General Roman Calendar

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The General Roman Calendar is the liturgical calendar that indicates the dates of celebrations of saints and mysteries of the Lord (Jesus Christ) in the Roman Rite of the Catholic Church, wherever this liturgical rite is in use. These celebrations are a fixed annual date; or occur on a particular day of the week (examples are the Feast of the Baptism of the Lord in January and the Feast of Christ the King in November); or relate to the date of Easter (examples are the celebrations of the Sacred Heart of Jesus and the Immaculate Heart of Mary). National and diocesan calendars, including that of the diocese of Rome itself as well as the calendars of religious institutes and even of continents, add other saints and mysteries or transfer the celebration of a particular saint or mystery from the date assigned in the General Calendar to another date.

These liturgical calendars also indicate the degree or rank of each celebration: memorial (which can be merely optional), feast, or solemnity. Among other differences, the Gloria is said or sung at the Mass of a feast but not at that of a memorial, and the Creed is added on solemnities.

The last general revision of the General Roman Calendar was in 1969 and was authorized by the motu proprio Mysterii Paschalis of Paul VI. The motu proprio and the decree of promulgation were included in the book Calendarium Romanum, published in the same year by Libreria Editrice Vaticana.[1] This contained also the official document Universal Norms on the Liturgical Year and the Calendar, and the list of celebrations of the General Roman Calendar. Both these documents are also printed (in their present revised form) in the Roman Missal, after the General Instruction of the Roman Missal.[2][3]

Selection of saints included[edit]

While canonization involves the addition of the saint's name to the Roman Martyrology, it does not necessarily involve the insertion of the saint's name also into the General Roman Calendar, which mentions only a very limited selection of canonized saints. There is a common misconception that certain saints, (e.g., Christopher) were "unsainted" in 1969 or that veneration of them was "suppressed". In fact, Christopher is recognized as a saint of the Catholic Church, being listed as a martyr in the Roman Martyrology under 25 July.[4] In 1969, Paul VI issued the motu proprio Mysterii Paschalis. In it, he recognized that, while the written Acts of Saint Christopher are merely legendary, attestations to the veneration of the martyr date from ancient times. His change in the calendar of saints included "leaving the memorial of Saint Christopher to local calendars" because of the relatively late date of its insertion into the Roman calendar.[5]

Liturgical year[edit]

In the liturgical books, the document General Roman Calendar (which lists not only fixed celebrations but also some moveable ones) is printed immediately after the document Universal Norms on the Liturgical Year and the Calendar,[2][3] which states that "throughout the course of the year the Church unfolds the entire mystery of Christ and observes the birthdays of the Saints". The birth of a saint to heaven is as a rule celebrated on a fixed day of the year (although sometimes they may be moved either to or from a Sunday), but the mysteries of Christ are often celebrated on dates that always vary from year to year. The Catholic Church's year combines two cycles of liturgical celebrations. One has been called the Proper of Time or Temporale, associated with the moveable date of Easter and the fixed date of Christmas. The other is associated with fixed calendar dates and has been called the Proper of Saints or Sanctorale.[6][7][8][9] The General Roman Calendar includes celebrations that belong to the Proper of Time or Temporale and is not limited to those that make up the Proper of Saints or Sanctorale. An instance where two observances occur on the same date is called an occurrence.[10]

Transfer of celebrations[edit]

Some celebrations listed in the General Roman Calendar are transferred to another date:

For the pastoral advantage of the people, it is permissible to observe on the Sundays in Ordinary Time those celebrations that fall during the week and have special appeal to the devotion of the faithful, provided the celebrations take precedence over these Sundays in the Table of Liturgical Days.[11]

List of celebrations inscribed in the GRC[edit]

This list contains all celebrations currently inscribed in the General Roman Calendar. It is updated whenever the pope makes changes to the celebrations in the General Roman Calendar.

When no citation is provided for a particular celebration, it comes from Calendarium Romanum Generale (General Roman Calendar) as printed in the Latin original of Roman Missal, ed. typ. tertia (reimpressio emendata), released in 2008.[12] Celebrations that are added or changed are cited from official decrees.

Celebration names are used from English Roman Missal (2018).

January[edit]

^a The solemnity of Epiphany of the Lord is always celebrated on 6 January in the General Roman Calendar, however, in particular calendars, it might by transferred to Sunday on or after 6 January.
^b When the solemnity of the Epiphany of the Lord is transferred to Sunday, which occurs on 7 or 8 January, the feast of the Baptism of the Lord is celebrated on the following Monday. (Ubi sollemnitas Epiphaniæ ad dominicam transfertur, quæ die 7 vel 8 ianuarii occurrit, festum Baptismatis Domini celebratur feria secunda sequenti.)[12]

February[edit]

^a On 25 January 2021, Pope Francis inscribed Saint Gregory of Narek, Abbot and Doctor of the Church, in the General Roman Calendar.[13]

March[edit]

April[edit]

  • 2 April: Saint Francis of Paola, Hermit – optional memorial
  • 4 April: Saint Isidore, Bishop and Doctor of the Church – optional memorial
  • 5 April: Saint Vincent Ferrer, Priest – optional memorial
  • 7 April: Saint John Baptist de la Salle, Priest – memorial
  • 11 April: Saint Stanislaus, Bishop and Martyr – memorial
  • 13 April: Saint Martin I, Pope and Martyr – optional memorial
  • 21 April: Saint Anselm, Bishop and Doctor of the Church – optional memorial
  • 23 April: Saint George, Martyr – optional memorial
  • 23 April: Saint Adalbert, Bishop and Martyr – optional memorial
  • 24 April: Saint Fidelis of Sigmaringen, Priest and Martyr – optional memorial
  • 25 April: Saint Mark, Evangelist – feast
  • 28 April: Saint Peter Chanel, Priest and Martyr – optional memorial
  • 28 April: Saint Louis Grignon de Montfort, Priest – optional memorial
  • 29 April: Saint Catherine of Siena, Virgin and Doctor of the Church – memorial
  • 30 April: Saint Pius V, Pope – optional memorial

May[edit]

^a On 25 January 2021, Pope Francis inscribed Saint John of Avila, Priest and Doctor of the Church, in the General Roman Calendar.[13]
^b On 25 January 2019, Pope Francis inscribed Saint Paul VI, Pope, in the General Roman Calendar.[14]
^c On 11 February 2018, Pope Francis inscribed Blessed Virgin Mary, Mother of the Church, in the General Roman Calendar.[15] In years when the memorial of the Mother of the Church coincides with another obligatory memorial, only the memorial of the Mother of the Church will be celebrated for that year.
^d The solemnity of the Most Holy Body and Blood of Christ can be transferred to the following Sunday in particular calendars.

June[edit]

^a The title Doctor of the Church was conferred to Saint Irenaeus by Pope Francis on 21 January 2022.[16]
^b In 2022, the solemnity of the Sacred Heart of Jesus coincided with the solemnity of the Nativity of John the Baptist. The Holy See kept the solemnity of the Sacred Heart on 24 June and brought forward the Nativity of John the Baptist to 23 June, except in locations where John the Baptist is the patron saint, where the reverse applied.[17]
^c In years when the memorial of the Immaculate Heart of the Blessed Virgin Mary coincides with another obligatory memorial, both must be considered optional for that year.[18]

July[edit]

^a Pope Francis raised the rank of the celebration of Saint Mary Magdalene to feast on 3 June 2016.[19]
^b Pope Francis decreed on 26 January 2021 that Saints Mary and Lazarus of Bethany are to be celebrated alongside of Saint Martha.[20]

August[edit]

September[edit]

^a On 25 January 2021, Pope Francis inscribed Saint Hildegard of Bingen, Virgin and Doctor of the Church, in the General Roman Calendar.[13]

October[edit]

^a On 18 May 2020, Pope Francis inscribed Saint Faustina Kowalska, Virgin, in the General Roman Calendar.[21]
^b On 29 May 2014, Pope Francis inscribed Saint John XXIII, Pope, in the General Roman Calendar.[22]
^c On 29 May 2014, Pope Francis inscribed Saint John Paul II, Pope, in the General Roman Calendar.[22]

November[edit]

December[edit]

^a On 31 October 2019, Pope Francis inscribed Our Lady of Loreto in the General Roman Calendar.[23]

Particular calendars[edit]

The General Calendar is printed, for instance, in the Roman Missal[24] and the Liturgy of the Hours.[25] These are up to date when printed, but additional feasts may be added later. For that reason, if those celebrating the liturgy have not inserted into the books a note about the changes, they must consult the current annual publication, known as the "Ordo", for their country or religious congregation. These annual publications, like those that, disregarding the feasts that are obligatory in the actual church where the liturgy is celebrated, list only celebrations included in the General Calendar,[26] are useful only for the current year, since they omit celebrations impeded because of falling on a Sunday or during periods such as Holy Week and the Octave of Easter.

This distinction is made in application of the decision of the Second Vatican Council: "Lest the feasts of the saints should take precedence over the feasts which commemorate the very mysteries of salvation, many of them should be left to be celebrated by a particular Church or nation or family of religious; only those should be extended to the universal Church which commemorate saints who are truly of universal importance."[27]

Institutional and societal calendars[edit]

National calendars[edit]

Personal jurisdiction calendars[edit]

Diocesan and parish calendars[edit]

The calendar for a diocese is typically based on a national calendar, with a few additions. For instance, the anniversary of the dedication of the cathedral is celebrated as a solemnity in the cathedral church and as a feast in all the other churches of the diocese. The feast day of the principal patron saint of the diocese is celebrated as a feast throughout the diocese.[28]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Catholic Church (1969). Calendarium Romanum (1969).
  2. ^ a b The Roman Missal (Liturgy Training Publications ISBN 978-1-56854-991-0)
  3. ^ a b "Missale Romanum 2002". Scribd.
  4. ^ Martyrologium Romanum (Typis Vaticanis, 2001 ISBN 88-209-7210-7)
  5. ^ "Memoria S. Christophori, anno circiter 1550 in Calendario romano ascripta, Calendariis particularibus relinquitur: quamvis Acta S. Christophori fabulosa sint, antiqua inveniuntur monumenta eius venerationis; attamen cultus huius Sancti non pertinet ad traditionem romanam" – Calendarium Romanum (Typis Polyglottis Vaticanis 1969), p. 131.
  6. ^ "Celebrating the Liturgy's Books". www.columbia.edu. Retrieved 6 November 2018.
  7. ^ "Proper of Saints | Christianity". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 6 November 2018.
  8. ^ "Definition of SANCTORALE". www.merriam-webster.com. Retrieved 6 November 2018.
  9. ^ "Dictionary : PROPER OF THE SAINTS". www.catholicculture.org. Retrieved 6 November 2018.
  10. ^ Cabrol, Fernand (1913). "Occurrence" . In Herbermann, Charles (ed.). Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  11. ^ "Catholic News, Commentary, Information, Resources, and the Liturgical Year". www.catholicculture.org.
  12. ^ a b "Calendarium Romanum Generale". Missale Romanum [Roman Missal] (in Latin) (Editio typica tertia, reimpressio emendata ed.). Libreria Editrice Vaticana. 2008. pp. 105–116. ISBN 978-88-2098-120-4.
  13. ^ a b c "Decree on the Inscription of the Celebrations of Saint Gregory of Narek, Abbot and Doctor of the Church, Saint John De Avila, Priest and Doctor of the Church and Saint Hildegard of Bingen, Virgin and Doctor of the Church, in the General Roman Calendar (25 January 2021)". www.vatican.va. Retrieved 2 February 2021.
  14. ^ "Decree on the Inscription of the Celebration of Saint Paul VI, Pope, in the General Roman Calendar (25 January 2019)". www.vatican.va. Retrieved 5 August 2022.
  15. ^ "Decree on the Celebration of the Blessed Virgin Mary Mother of the Church in the General Roman Calendar (11 February 2018)". www.vatican.va. Retrieved 5 August 2022.
  16. ^ "Decree of the Holy Father for the Conferral of the title of Doctor of the Church on Saint Irenaeus of Lyon (21 January 2022)". www.vatican.va. Retrieved 5 August 2022.
  17. ^ "Responsum ad dubia de calendario liturgico exarando pro Anno 2022 (11 May 2022)" (PDF). www.cultodivino.va. Retrieved 5 August 2022.
  18. ^ "De occurrentia memoriæ obligatoriæ Immaculati Cordis Beatæ Mariæ Virginis una cum altera memoria eiusdem gradus (8 December 1998)". www.vatican.va. Retrieved 5 August 2022.
  19. ^ "Decree (3 June 2016)" (PDF). www.vatican.va. Retrieved 5 August 2022.
  20. ^ "Decree on the Celebration of Saints Martha, Mary and Lazarus in the General Roman Calendar (26 January 2021)". www.vatican.va. Retrieved 5 August 2022.
  21. ^ "Decree on the Inscription of the Celebration of Saint Faustina Kowalska, Virgin, in the General Roman Calendar (18 May 2020)". www.vatican.va. Retrieved 5 August 2022.
  22. ^ a b "Decree (29 May 2014)". www.vatican.va. Retrieved 5 August 2022.
  23. ^ "Decree on the Celebration of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Loreto to be Inscribed in the General Roman Calendar (31 October 2019)". www.vatican.va. Retrieved 5 August 2022.
  24. ^ Missale Romanum, editio typica tertia 2002, Libreria Editrice Vaticana
  25. ^ Liturgia Horarum iuxta ritum Romanum, editio typica altera 2000, Libreria Editrice Vaticana
  26. ^ An example is Ordo Missae Celebrandae et Divini Officii persolvendi secundum calendarium Romanum generale pro anno liturgico 2006 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana).
  27. ^ "Sacrosanctum concilium". www.vatican.va. Archived from the original on 21 February 2008.
  28. ^ General Norms for the Liturgical Year and the Calendar, Table of Liturgical Days according to their order of precedence, 4 and 8.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]