General of The Salvation Army
|General of The Salvation Army|
|Residence||London, United Kingdom|
|Term length||Five years, which may be extended up to a maximum of seven years|
But must be under 68 years old
|Constituting instrument||Parliament of the United Kingdom[note 1]|
|Inaugural holder||William Booth|
General is the title of the international leader and Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of the Salvation Army, a Christian denomination with extensive charitable social services that gives quasi-military rank to its ministers (who are therefore known as officers). The General is elected by the High Council of The Salvation Army and serves a term of five years, which may be extended to seven years. Brian Peddle, the current general, assumed the position in August 2018 upon the retirement of Andre Cox. The organisation's founder, William Booth, was the first and longest-serving general. There have been 21 generals as of 2018.
History and procedures for election
Usage of the term "general" began with the founder of The Salvation Army, William Booth. His wife, Catherine Booth, the organisation's co-founder, became known as the "Mother" of The Salvation Army. General Booth served as general until his death in 1912; Booth selected his son, Bramwell Booth as his successor. It was William Booth's intention to have each general choose his successor, but the Salvation Army Act of 1931 passed by the Parliament of the United Kingdom requires that each general is selected by the High Council of The Salvation Army. Every general since Bramwell Booth has been selected by the High Council. In accordance with the Salvation Army Act of 1931, a general must "retire" at age 68 and may serve as long as seven years. The general is elected by the High Council when his predecessor retires or dies (known within the Salvation Army as being promoted to Glory). William Booth was the only general to die in office. The High Council is composed of the Chief of the Staff, all active commissioners, except the spouse of the incumbent general, and all territorial commanders. The High Council may also remove a general from office for violations of his "covenant to God", disability, or the inability to fulfill his duties, though this has never happened.
The officer of the Salvation Army who is elected general is the worldwide spiritual leader of the Salvation Army and the chief executive officer of the organization. The general has a role that is similar to the Pope's role within the Catholic Church. Since The Salvation Army maintains a hierarchical, quasi-military structure, all appointments and regulations are issued under the general's authority.
On January 31, 2011, after 10 days of meetings which began on January 21, 2011, the 17th High Council elected Linda Bond as the 19th General of The Salvation Army. Bond was the third woman to hold the post and the fourth Canadian. This election was handled by the largest High Council in history and was especially significant due to the number of women delegates (57) outnumbering the number of men delegates (52).
On 3 August 2013 the then-Commissioner Andre Cox was elected by the High Council of 2013 as the 20th General of The Salvation Army. The High Council of 2018 selected Brian Peddle as Cox's successor in May 2018; he took office in August 2018. 
List of living retired Generals
As of December 2020, there are five retired generals living. The most recent general to die was Bramwell Tillsley in November 2019.
The general serves as the Chief executive officer (CEO) of The Salvation Army at the international level, but the organization is divided into many subunits controlled by other individuals. For instance, Commissioner David Hudson, appointed by Cox, serves as the CEO of The Salvation Army of the United States.
Generals of The Salvation Army
||General||Took office||Left office||Nationality||Born||Died|
|1st||William Booth, OBE||2 July 1865||20 August 1912||10 April 1829||20 August 1912|
|2nd||Bramwell Booth, CH||21 August 1912||8 January 1929||8 March 1856||16 June 1929|
|3rd||Edward Higgins||13 February 1929||11 November 1934||26 November 1864||14 December 1947|
|4th||Evangeline Booth, OF||11 November 1934||1 November 1939||,||25 December 1865||17 July 1950|
|5th||George Carpenter||1 November 1939||21 June 1946||20 June 1872||9 April 1948|
|6th||Albert Orsborn||21 June 1946||1 July 1954||4 September 1886||4 February 1967|
|7th||Wilfred Kitching, CBE||1 July 1954||23 November 1963||22 August 1893||15 December 1977|
|8th||Frederick Coutts, CBE||23 November 1963||21 September 1969||21 September 1899||6 February 1986|
|9th||Erik Wickberg||21 September 1969||6 July 1974||6 July 1904||26 April 1996|
|10th||Clarence Wiseman, OC||6 July 1974||5 July 1977||19 June 1907||4 May 1985|
|11th||Arnold Brown, OC||5 July 1977||14 December 1981||13 December 1913||26 June 2002|
|12th||Jarl Wahlström||14 December 1981||9 July 1986||9 July 1918||3 December 1999|
|13th||Eva Burrows, AC||9 July 1986||9 July 1993||15 September 1929||20 March 2015|
|14th||Bramwell Tillsley||9 July 1993||18 May 1994||18 August 1931||2 November 2019|
|15th||Paul Rader||23 July 1994||23 July 1999||14 March 1934|
|16th||John Gowans||23 July 1999||13 November 2002||13 November 1934||8 December 2012|
|17th||John Larsson||13 November 2002||2 April 2006||2 April 1938|
|18th||Shaw Clifton||2 April 2006||2 April 2011||21 September 1945|
|19th||Linda Bond||2 April 2011||13 June 2013||22 June 1946|
|20th||Andre Cox||3 August 2013||3 August 2018||12 July 1954|
|21st||Brian Peddle||3 August 2018||Incumbent||9 August 1957|
Below is a timeline of Salvation Army Generals' terms in office.
- The Salvation Army Acts of 1931 and 1980 of the UK Parliament govern the selection of a general via the High Council of The Salvation Army.
- "The Salvation Army International - What is the High Council?". www.salvationarmy.org. Retrieved Dec 2, 2020.
- Coutts, John (1977). The Salvationists. Oxford, England: A R Mowbray & Co Ltd. p. 27. ISBN 0-264-66071-4.
- "Linda Bond Named General-Elect". New Frontier Online. New Frontier Publications. Retrieved 3 April 2012.
- "The Salvation Army International - Commissioner André Cox elected 20th General of The Salvation Army". www.salvationarmy.org. Retrieved Dec 2, 2020.
- "The Salvation Army International - 2018 High Council". www.salvationarmy.org. Retrieved Dec 2, 2020.