General movements assessment

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Brain w/ white matter structure shown

A general movements assessment is a type of medical assessment used in the diagnosis of cerebral palsy.[1] It involves measuring movements that occur spontaneously among those less than four months of age and appears to be most accurate test for the condition.[1][2] These include the tonic neck reflex, grasp reflex, Moro reflex, tongue thrust reflex and rooting reflexes.[3] The quality of the child's general movements gives information about how the brain connects, particularly the periventricular white matter. The GMA is best performed 3 months post-term (if the child was born prematurely, the assessment date is not at three months old, but is conducted at the same time as if they were born at term).[4] At around that time, in typical infants, a pattern called 'fidgety movements' is evident, and if the movements are abnormal or the fidgety movements are not apparent, the child is at risk of developing CP.[5]

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  1. ^ a b McIntyre, S; Morgan, C; Walker, K; Novak, I (Nov 2011). "Cerebral palsy--don't delay.". Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews. 17 (2): 114–29. PMID 23362031. doi:10.1002/ddrr.1106. 
  2. ^ Bosanquet, M; Copeland, L; Ware, R; Boyd, R (May 2013). "A systematic review of tests to predict cerebral palsy in young children.". Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology. 55 (5): 418–26. PMID 23574478. doi:10.1111/dmcn.12140. 
  3. ^ Robin C. Meyers; Steven J. Bachrach; Virginia A. Stallings (2017). "Cerebral Palsy". In Shirley W. Ekvall; Valli K. Ekvall. Pediatric and Adult Nutrition in Chronic Diseases, Developmental Disabilities, and Hereditary Metabolic Disorders: Prevention, Assessment, and Treatment. Oxford Scholarship Online. ISBN 9780199398911. doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199398911.003.0009. Retrieved 1 August 2017. 
  4. ^ Hadders-Algra, Mijna (24 September 2014). "Early Diagnosis and Early Intervention in Cerebral Palsy". Frontiers in Neurology. 5. PMC 4173665Freely accessible. PMID 25309506. doi:10.3389/fneur.2014.00185. 
  5. ^ Herskind, Anna; Greisen, Gorm; Nielsen, Jens Bo (January 2015). "Early identification and intervention in cerebral palsy". Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology. 57 (1): 29–36. PMID 25041565. doi:10.1111/dmcn.12531.