first two volumes for The International Journal of African Historical Studies, Ivor Wilks described the volumes as "handsome" and available at "so modest a price" compared to most other works on similar topics released by major commercial publishers.[40] Wilks further described the series as "a useful monument to the state of African historiography in the 1970s and 1980s", though also noted that it would have to go through a "continuous process of revision" in order to "retain its value as a reliable work of reference".[40] He also stated that the quality of individual chapters "vary considerably", with some chapters showing "an original contribution to the field" while others "make no pretense to be more than surveys".[40] Wilks noted that "probably few of [the chapters] would otherwise have seen the light of day in the regular learned journals".[40] Wilks described Volume 2 as having "less thematic unity" than the first volume, singling out Cheikh Anta Diop's "shrill" chapter on his "idiosyncratic" views of Ancient Egypt and the unusual step of the editor providing a warning to the reader on this particular chapter.[40]

Michael Brett reviewed volume 2 for The Journal of African History, noting that while it would become "a necessary part of the library of anyone interested in the history of Africa as a whole", it would nonetheless "daunt the uninitiated" and "disappoint the specialist".[41] He observed that despite the length of the book there was a problem with "compression" of information, with most chapters being "too short to allow the subject the exposition it deserves".[41] In discussing the chapters on Egypt, which made up a third of the volume, Brett felt that space had been "simply wasted" with some chapters repeating information mentioned earlier in the volume.[41] He also felt that much of the historical context of Ancient Egypt had been "squeezed almost out of existence", partly due to Cheikh Anta Diop's chapter on the 'Origins of the Ancient Egyptians' which was simply a "restatement" of this author's views and the "long résumé of [the 1974 Cairo Symphosium] on the subject" inserted afterwards seemingly as a "corrective to [Diop]'s idosyncratic view".[41] As a result of space being taken up by this debate, the volume lacked any "discussion [...] of pre-dynastic Egypt and the settlement of the Nile valley which made possible the subsequent civilization".[41] Brett further criticized the later chapters on Egypt, such as the one on Hellenistic Egypt which had "virtually no dates" or profile given for the rulers of the Ptolemaic dynasty.[41] Brett did however praise the chapters on Nubia as providing a "satisfying account" of the Egyptian Empire south of Aswan, as well as the kingdoms based at Napata and Meroe.[41]

Brett found fault with the chapters dealing with Aksum, which had a focus that was "resolutely South Arabian Semitic" with "extremely scant attention paid to the Abyssinian region as a whole".[41] He singled out the chapter on the hunters and food-gatherers of Southern Africa, which included a note by the committee stating that they were unhappy with the author relying on recent ethnographic material, far beyond the chronological limits of this volume, to give an idea of what life was like for these people in ancient times. Brett however felt this chapter was a "most readable account" compared to the "rigidly archeological approach" used by other chapters on sub-Saharan Africa.[41]

Adeline Apena reviewed the second volume for the Comparative Civilizations Review as a "major document in African history" and "dismisses the general sense of invalidity that surrounds use of African oral traditions as historical source material for African history".[42] Apena noted the second volume has an emphasis on the relationship between environment, local resources and the growth of civilisations. However, she remained critical of "the Egyptian scholars in this debate who do not seem to accept that the ancient Egyptians were the same as the dark-skinned Sub-Saharans, in spite of the cultural similarities".[42] Apena concluded that "the lower Nile and its Delta are likely to have blended the stocks of peoples that inhabited the region from Libya to Near East and southwards towards Nubia" but scholarly judgements in the second volume were inconclusive due to the obscurity of the period, scarcity of sources and dated sources.[42]

Volume 3[edit]

J. E. G. Sutton reviewed Volume 3 for The Journal of African Study, noting that the chapters were of "varying quality and lucidity" but could be used for scholarly reference or education provided that the reader is "patient enough to sift and select" from among the chapters.[43] He further noted that not all authors in the volume had the "breadth of vision and experience" needed for this kind of book, with some possibly receiving "insufficient editorial guidance" or conversely having "suffered excessive interference".[43] Sutton also felt that the dating system used in the series (which avoids the B.C./A.D. system in order to be culturally neutral) would be confusing to most readers and that the overall presentation of the volume was not "sufficiently inviting".[43] Sutton additionally noted that, like Volume 2, this volume was more heavily focused on Northern Africa than Africa further to the South, though there was a "valiant" attempt to draw together information on the continent as a whole in the final chapter and he commended the "obvious and strenuous effort" to include every region of Africa in the discussion.[43]

Volume 4[edit]

Volume 5[edit]

Volume 6[edit]

In a review for The Journal of African Study, E. Ann McDougell stated that this volumed fared well in regards to quality but felt dated and could be considered "state of the art" of African historiography in the years c. 1975-1980, with only a handful of post-1980s publications listed in the bibliography.[44] She did however praise the book for its "genuinely continental" geographical coverage, the "excellent quality" maps and photographs, establishing both "regional [and] world linkages" and the range of "eminent scholars" who are given "sufficient space to cover their commissioned subject matter".[44] She also sympathised with the "logistical and financial problems" of such an ambitious project which made the publication delay inevitable, but this was still "too long" given the range of quality works that historians were producing by the mid-1980s.[44]

Volume 7[edit]

Reviewing the abridged edition of volume 7 for The Journal of African Study, Kirstin Mann felt that "none of the [volume]'s goals [are] wholly realized".[45] She noted that while the individual essays may have adequately "summarized the state of knowledge when they were written", they were now out of date and "little debate emerges within them".[45] Mann however welcomed the chapters on North Africa which can "bridge the divide that too often separates scholarship on North and Sub-Saharan Africa" and commended Albert Adu Boahen on the difficult task of editing the volume.[45] She singled out chapters by Ranger, Ibrahim and Ali, Isaacman and Vansina, Chanaiwa, Crowder, Coquery-Vidrovitch, Afigbo and Atieno-Odhaimbo as those that made "lasting contributions" to African historiography but observed that most chapters lacked any "systematic analysis of struggle, conflict and cleavage within African societies" during the period of study.[45] Mann ultimately summarised the volume as "[passionate] and engaged, if dated, unweildly and uneven" and criticised the abridged edition's lack of notes and "good bibliography".[45]

Volume 8[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Listed as being from the Republic of Upper Volta.[2] This later became Burkina Faso in 1984.
  2. ^ Listed as being from Czechoslovakia.[2] In 1993 the country split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia.
  3. ^ Listed as being from the USSR,[2] which devolved into separate states by 1991.
  4. ^ Listed as British in the Volume itself.
  5. ^ The Arabic, French, Portuguese and Spanish versions of this volume move this chapter to end of the book, after the conclusion.[4][5][6][7]
  6. ^ Listed as being from the USSR,[3] which devolved into separate states by 1991.
  7. ^ Listed as being from the Algeria in the volume itself.[3]
  8. ^ Listed as being from Senegal.[9]
  9. ^ Listed as being from Zaire.[10] This later became the Democratic Republic of Congo in 1997.
  10. ^ Listed as being from Zaire.[10] This later became the Democratic Republic of Congo in 1997.
  11. ^ Mistakenly listed as "M. Asiwaju" in the contents page.[13]
  12. ^ Listed as being from the USSR,[12] which devolved into separate states by 1991.
  13. ^ Listed as being from Zaire.[14] This later became the Democratic Republic of Congo in 1997.
  14. ^ Listed as being from Zaire.[14] This later became the Democratic Republic of Congo in 1997.
  15. ^ Mistakenly listed as being from the United States.[14]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "General History of Africa". UNESCO. Retrieved 11 June 2019.
  2. ^ a b c d e Ki-Zerbo, Joseph, ed. (1981). General History of Africa Volume I: Methodology and African Prehistory. California: Heinemann. p. v-vii, 749-751. ISBN 978-0520039124.
  3. ^ a b c d Mokhtar, Gamal, ed. (1981). General History of Africa Volume II: Ancient Civilizations of Africa. California: Heinemann/UNESCO. pp. vi–vii, 740–741. ISBN 978-92-3-101708-7.
  4. ^ Mokhtar, Gamal, ed. (1985). General History of Africa Volume II: Ancient Civilizations of Africa. UNESCO/Jeune Afrique. ISBN 92-3-601708-8.
  5. ^ Mokhtar, Gamal, ed. (1980). Histoire Générale de l'Afrique II: Afrique Ancienne. UNESCO. ISBN 92-3-201708-3.
  6. ^ Mokhtar, Gamal, ed. (1983). História Geral da Africa II: A Africa Antiga. Sao Paulo: Atica/UNESCO.
  7. ^ Mokhtar, Gamal, ed. (1983). Historia General de Africa II: Antiguas Civilizaciones de Africa. Madrid: Tecnos/UNESCO. ISBN 84-309-0898-6.
  8. ^ a b El Fasi, Mohammad; Hrbek, Ivan, eds. (1988). General History of Africa Volume III: Africa from the Seventh to the Eleventh Century. California: Heinemann/UNESCO. p. v-vii, 796-798. ISBN 978-92-3-101709-4.
  9. ^ a b c Niane, D.T., ed. (1984). General History of Africa Volume IV: Africa from the Twelfth to the Sixteenth Century. California: Heinemann/UNESCO. p. v-vii, 689-691. ISBN 978-92-3-101710-0.
  10. ^ a b c d Ogot, Bethwell Alan, ed. (1992). General History of Africa Volume V: Africa from the Sixteenth to the Eighteenth Century. California: Heinemann/UNESCO. p. v-vii, 908-911. ISBN 0-520 039165.
  11. ^ a b Ayaji, J. F. Ade, ed. (1989). General History of Africa Volume VI: Africa from the Nineteenth century until the 1880s. California: Heinemann/UNESCO. p. v-vii, 794-796. ISBN 978-92-3-101712-4.
  12. ^ a b c Boahen, Albert Adu, ed. (1985). General History of Africa Volume VII: Africa under colonial domination, 1880-1935. California: Heinemann/UNESCO. p. v-vii, 812-814. ISBN 978-92-3-101713-1.
  13. ^ Boahen, Albert Adu, ed. (1985). General History of Africa Volume VII: Africa under colonial domination, 1880-1935. California: Heinemann/UNESCO. p. vi. ISBN 978-92-3-101713-1.
  14. ^ a b c d e Mazrui, Ali A.; Wondji, Christophe, eds. (1993). General History of Africa Volume VIII: Africa since 1935. California: Heinemann/UNESCO. p. v-vii, 937-941. ISBN 978-92-3-102758-1.
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "General History of Africa - The Collection". UNESCO. Retrieved 9 November 2022.
  16. ^ "Address by Ms Irina Bokova Director-General of UNESCO on the occasion of the Regional Conference on the "Pedagogical Use of the General history of Africa"" (PDF). UNESCO. 16 June 2010. Retrieved 11 January 2011.
  17. ^ "Report by the Director-General on the execution of the programme (34 C/5) (01 January 2008 - 30 June 2009) Coordination and monitoring of action to benefit Africa" (PDF). UNESCO. 24 February 2009. Retrieved 11 January 2011.
  18. ^ "Pedagogical Use of the General History of Africa Expert Meeting" (PDF). Pedagogical Use of the General History of Africa. UNESCO. 16–17 March 2009. Retrieved 11 January 2011.
  19. ^ Mokhtar, Gamal, ed. (1981). General History of Africa Volume II: Ancient Civilizations of Africa. California: Heinemann/UNESCO. p. 30. ISBN 978-92-3-101708-7.
  20. ^ Mokhtar, Gamal, ed. (1981). General History of Africa Volume II: Ancient Civilizations of Africa. California: Heinemann/UNESCO. p. 66. ISBN 978-92-3-101708-7.
  21. ^ Mokhtar, Gamal, ed. (1981). General History of Africa Volume II: Ancient Civilizations of Africa. California: Heinemann/UNESCO. p. 51. ISBN 978-92-3-101708-7.
  22. ^ Mokhtar, Gamal, ed. (1981). General History of Africa Volume II: Ancient Civilizations of Africa. California: Heinemann/UNESCO. p. 14. ISBN 978-92-3-101708-7.
  23. ^ Mokhtar, Gamal, ed. (1981). General History of Africa Volume II: Ancient Civilizations of Africa. California: Heinemann/UNESCO. pp. 58–78. ISBN 978-92-3-101708-7.
  24. ^ Mokhtar, Gamal, ed. (1981). General History of Africa Volume II: Ancient Civilizations of Africa. California: Heinemann/UNESCO. p. 62. ISBN 978-92-3-101708-7.
  25. ^ a b c Mokhtar, Gamal, ed. (1981). General History of Africa Volume II: Ancient Civilizations of Africa. California: Heinemann/UNESCO. p. 63. ISBN 978-92-3-101708-7.
  26. ^ Mokhtar, Gamal, ed. (1981). General History of Africa Volume II: Ancient Civilizations of Africa. California: Heinemann/UNESCO. p. 67. ISBN 978-92-3-101708-7.
  27. ^ Mokhtar, Gamal, ed. (1981). General History of Africa Volume II: Ancient Civilizations of Africa. California: Heinemann/UNESCO. pp. 47–48. ISBN 978-92-3-101708-7.
  28. ^ Mokhtar, Gamal, ed. (1981). General History of Africa Volume II: Ancient Civilizations of Africa. California: Heinemann/UNESCO. pp. 64–65. ISBN 978-92-3-101708-7.
  29. ^ Ancient civilizations of Africa (Abridged ed.). London [England]: J. Currey. 1990. pp. 43–46. ISBN 0852550928.
  30. ^ The peopling of ancient Egypt and the deciphering of Meroitic script : proceedings of the symposium held in Cairo from 28 January to 3 February 1974. Paris: Unesco. 1978. pp. 86, 93–94, 99. ISBN 92-3-101605-9.
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Bibliography[edit]

UNESCO General History of Africa

Additional Sources