General of The Salvation Army
|General of The Salvation Army|
|Residence||London, United Kingdom|
Elected by the High Council of The Salvation Army by secret ballot
|Term length||Four years, which may be extended up to a maximum of seven years, depending upon the age at time of election.
But must be under 70 years old
|Inaugural holder||William Booth
General is the title of the international leader of the Salvation Army, a Christian denomination with extensive charitable social services that gives quasi-military rank to its ministers (who are therefore known as officers). André Cox is currently the General of The Salvation Army. Its founder William Booth was the longest serving general. There have been 20 generals as of 2016, 10 of whom were from Great Britain.
History and procedures for election
Usage of the term General began with the Founder of The Salvation Army, William Booth. His wife, Catherine Booth, became known as the "Mother" of The Salvation Army. General Booth passed on the command to his eldest son, Bramwell Booth, but all Generals after Bramwell Booth have been elected.
The office of General is not restricted by gender. Evangeline Booth, William's daughter, was elected fourth General of the Army, and Australian Eva Burrows was elected the thirteenth General. On January 31, 2011 Commissioner Linda Bond, a Canadian national, was named General-Elect of The Salvation Army and assumed office on April 2, 2011 following the retirement of General Shaw Clifton.
The Officer of The Salvation Army who is elected General is the worldwide spiritual leader of The Salvation Army. Since The Salvation Army maintains a quasi-military structure, all appointments are made, and all regulations issued, under the General's authority. Since the results of the 1929 High Council, and with the passage of The Salvation Army Act in the British Parliament in 1931, a General must "retire" at age 70. As of October 2016[update] there are 5 retired Generals still living.
The General is elected by the High Council when his or her predecessor is removed by the High Council, retires or dies (known within the Salvation Army as being promoted to Glory) while still in office. The High Council is made up of the Chief of the Staff, all active commissioners, except the spouse of the General, and all territorial commanders.
The 2006 High Council was held in Sunbury near London, England, from January 20 to January 28, 2006. The High Council elected Shaw Clifton who took office of the General after General Larsson retired on April 2, 2006.
On January 31, 2011, after 10 days of meetings which began on January 21, 2011, the 17th High Council elected Linda Bond as the 19th General of The Salvation Army. General Linda Bond is the third woman to hold the post and the fourth Canadian. This election was handled by the largest High Council in history and was especially significant due to the number of women delegates (57) outnumbering the number of men delegates (52).
On 3 August 2013 the then Commissioner Andre Cox was elected by the High Council of 2013 as the 20th General of The Salvation Army.
Generals of The Salvation Army
||General||Took office||Left office||Nationality||Born||Died|
|1st||William Booth||1865||1912||10 April 1829||20 August 1912|
|2nd||Bramwell Booth, CH||1912||1929||8 March 1856||16 June 1929|
|3rd||Edward Higgins||1929||1934||26 November 1864||14 December 1947|
|4th||Evangeline Booth, OF||1934||1939||25 December 1865||17 July 1950|
|5th||George Carpenter||1939||1946||20 June 1872||9 April 1948|
|6th||Albert Orsborn||1946||1954||4 September 1886||4 February 1967|
|7th||Wilfred Kitching, CBE||1954||1963||22 August 1893||15 December 1977|
|8th||Frederick Coutts, CBE||1963||1969||21 September 1899||6 February 1986|
|9th||Erik Wickberg||1969||1974||6 July 1904||26 April 1996|
|10th||Clarence Wiseman, OC||1974||1977||19 June 1907||4 May 1985|
|11th||Arnold Brown, OC||1977||1981||13 December 1913||26 June 2006|
|12th||Jarl Wahlström||1981||1986||9 July 1918||3 December 1999|
|13th||Eva Burrows, AC||1986||1993||15 September 1929||20 March 2015|
|14th||Bramwell Tillsley||July 1993||May 1994||18 August 1931|
|15th||Paul Rader||August 1994||July 1999||14 March 1934|
|16th||John Gowans||July 1999||September 2002||13 November 1934||8 December 2012|
|17th||John Larsson||September 2002||April 2006||2 April 1938|
|18th||Shaw Clifton||April 2006||April 2011||21 September 1945|
|19th||Linda Bond||2 April 2011||13 June 2013||22 June 1946|
|20th||Andre Cox||3 August 2013||Incumbent||12 July 1954|