Generation (particle physics)

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Generations of matter
Type First Second Third
up-type up charm top
down-type down strange bottom
charged electron muon tau
neutral electron neutrino muon neutrino tau neutrino

In particle physics, a generation (or family) is a division of the elementary particles. Between generations, particles differ by their flavour quantum number and mass, but their interactions are identical.

There are three generations according to the Standard Model of particle physics. Each generation is divided into two types of leptons and two types of quarks. The two leptons may be classified into one with electric charge −1 (electron-like) and one neutral (neutrino); the two quarks may be classified into one with charge −13 (down-type) and one with charge +23 (up-type).


Each member of a higher generation has greater mass than the corresponding particle of the previous generation, with the possible exception of the neutrinos (whose small but non-zero masses have not been accurately determined). For example, the first-generation electron has a mass of only 0.511 MeV/c2, the second-generation muon has a mass of 106 MeV/c2, and the third-generation tau has a mass of 1777 MeV/c2 (almost twice as heavy as a proton). This mass hierarchy[1] causes particles of higher generations to decay to the first generation, which explains why everyday matter (atoms) is made of particles from the first generation. Electrons surround a nucleus made of protons and neutrons, which contain up and down quarks. The second and third generations of charged particles do not occur in normal matter and are only seen in extremely high-energy environments such as cosmic rays or particle accelerators. The term generation was first introduced by Haim Harari in Les Houches Summer School, 1976.[2] [3]

Neutrinos of all generations stream throughout the universe but rarely interact with normal matter.[4] It is hoped that a comprehensive understanding of the relationship between the generations of the leptons may eventually explain the ratio of masses of the fundamental particles, and shed further light on the nature of mass generally, from a quantum perspective.[5]

Fourth generation[edit]

Fourth and further generations are considered to be unlikely. Some of the arguments against the possibility of a fourth generation are based on the subtle modifications of precision electroweak observables that extra generations would induce; such modifications are strongly disfavored by measurements. Furthermore, a fourth generation with a "light" neutrino (one with a mass less than about 45 GeV/c2) has been ruled out by measurements of the widths of the Z boson at CERN's Large Electron–Positron Collider (LEP).[6] Nonetheless, searches at high-energy colliders for particles from a fourth generation continue, but as yet no evidence has been observed.[7] In such searches, fourth-generation particles are denoted by the same symbols as third-generation ones with an added prime (e.g. b′ and t′).

According to the results of the statistical analysis by researchers from CERN, and Humboldt University of Berlin, the existence of further fermions can be excluded with a probability of 99.99999% (5.3 sigma). The researchers combined latest data collected by the particle accelerators LHC and Tevatron with many known measurements results relating to particles, such as the Z-boson or the top-quark. The most important data used for this analysis come from the discovery of the Higgs particle. In the Standard Model, the Higgs particle gives all other particles their mass. As additional fermions were not detected directly in accelerator experiments, they have to be heavier than the fermions known so far. Hence, these fermions would also interact with the Higgs particle more strongly. This interaction would have modified the properties of the Higgs particle such that this particle would not have been detected.[8]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ A. Blumhofer, M. Hutter (1997). Errata: B494 (1997) 485. "Family Structure from Periodic Solutions of an Improved Gap Equation". Nuclear Physics. B484: 80–96. Bibcode:1997NuPhB.484...80B. doi:10.1016/S0550-3213(96)00644-X. 
  2. ^ Harari, H. (1977). "Beyond charm". In Balian, R.; Llewellyn-Smith, C.H. Weak and Electromagnetic Interactions at High Energy, Les Houches, France, Jul 5- Aug 14, 1976. Les Houches Summer School Proceedings. 29. North-Holland. p. 613. 
  3. ^ Harari H. (1977). "Three generations of quarks and leptons" (PDF). In E. van Goeler, Weinstein R. (eds.). Proceedings of the XII Rencontre de Moriond. p. 170. SLAC-PUB-1974. 
  4. ^ "Experiment confirms famous physics model" (Press release). MIT News Office. 18 April 2007. 
  5. ^ M.H. Mac Gregor (2006). "A 'Muon Mass Tree' with α-quantized Lepton, Quark, and Hadron Masses". arXiv:hep-ph/0607233Freely accessible [hep-ph]. 
  6. ^ D. Decamp et al. (ALEPH collaboration) (1989). "Determination of the number of light neutrino species". Physics Letters B. 231 (4): 519. Bibcode:1989PhLB..231..519D. doi:10.1016/0370-2693(89)90704-1. 
  7. ^ C. Amsler et al. (Particle Data Group) (2008). "Review of Particle Physics: b′ (4th Generation) Quarks, Searches for" (PDF). Physics Letters B. 667 (1): 1–1340. Bibcode:2008PhLB..667....1A. doi:10.1016/j.physletb.2008.07.018. 
  8. ^ 12 matter particles suffice in nature Dec 13, 2012 Phys.Org