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Promoted to général de brigade in 1805, after the establishment of the French Empire, and général de division in 1807, Lobau distinguished himself in the battles of Jena and Aspern-Essling. In 1810, he was created count of Lobau in recognition of his role in the battle of Aspern.
During the Russian Campaign, he acted as a senior aide-de-camp to Emperor Napoleon I of France. He then served with distinction during the 1813 campaign, seeing action at the Battles of Lützen and Bautzen.
After Dominique Vandamme was made prisoner during the battle of Kulm, Lobau commanded the retreat of the remnants of the corps. He served under Laurent Gouvion Saint-Cyr when, upon the retreat after the battle of Leipzig, the latter was trapped in Dresden and after the surrender of these forces he became a prisoner of the Austrian Empire for the rest of the war.
During the Hundred Days, Lobau rallied to Napoleon and was made commander of the VI Infantry Corps which he led in the battles of Ligny and Waterloo. At the Battle of Waterloo he distinguished himself in the defense of Plancenoit against the Prussians.
After the Second Restoration, Lobau was forced to go into exile until he was allowed to return to France in 1818. He was elected to the House of Representatives from 1828 to 1830 as a liberal, and, in 1830, he joined the July Revolution as commander of the National Guard.
As a reward for his services to King Louis-Philippe he was made a Marshal in 1831, the same year he was made a Peer of France. In 1832 and 1834, Lobau was assigned to suppress insurrections, a task in which he was successful.
George Mouton, comte de Lobau died in Paris.