Genetic correlation

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

In multivariate behavioral & quantitative genetics, a genetic correlation (denoted or ) is the proportion of variance that two traits share due to genetic causes,[1][2] the correlation between the genetic influences on a trait and the genetic influences on a different trait[3][4][5][6][7][8][9] estimating the degree of pleiotropy or causal overlap. A genetic correlation of 0 implies that the genetic effects on one trait are independent of the other, while a correlation of 1 implies that all of the genetic influences on the two traits are identical. The bivariate genetic correlation can be generalized to inferring genetic latent variable factors across >2 traits using factor analysis. Genetic correlation models were introduced into behavioral genetics in the 1970s-1980s.

Genetic correlations have applications in validation of GWAS results, breeding, prediction of traits, and discovering the etiology of traits & diseases.

They can be estimated using twin studies and molecular genetics. Genetic correlations have been found to be common in non-human genetics[10] and to be broadly similar to their respective phenotypic correlations,[11] but also in human traits.[12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19] This finding of widespread pleiotropy has implications for artificial selection in agriculture, interpretation of phenotypic correlations, social inequality,[20] attempts to use Mendelian randomization in causal inference,[21][22][23][24][25] the understanding of the biological origins of complex traits, and the design of GWASes.

A genetic correlations is to be contrasted with environment correlations between the environments affecting two traits (e.g. if poor nutrition in a household caused both lower IQ and height); a genetic correlation between two traits can contribute to the observed (phenotypic) correlation between two traits, but genetic correlations can also be opposite observed phenotypic correlations if the environment correlation is sufficiently strong in the other direction, perhaps due to tradeoffs or specialization.[26][27]

Interpretation[edit]

Genetic correlations are not the same as heritability, as it is about the overlap between the two sets of influences and not their absolute magnitude; two traits could be both highly heritable but not be genetically correlated or have small heritabilities and be completely correlated (as long as the heritabilities are non-zero).

For example, consider two traits - dark skin and black hair. These two traits may individually have a very high heritability (most of the population-level variation in the trait due to genetic differences, or in simpler terms, genetics contributes significantly to these two traits), however, they may still have a very low genetic correlation if, for instance, these two traits were being controlled by different, non-overlapping, non-linked genetic loci.

A genetic correlation between two traits will tend to produce phenotypic correlations - e.g. the genetic correlation between intelligence and SES[14] or education and family SES[28] implies that intelligence/SES will also correlate phenotypically. The phenotypic correlation will be limited by the degree of genetic correlation and also by the heritability of each trait. The expected phenotypic correlation is the bivariate heritability' and can be calculated as the square roots of the heritabilities multiplied by the genetic correlation. (Using a Plomin example,[29] for two traits with heritabilities of 0.60 & 0.23, , and phenotypic correlation of r=0.45 the bivariate heritability would be , so of the observed phenotypic correlation, 0.28/0.45 = 62% of it is due to genetics.)

Cause[edit]

Genetic correlations can arise due to:[17]

  1. linkage disequilibrium (two neighboring genes tend to be inherited together, each affecting a different trait)
  2. biological pleiotropy (a single gene having multiple otherwise unrelated biological effects, or shared regulation of multiple genes[30])
  3. mediated pleiotropy (a gene causes trait X and trait X causes trait Y).
  4. biases: population stratification such as ancestry or assortative mating (sometimes called "gametic phase disequilibrium"), spurious stratification such as ascertainment bias/self-selection[31] or Berkson's paradox, or misclassification of diagnoses

Uses[edit]

Causes of changes in traits[edit]

Genetic correlations are scientifically useful because genetic correlations can be analyzed over time within an individual longitudinally[32] (e.g. intelligence is stable over a lifetime, due to the same genetic influences - childhood genetically correlates with old age[33]), or across studies or populations or ethnic groups/races, or across diagnoses, allowing discovery of whether different genes influence a trait over a lifetime (typically, they do not[3]), whether different genes influence a trait in different populations due to differing local environments, whether there is disease heterogeneity across times or places or sex (particularly in psychiatric diagnoses there is uncertainty whether 1 country's 'autism' or 'schizophrenia' is the same as another's or whether diagnostic categories have shifted over time/place leading to different levels of ascertainment bias), and to what degree traits like autoimmune or psychiatric disorders or cognitive functioning meaningfully cluster due sharing a biological basis and genetic architecture (for example, reading & mathematics disability genetically correlate, consistent with the Generalist Genes Hypothesis, and these genetic correlations explain the observed phenotypic correlations or 'co-morbidity';[34] IQ and specific measures of cognitive performance such as verbal, spatial, and memory tasks, reaction time, long-term memory, executive function etc. all show high genetic correlations as do neuroanatomical measurements, and the correlations may increase with age, with implications for the etiology & nature of intelligence). This can be an important constraint on conceptualizations of the two traits: traits which seem different phenotypically but which share a common genetic basis require an explanation for how these genes can influence both traits.

Boosting GWASes[edit]

Genetic correlations can be used in GWASes by using polygenic scores or genome-wide hits for one (often more easily measured) trait to increase the prior probability of variants for a second trait; for example, since intelligence and years of education are highly genetically correlated, a GWAS for education will inherently also be a GWAS for intelligence and be able to predict variance in intelligence as well[35] and the strongest SNP candidates can be used to increase the statistical power of a smaller GWAS,[36] or one could do a GWAS for multiple traits jointly.[37][38] Genetic correlations can also quantify the contribution of correlations <1 across datasets which might create a false "missing heritability", by estimating the extent to which differing measurement methods, racial influences, or environments create only partially overlapping sets of relevant genetic variants.[39]

Breeding[edit]

Hairless dogs have imperfect teeth; long-haired and coarse-haired animals are apt to have, as is asserted, long or many horns; pigeons with feathered feet have skin between their outer toes; pigeons with short beaks have small feet, and those with long beaks large feet. Hence if man goes on selecting, and thus augmenting any peculiarity, he will almost certainly modify unintentionally other parts of the structure, owing to the mysterious laws of correlation.

Genetic correlations are also useful in applied contexts such as plant/animal breeding by allowing substitution of more easily measured but highly genetically correlated characteristics (particularly in the case of sex-linked or binary traits under the liability-threshold model, where differences in the phenotype can rarely be observed but another highly correlated measure, perhaps an endophenotype, is available in all individuals), compensating for different environments than the breeding was carried out in, making more accurate predictions of breeding value using the multivariate breeder's equation as compared to predictions based on the univariate breeder's equation using only per-trait heritability & assuming independence of traits, and avoiding unexpected consequences by taking into consideration that artificial selection for/against trait X will also increase/decrease all traits which positively/negatively correlate with X.[40][41][42][43][44] The limits to selection set by the inter-correlation of traits, and the possibility for genetic correlations to change over long-term breeding programs, lead to Haldane's dilemma limiting the intensity of selection and thus progress.

Breeding experiments on genetically correlated traits can measure the extent to which correlated traits are inherently developmentally linked & response is constrained, and which can be dissociated.[45] Some traits, such as the size of eyespots on the butterfly Bicyclus anynana can be dissociated in breeding,[46] but other pairs, such as eyespot colors, have resisted efforts.[47]

Computing the genetic correlation[edit]

Genetic correlations require a genetically informative sample. They can be estimated by using breeding experiments on two traits of known heritability and selecting on one trait to measure the change in the other trait (allowing inferring the genetic correlation), family/adoption/twin studies (analyzed using SEMs or DeFries-Fulker extremes analysis), molecular estimation of relatedness such as GCTA,[48] methods employing polygenic scores like LD score regression,[15][49] BOLT-REML,[50] CPBayes,[51] or HESS,[52] comparison of genome-wide SNP hits in GWASes (as a loose lower bound), and phenotypic correlations of populations with at least some related individuals.[53] (As with estimating SNP heritability, the better computational scaling & the ability to estimate only using public polygenic scores is a particular advantage for LD score regression over competing methods, and combined with the increasing availability of polygenic scores from datasets like the UK Biobank has led to an explosion of genetic correlation research in the 2010s.) The methods are related to Haseman-Elston regression & PCGC regression.[54] Such methods are typically genome-wide, but it is also possible to estimate genetic correlations for specific variants or genome regions.[55]

One way to consider it is using trait X in twin 1 to predict trait Y in twin 2 for monozygotic and dizygotic twins (i.e. using twin 1's IQ to predict twin 2's brain volume); if this cross-correlation is larger for the more genetically-similar monozygotic twins than for the dizygotic twins, the similarity indicates that the traits are not genetically independent and there is some common genetics influencing both IQ and brain volume. (Statistical power can be boosted by using siblings as well.[56])

Genetic correlations are affected by methodological concerns; underestimation of heritability, such as due to assortative mating, will lead to overestimates of longitudinal genetic correlation,[57] and moderate levels of misdiagnoses can create pseudo correlations.[58] As they are affected by heritabilities of both traits, genetic correlations have low statistical power, especially in the presence of measurement errors biasing heritability downwards, because "estimates of genetic correlations are usually subject to rather large sampling errors and therefore seldom very precise": the standard error of an estimate is .[59] (Larger genetic correlations & heritabilities will be estimated more precisely.[60]) However, inclusion of genetic correlations in an analysis of a pleiotropic trait can boost power for the same reason that multivariate regressions are more powerful than separate univariate regressions.[61]

Twin methods have the advantage of being usable without detailed biological data, with human genetic correlations calculated as far back as the 1970s and animal/plant genetic correlations calculated in the 1930s, and require sample sizes in the hundreds for being well-powered, but they have the disadvantage of making assumptions which have been criticized, and in the case of rare traits like anorexia nervosa it may be difficult to find enough twins with a diagnosis to make meaningful cross-twin comparisons, and can only be estimated with access to the twin data; molecular genetic methods like GCTA or LD score regression have the advantage of not requiring specific degrees of relatedness and so can easily study rare traits using case-control designs, which also reduces the number of assumptions they rely on, but those methods could not be run until recently, require large sample sizes in the thousands or hundreds of thousands (to obtain precise SNP heritability estimates, see the standard error formula), may require individual-level genetic data (in the case of GCTA but not LD score regression)

Given a genetic covariance matrix, the genetic correlation is computed by standardizing this, i.e., by converting the covariance matrix to a correlation matrix. For example, if two traits, say height and weight have the following additive genetic variance-covariance matrix:

Height Weight
Height 36 36
Weight 36 117

Then the genetic correlation is .55, as seen is the standardized matrix below:

Height Weight
Height 1
Weight .55 1

In practice, structural equation modeling applications such as Mx or OpenMx (and before that, historically, LISREL[62]) are used to calculate both the genetic covariance matrix and its standardized form. In R, cov2cor() will standardize the matrix.

Typically, published reports will provide genetic variance components that have been standardized as a proportion of total variance (for instance in an ACE twin study model standardised as a proportion of V-total = A+C+E). In this case, the metric for computing the genetic covariance (the variance within the genetic covariance matrix) is lost (because of the standardizing process), so you cannot readily estimate the genetic correlation of two traits from such published models. Multivariate models (such as the Cholesky decomposition[better source needed]) will, however, allow the viewer to see shared genetic effects (as opposed to the genetic correlation) by following path rules. It is important therefore to provide the unstandardised path coefficients in publications.

Correlations[edit]

Human correlations[edit]

Genetic correlations, positive & negative, have been measured for a wide variety of human traits using primarily molecular genetic methods but also, historically, twins.

Anthropometric[edit]

  • facial averageness/attractiveness[63]
  • baldness[64]
  • tiredness/forced expiratory volume[65]
  • tiredness/grip strength[65]
  • tiredness/self-rated health[65]
  • tiredness/longevity[65]
  • self-reported health/longevity[66]
  • life satisfaction/positive affect[67]
  • exercise/longevity[68]
  • self-reported health/forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1)[66]
  • tiredness/obesity[65]
  • tiredness/BMI[65]
  • baseline BMI/increase in BMI[69]
  • chronotype/BMI[70]
  • undersleeping/BMI[70]
  • oversleeping/BMI[70]
  • morning chronotype/BMI[71]
  • difficulty sleeping/BMI[71]
  • difficulty sleeping/waist circumference[71]
  • difficulty sleeping/waist-hip ratio[71]
  • difficulty sleeping/neck bone mineral density[71]
  • daytime sleepiness/BMI[71]
  • daytime sleepiness/self-reported sleep duration[71]
  • daytime sleepiness/difficulty sleeping[71]
  • daytime sleepiness/waist circumference[71]
  • daytime sleepiness/waist-hip ratio[71]
  • sex/sleep pattern[72]
  • sex/sleep quality[72]
  • self-reported sleep duration/birth weight[71]
  • self-reported sleep duration/difficulty sleeping[71]
  • self-reported sleep duration/neck bone mineral density[71]
  • difficulty sleeping/birth weight[71]
  • insomnia/waist circumference[73]
  • insomnia/waist-to-hip ratio[73]
  • insomnia/hip circumference[73]
  • insomnia/body mass index[73]
  • insomnia/body mass index in childhood[73]
  • insomnia/head circumference in infancy[73]
  • gestational (pregnancy) weight gain / BMI[74]
  • gestational (pregnancy) weight gain / fasting glucose[74]
  • gestational (pregnancy) weight gain / type 2 diabetes[74]
  • breast size/BMI[75]
  • sweet taste perception/BMI[76]
  • ADHD/BMI[77]
  • monetary delay temporal discounting/BMI[78]
  • ADHD/extreme BMI[77]
  • ADHD/obesity class 1[77]
  • ADHD/obesity class 2[77]
  • ADHD/obesity class 3[77]
  • ADHD/overweight[77]
  • ADHD/waist-to-hip ratio[77]
  • ADHD/childhood obesity[77]
  • ADHD/type 2 diabetes[77]
  • tiredness/waist-hip ratio[65]
  • major depressive disorder/waist-hip ratio (WHR)[79]
  • major depressive disorder/obesity[80]
  • self-reported health/BMI[66]
  • early puberty/BMI[81]
  • age at first sex/BMI[82]
  • exercise/BMI[83]
  • exercise/waist circumference[83]
  • body fat percentage/cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max)[84]
  • BMI/waist circumference[83]
  • waist-hip ratio/BMI[85]
  • fasting insulin/BMI[85]
  • fasting glucose/waist-hip ratio[85]
  • heart rate recovery/vagal rebound[86]
  • longevity/resting heart rate[87]
  • exercise/resting heart rate[86][88]
  • exercise/heart rate recovery[86]
  • exercise/respiratory sinus arrhythmia[88]
  • ambulatory heart period/respiratory sinus arrhythmia[89]
  • respiration rate/respiratory sinus arrhythmia[89][90]
  • weight/height[91]
  • spousal height[92]
  • birth weight//infant head circumference[93]
  • birth weight/birth length[93]
  • birth weight/childhood height[93]
  • birth weight/adult height[93]
  • birth weight/waist circumference[93]
  • birth weight/hip circumference[93]
  • birth weight/BMI[93]
  • spousal BMI[92]
  • birth weight/childhood obesity[93]
  • birth weight/adult obesity[93]
  • birth weight/pubertal growth[93]
  • peak weight velocity/childhood obesity[94]
  • peak weight velocity/birth length[94]
  • peak weight velocity/adult height[94]
  • peak weight velocity/waist circumference[94]
  • BMI at peak adiposity/childhood obesity[94]
  • BMI at peak adiposity/adult BMI[94]
  • BMI at peak adiposity/overweight as adult[94]
  • BMI at peak adiposity/adult low-risk obesity class 1[94]
  • age at adiposity rebound/age at menarche[94]
  • age at adiposity rebound/childhood obesity[94]
  • age at adiposity rebound/fasting insulin levels[94]
  • age at adiposity rebound/adult BMI[94]
  • age at adiposity rebound/waist circumference[94]
  • BMI at adiposity rebound/age at menarche[94]
  • BMI at adiposity rebound/childhood obesity[94]
  • BMI at adiposity rebound/adult BMI[94]
  • BMI at adiposity rebound/waist circumference[94]
  • age at first sex/height[82]
  • age at first sex/birth weight[82]
  • age at first sex/birth length[82]
  • early puberty/age at first sex[82]
  • early puberty/age at first birth[82]
  • age at first sex/age at first birth[82]
  • age at first sex/age at menarche[82]
  • age at first sex/age at voice breaking[82]
  • age at first sex/age at menopause[82]
  • age at first sex/number of sexual partners[82]
  • age at first sex/number of children ever born[82]
  • age at first sex/childless[82]
  • age at first sex/happiness[82]
  • age at first birth/age at menarche[95]
  • age at first birth/age at menopause[95]
  • menopause/ADHD[77]
  • age at first birth/voice breaking[95]
  • age at first birth/polycystic ovary syndrome[95]
  • age at first birth/age at first sexual intercourse[95]
  • age at first birth/birth weight[95]
  • age at first birth/years of education[95]
  • age at first birth/cigarettes per day[95]
  • age at first birth/ever smoked[95]
  • age at first birth/age onset of smoking[95]
  • age at first birth/triglycerides[95]
  • age at first birth/type 2 diabetes[95]
  • age at first birth/fasting insulin level[95]
  • age at first birth/waist-hip ratio[95]
  • spousal waist-to-hip ratio[92]
  • age at first birth/BMI[95]
  • age at first birth/height[95]
  • age at first birth/major depressive disorder[96]
  • age at first birth/ADHD[77]
  • number of children ever born (fertility)/age at first sexual intercourse[95]
  • number of children ever born/years of education[95]
  • number of children ever born/number of grandchildren ever born[97]
  • anthropometric measurements made on the 6 major sub-populations of the Solomon Islands (Harvard Solomon Islands Project)[98]
    • weight
    • sitting height
    • height
    • biacromial diameter
    • bicristal diameter (biiliac breadth)
    • chest breadth
    • foot length
    • total facial height
    • upper facial height
    • nose length
    • nose breadth
    • bicondylar humerus diameter
    • wrist breadth
    • hand breadth
    • hand length
    • bicondylar femur diameter
    • foot breadth
    • head length
    • head breadth
    • minimum frontal diameter
    • bizygomatic diameter
    • bigonial diameter
    • head circumference
    • upper arm circumference
    • calf circumference
    • triceps skinfold thickness
    • subscapular skinfold thickness
  • intracranial volume/height[99]
  • intracranial volume/child head circumference[99]
  • intracranial volume/birth length[99]
  • intracranial volume/birth weight[99]
  • birth length/intelligence[100]
  • birth weight/intelligence[100]
  • head motion/BMI[101]
  • head motion/waist circumference[101]
  • head motion/hypertension[101]
  • head motion/monetary delay temporal discounting[101]
  • parents' ages at death[77]
    • father's age at death[77]
    • mother's age at death[77]
  • mosquito bite size / itch intensity[102]
  • mosquito attractiveness / mosquito bite size / itch intensity[102]
  • DHEA/pubertal status[103]
  • DHEA/testosterone[103]

Neuroanatomical[edit]

Intelligence[edit]

  • intelligence longitudinal stability and consistency [33][57][140][141][142][143][144][145][100][131]
  • cognitive performance & neuroanatomical properties[104][107][110][111][113][118][120][130]
  • behavioral/emotional problems in children[146]
  • intelligence/reading[147][148]
  • intelligence/longevity[149]
  • tiredness/verbal-numerical reasoning [65]
  • self-reported health/intelligence[66]
  • age at first sex/intelligence[82]
  • intelligence/Openness[100][150]
  • intelligence/Conscientiousness[150][151]
  • intelligence/Neuroticism[20][131] [152]
    • Neuroticism worry-vulnerability facet/verbal numerical reasoning/years of education[152]
  • intelligence/anxiety[100]
  • intelligence/socioeconomic status (SES)[14][20][153]
  • intelligence/verbal-numerical reasoning/processing speed/short-term memory/Trail Making test[154]
  • spatial reasoning[155]
  • Coronary artery disease/verbal-numerical reasoning[13]
  • Stroke: ischaemic/verbal-numerical reasoning[13]
  • Stroke: cardioembolic/verbal-numerical reasoning[13]
  • Stroke: large vessel disease/verbal-numerical reasoning[13]
  • Stroke: small vessel disease/verbal-numerical reasoning[13]
  • Type 2 diabetes/verbal-numerical reasoning[13]
  • ADHD/verbal-numerical reasoning[13][156]
  • ADHD/intelligence[100][157]
  • ADHD/childhood IQ[77]
  • insomnia/childhood IQ[73]
  • Alzheimer's disease/verbal-numerical reasoning[13][131]
  • Autism/verbal-numerical reasoning[13][158]
  • autism/intelligence[100][131]
  • Bipolar disorder/verbal-numerical reasoning[13]
  • Major depressive disorder/verbal-numerical reasoning[13][131]
  • schizophrenia/intelligence[159][160][161][162][163][164][165][100][166][131]
    • Schizophrenia/verbal-numerical reasoning[13]
    • Schizophrenia/memory[13]
    • Schizophrenia/reaction time[13]
    • Schizophrenia/educational attainment[13][167]
  • intelligence/temperament[168][169]
  • Hippocampal volume/verbal-numerical reasoning[13]
  • Intracranial volume (ICV)/verbal-numerical reasoning[13]
  • intracranial volume/childhood cognitive function[99]
  • intracranial volume/adult cognitive function[99]
  • Infant head circumference/verbal-numerical reasoning[13]
  • Infant head circumference/intelligence[100][131]
  • Blood pressure: diastolic/verbal-numerical reasoning[13]
  • Blood pressure: systolic/verbal-numerical reasoning[13]
  • BMI/verbal-numerical reasoning[13][131]
  • intelligence/weight[91]
  • Height/verbal-numerical reasoning[13]
  • intelligence/height[20][91][170][171][172][173][174][131][175]
  • Longevity/verbal-numerical reasoning[13]
  • Forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)/verbal-numerical reasoning[13]
  • Childhood cognitive ability/verbal-numerical reasoning[13]
  • Coronary artery disease/reaction time[13]
  • Stroke: ischaemic/reaction time[13]
  • Stroke: cardioembolic/reaction time[13]
  • Stroke: large vessel disease/reaction time[13]
  • Stroke: small vessel disease/reaction time[13]
  • Type 2 diabetes/reaction time[13]
  • ADHD/reaction time[13][156]
  • Alzheimer's disease/reaction time[13]
  • Autism/reaction time[13]
  • Bipolar disorder/reaction time[13]
  • Major depressive disorder/reaction time[13]
  • Hippocampal volume/reaction time[13]
  • Intracranial volume/reaction time[13]
  • Infant head circumference/reaction time[13]
  • Blood pressure: diastolic/reaction time[13]
  • Blood pressure: systolic/reaction time[13]
  • BMI/reaction time[13]
  • Height/reaction time[13]
  • Longevity/reaction time[13]
  • Forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)/reaction time[13]
  • Childhood cognitive ability/reaction time[13]
  • Coronary artery disease/memory[13]
  • Stroke: ischaemic/memory[13]
  • Stroke: cardioembolic/memory[13]
  • Stroke: large vessel disease/memory[13]
  • Stroke: small vessel disease/memory[13]
  • Type 2 diabetes/memory[13]
  • ADHD/memory[13]
  • Alzheimer's disease/memory[13]
  • Autism/memory[13]
  • Bipolar disorder/memory[13]
  • Major depressive disorder/memory[13]
  • Hippocampal volume/memory[13]
  • Intracranial volume/memory[13]
  • Infant head circumference/memory[13]
  • Blood pressure: diastolic/memory[13]
  • Blood pressure: systolic/memory[13]
  • BMI/memory[13]
  • Height/memory[13]
  • Longevity/memory[13]
  • Forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)/memory[13]
  • Childhood cognitive ability/memory[13]
  • go-no-go/fast task reaction time[156]
  • intelligence/reaction-time variability[156]
  • intelligence/reaction-time[156]
  • reaction-time variability/ADHD[156][176][177][178][179][180]
  • reaction-time/reaction-time variability[156]
  • frequency of talking or texting on smartphone/intelligence[181]
  • intelligence/waist-hip ratio[131]
  • intelligence/waist circumference[131]
  • monetary delay temporal discounting/childhood IQ[78]
Education[edit]

Psychological[edit]

  • food fussiness/food neophobia[244]
  • dental fear/fear of pain[245]
  • carry a tune/clap to a beat[239]
  • carry a tune/perfect pitch[239]
  • carry a tune/sing back musical notes[239]
  • phonological coding/pig Latin task[246]
  • phonological coding/rhyme-generation[246]
  • longitudinal stability of planning/behavioral disinhibition (Porteus Maze Test)[247]
  • longitudinal stability of personality[145]
  • risk-taking behavior of various kinds (natural/physical, moral, financial, reproductive, competitive, safety, gambling)[248]

Psychiatric[edit]

  • personality traits[249]
  • personality traits/psychiatric disorders[250]
  • personality traits/borderline personality disorder[251]
  • intellectual disabilities[252][253][254][255][256][257]
  • psychiatric illnesses/property crime[263]
  • schizophrenia/epilepsy[264]
  • schizophrenia/bipolar disorder[37][250][265][266][267][268]
    • bipolar subtype 1/bipolar subtype 2/schizophrenia[269]
  • schizophrenia/childhood-adolescent depression[270]
  • schizophrenia/oppositional defiant disorder+conduct disorder (ODD/CD)[270]
  • ADHD/conduct disorder[271]
  • schizophrenia/trauma[272]
  • PTSD/schizophrenia[273]
  • PTSD/bipolar disorder[273]
  • schizophrenia/family history of psychological disorders[272]
  • schizophrenia/ADHD[270][274]
  • schizophrenia/brain-volumes[275][276]
  • schizophrenia/major depressive disorder[267][277]
    • earlier-onset major depressive disorder (MDD)/adult-onset MDD/schizophrenia/bipolar disorder[278]
    • 10 subgroups of major depressive disorder[277]
  • mood instability/major depressive disorder[279]
  • major depressive disorder/Alzheimer's disease[277]
  • major depressive disorder/HDL cholesterol[277][79]
  • major depressive disorder/LDL cholesterol[277][79]
  • major depressive disorder/alcohol consumption[277]
  • major depressive disorder/diastolic blood pressure[277]
  • major depressive disorder/eczema[277]
  • major depressive disorder/migraine[277]
  • major depressive disorder/morning chronotype[277]
  • major depressive disorder/pulse blood pressure[277]
  • major depressive disorder/systolic blood pressure[277]
  • major depressive disorder/triglycerides[277][79]
  • mood instability/schizophrenia[279]
  • Openness/schizophrenia[250]
  • schizophrenia/autism[267]
  • sleep/schizophrenia[280]
  • tiredness/schizophrenia[65]
  • self-reported health/schizophrenia[66]
  • creativity/schizophrenia[281]
  • age at first sex/schizophrenia[82]
  • schizophrenia/HIV infection/risky sexual behavior[282][283]
  • Empathy Quotient score/schizophrenia[240]
  • self-reported sleep duration/schizophrenia[284]
  • daytime sleepiness/schizophrenia[71]
  • bipolar disorder/rheumatoid arthritis[48]
  • ADHD/rheumatoid arthritis[77]
  • bipolar disorder/type 2 diabetes[48]
  • bipolar disorder/major depressive disorder[250][267]
  • bipolar disorder/creativity[281]
  • Conscientiousness/bipolar disorder[250]
  • Openness/bipolar disorder[250]
  • Openness/major depressive disorder[250]
  • self-reported sleep duration/bipolar disorder[71]
  • age at first sex/bipolar disorder[82]
  • Empathy Quotient score/bipolar disorder[240]
  • Systemizing Quotient-Revised (SQ-R)/bipolar disorder[240]
  • brain region activation/bipolar disorder[285]
  • ADHD: inattention/hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms[286][287] [288]
  • ADHD: longitudinal instability[289]
  • tiredness/ADHD[65]
  • major depressive disorder/ADHD[267][77]
  • depressive symptoms/ADHD[77]
  • self-reported health/ADHD[66]
  • autism/ADHD[290][291]
  • PGC mental illness factor/ADHD[77]
  • Extraversion/ADHD[250]
  • Neuroticism/ADHD[77]
  • monetary delay temporal discounting/attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)[78]
  • monetary delay temporal discounting/schizophrenia[78]
  • monetary delay temporal discounting/major depressive disorder[78]
  • monetary delay temporal discounting/Neuroticism[78]
  • age at first sex/autism[82]
  • Empathy Quotient score/autism[240]
  • Systemizing Quotient-Revised (SQ-R)/autism[240]
  • age at first sex/ADHD[82]
  • ADHD/tics[292]
  • ADHD/obsessive-compulsive[292][293]
  • intracranial volume/ADHD[276]
  • ADHD/bipolar disorder[294]
  • longitudinal stability of ADHD[291]
  • ADHD/affective problems[295]
  • hyperactivity-impulsivity / aggression[296]
    • self-control/juvenile crime and delinquency[297]
    • attention problems/delinquency[298]
  • ADHD/oppositional-conduct problems[299] [300] [301] [302] [303]
    • hyperactivity/oppositional-conduct problems[304]
  • tiredness/bipolar disorder[65]
  • tiredness/major depressive disorder[65]
  • daytime sleepiness/major depressive disorder[71]
  • difficulty sleeping/major depressive disorder[71]
  • self-reported health/major depressive disorder[66]
  • schizophrenia/major depressive disorder[250][305]
  • bipolar disorder/major depressive disorder[305]
  • age at first sex/major depressive disorder[82]
  • migraine/Neuroticism[306]
  • tiredness/Neuroticism[65]
  • self-reported health/Neuroticism[66]
  • Grit/Conscientiousness[213]
  • Conscientiousness/Extraversion[250][307]
  • Neuroticism: 2 subgroups[277]
    • Neuroticism worry-vulnerability facet/Neuroticism anxiety-tension facet[152]
    • Neuroticism/Neuroticism worry-vulnerability facet[152]
    • Neuroticism/Neuroticism anxiety-tension facet[152]
  • Neuroticism/Extraversion[214][250][307]
  • Neuroticism/household income[152]
  • Neuroticism/social deprivation[152]
  • Neuroticism/age at first birth[152]
  • Neuroticism worry-vulnerability facet/self-reported health[152]
  • Neuroticism worry-vulnerability facet/parental longevity[152]
  • Neuroticism worry-vulnerability facet/household income[152]
  • Neuroticism worry-vulnerability facet/social deprivation[152]
  • Neuroticism worry-vulnerability facet/age at first birth[152]
  • Neuroticism worry-vulnerability facet/obesity[152]
  • Neuroticism worry-vulnerability facet/BMI[152]
  • Neuroticism anxiety-tension facet/self-reported health[152]
  • Neuroticism anxiety-tension facet/parental longevity[152]
  • Neuroticism anxiety-tension facet/household income[152]
  • Neuroticism anxiety-tension facet/social deprivation[152]
  • Neuroticism anxiety-tension facet/age at first birth[152]
  • Neuroticism anxiety-tension facet/obesity[152]
  • Neuroticism anxiety-tension facet/BMI[152]
  • Neuroticism anxiety-tension facet/systolic blood pressure[152]
  • Neuroticism anxiety-tension facet/diastolic blood pressure[152]
  • Openness/Extraversion[214][307]
  • Extraversion: sociability and impulsiveness facets[308]
  • Social Anxiety Score/Extraversion[309]
  • frequency of talking or texting on smartphone/Extraversion[181][250]
  • Neuroticism/Conscientiousness[214][250][307]
  • Openness/Conscientiousness[250][307]
  • Openness/Neuroticism[250][307]
  • Agreeableness/Conscientiousness[250]
  • Agreeableness/Extraversion[250]
  • Agreeableness/Neuroticism[250]
  • Agreeableness/major depressive disorder[250]
  • Conscientiousness/major depressive disorder[250]
  • Conscientiousness/autism spectrum disorder[250]
  • Agreeableness/autism spectrum disorder[250]
  • Eyes Test empathy score/Openness[138]
  • Eyes Test empathy score/self-reported empathy (Empathy Quotient)[138]
  • Neuroticism, Extraversion, Psychoticism, social attitudes scale, Wilson conservatism scale longitudinal stability[6]
  • Neuroticism/loneliness[310]
  • Extraversion/loneliness[310]
  • Extraversion/bipolar disorder[250]
  • depression symptoms/loneliness[310]
  • behavioral/emotional problems in children[146][311][312][313][314]
    • longitudinal stability of childhood aggression[315]
  • antisocial behavior/Extraversion[316]
  • antisocial behavior/Agreeableness[316]
  • antisocial behavior/Conscientiousness[316]
  • antisocial behavior/sensation seeking[316]
  • antisocial behavior/urgency[316]
  • antisocial behavior/lack of premeditation[316]
  • antisocial behavior/lack of perseverance[316]
  • antisocial behavior/Psychoticism[316]
  • antisocial behavior/novelty seeking[316]
  • antisocial behavior/impulsivity[316]
  • antisocial behavior/reward dependence[316]
  • antisocial behavior/depressive symptoms[317]
  • longitudinal stability of antisocial symptoms[317]
  • longitudinal stability of depressive symptoms[317]
  • unipolar/bipolar depression[318]
  • age at first sex/Alzheimers[82]
  • age at first sex/risk-taking propensity[82]
  • age at first sex/suffer from nerves[82]
  • age at first sex/irritable personality[82]
  • self-reported health/anorexia nervosa[66]
  • age at first sex/anorexia nervosa[82]
  • obsessive-compulsive disorder/anorexia nervosa[319]
  • Bipolar disorder/anorexia nervosa[250]
  • Eyes Test empathy score/anorexia nervosa[138]
  • Empathy Quotient score/anorexia nervosa[240]
  • Systemizing Quotient-Revised (SQ-R)/anorexia nervosa[240]
  • Tourette syndrome/obsessive-compulsive disorder[293][320][321]
  • hoarding/obsessive-compulsive syndrome[322][323]
  • obsessive-compulsive disorder inventory/inventory subscales (checking, hoarding, obsessing, ordering, and washing)[324][325]
  • excessive object acquisition/difficulties discarding possessions[326]
  • compulsive hoarding/tics[322]
  • obsessive-compulsive syndrome/tics[292][322]
  • panic disorder/generalised anxiety disorder/phobias/obsessive-compulsive disorder/post-traumatic stress disorder[327][328][329]
  • Neuroticism/phobia[272]
  • Neuroticism/panic[272]
  • bulimia/anorexia nervosa[330]
  • Right temporal pole surface area/anorexia nervosa[276]
  • weight and shape concerns and behaviors/binge eating[331]
  • obesity/binge eating[332]
  • purging/binge eating[333]
  • body dissatisfaction / weight preoccupation / binge eating[334]
  • major depressive disorder/anorexia nervosa[335]
  • Neuroticism/anorexia nervosa[250][336]
  • Schizophrenia/anorexia nervosa[250][336]
  • Conscientiousness/schizophrenia[250]
  • Psychiatric factor/anorexia nervosa[336]
  • Years of education/anorexia nervosa[336]
  • College attendance/anorexia nervosa[336]
  • Extreme BMI/anorexia nervosa[336]
  • Body fat percentage/anorexia nervosa[336]
  • major depressive disorder/body fat percentage[79]
  • Overweight/anorexia nervosa[336]
  • Hip circumference/anorexia nervosa[336]
  • HDL cholesterol/anorexia nervosa[336]
  • Phospholipids in large HDL/anorexia nervosa[336]
  • Concentration of large HDL particles/anorexia nervosa[336]
  • Total lipids in large HDL/anorexia nervosa[336]
  • Cholesterol esters in large HDL/anorexia nervosa[336]
  • Free cholesterol in large HDL/anorexia nervosa[336]
  • Total cholesterol in large HDL/anorexia nervosa[336]
  • Fasting glucose/anorexia nervosa[336]
  • HOMA-Beta/anorexia nervosa[336]
  • Fasting insulin/anorexia nervosa[336]
  • HOMA-IR/anorexia nervosa[336]
  • major depressive disorder/bulimia[337]
  • Right temporal pole surface area/major depressive disorder[276]
  • dementia with Lewy bodies/Alzheimers[338]
  • dementia with Lewy bodies/Parkinson's[338]
  • Alzheimers/Parkinson's[338]
  • difficulty sleeping/Alzheimer's disease[71]
  • intracranial volume/Parkinson's disease[99]
  • hippocampal volume/Alzheimer's disease[339]
  • autism/Social and Communication Disorders Checklist[158]
  • childhood sexual abuse/age at first sex[340]
  • stressful life-events/psychotic events[341]
  • Subjective well-being / depressive symptoms[67][96]
  • insomnia/subjective well-being[73]
  • Subjective well-being / Neuroticism[67]
  • Subjective well-being/ADHD[77]
  • Neuroticism/major depressive disorder[250][96][277] [152]
  • Depressive symptoms / Neuroticism[67][272][96]
  • menstrual symptoms/anxiety/depression/Neuroticism[342]
  • life satisfaction/Neuroticism[343]
  • positive affect/Neuroticism[343]
  • Anxiety disorders / subjective well-being[67]
  • Anxiety disorders / Neuroticism[67][272]
  • Anxiety disorders / depressive symptoms[67]
  • insomnia/anxiety disorders[73]
  • insomnia/depressive symptoms[73]
  • insomnia/Neuroticism[73]
  • insomnia/major depressive disorder[73]
  • insomnia/Alzheimer's disease[73]
  • Autism spectrum disorder / subjective well-being[67]
  • Autism spectrum disorder / Neuroticism[67]
    • Neuroticism worry-vulnerability facet/autism spectrum disorder[152]
  • intracranial volume/autism spectrum disorder[276]
  • Bipolar disorder / subjective well-being[67]
  • Bipolar disorder / Neuroticism[67]
    • Neuroticism anxiety-tension facet/bipolar disorder[152]
  • Bipolar disorder / depressive symptoms[67]
  • Schizophrenia / subjective well-being[67]
  • Schizophrenia / Neuroticism[67][152]
    • Neuroticism anxiety-tension facet/schizophrenia[152]
    • Neuroticism worry-vulnerability facet/schizophrenia[152]
  • Schizophrenia / depressive symptoms[67][272]
  • PGC psychiatric disorders factor/major depressive disorder[96]
  • schizophrenia/anxiety[272]
  • BMI / depressive symptoms[67][79]
  • mood disorders/cardio-metabolic diseases[344]
  • Coronary artery disease / depressive symptoms[67][79]
  • Coronary artery disease/Neuroticism[67][272][152]
  • depressive symptoms/hypertension[345]
  • depressive symptoms/heart disease[345]
  • depressive symptoms/HDL[346]
  • depressive symptoms/total cholesterol[346]
  • HDL/total cholesterol[346]
  • general anxiety disorder/major depressive disorder[347][348][349][350][351][352][353]
  • burnout/major depressive order[352]
  • burnout/general anxiety disorder[352]
  • major depressive disorder/phobias (agoraphobia / social / animal / situational phobia)[354]
  • phobias/panic disorder/bulimia nervosa[353][355][356][357][358][359][360]
  • longitudinal tinnitus[361]
  • tinnitus/poorer hearing threshold[361]
  • independent living/subjective well-being[362]
  • independent living/intelligence[362]
  • independent living/schizophrenia[362]
  • independent living/bipolar disorder[362]
  • independent living/major depressive disorder[362]
Drug use[edit]
  • lifetime use of marijuana/smoking[363]
  • tiredness/smoking status[65]
  • sugar consumption/drug use[364]
  • age at first sex/ever-smoker[82]
  • age at first sex/cigarettes per day[82]
  • monetary delay temporal discounting/lifetime smoking[78]
  • monetary delay temporal discounting/former smoker[78]
  • self-reported sleep duration/cigarettes per day[71]
  • difficulty sleeping/cigarettes per day[71]
  • daytime sleepiness/cigarettes per day[71]
  • age at first sex/smoking at onset[82]
  • alcohol consumption/alcohol dependence[365][366][367] (sex-varying correlations)[368]
  • age at first sex/alcohol consumption[82]
  • alcohol consumption/ventral striatum activity/ADHD[369]
  • alcohol abuse/alcohol dependency[370]
  • alcohol abuse/alcohol consumption[370]
  • cigarette/alcohol/marijuana problem use[371]
  • cigarette/alcohol/other substance use[372]
  • alcohol consumption/cigarette smoking/coffee drinking[373]
  • alcohol abuse/cigarette smoking[370][374][375]
    • heavy smoking/heavy alcohol consumption[376]
    • age at onset of smoking/age at regular drinking[374]
    • alcohol consumption/smoking: pack-years[377]
    • alcohol consumption/cigarettes per day[377]
    • alcohol consumption/years smoker[377]
  • alcohol abuse/years of education[370]
  • alcohol abuse/BMI[370]
  • alcohol abuse/ADHD[370]
  • alcohol consumption/coffee consumption[377]
    • heavy smoking/heavy coffee drinking[376]
  • cigarettes/marijuana use[374]
  • alcohol consumption/ApoA-l cholesterol[377]
  • alcohol consumption/HDL2 cholesterol[377]
  • alcohol consumption/mean corpuscular volume (MCV)[377]
  • alcohol consumption/HDL cholesterol[378][377]
  • alcohol consumption/overweightness (obesity class 1/2)[378]
  • alcohol consumption/lung cancer[378]
  • ADHD/lung cancer[77]
  • ADHD/ever smoker[77]
  • ADHD/former smoker[77]
  • ADHD/lung cancer[77]
  • ADHD/cigarettes per day[77]
  • alcohol consumption/childhood height[378]
  • alcohol consumption/severe obesity[378]
  • alcohol consumption/age at menarche[378]
  • alcohol consumption/chronotype[378]
  • alcohol consumption/body mass index[378]
  • alcohol consumption/hip circumference[378]
  • alcohol consumption/fasting insulin[378]
  • female alcohol consumption/LDL cholesterol[378]
  • female alcohol consumption/triglycerides[378]
  • childhood conduct disorder/alcohol abuse[379] [380]
  • adult antisocial behaviors/alcohol abuse[380]
  • alcohol abuse (AD)/antisocial personality disorder (APSD) in men[381]
  • Ever-smoker / subjective well-being[67]
  • Ever-smoker / neuroticism[67][152]
    • Neuroticism worry-vulnerability facet/smoking[152]
    • Neuroticism anxiety-tension facet/smoking[152]
  • Ever-smoker / depressive symptoms[67]
  • insomnia/ever-smoker[73]
  • insomnia/cigarettes per day[73]
  • Smoking/education[382]
  • Smoking/intelligence[100][131]
  • smoking/alcohol drinking[383][378]
  • smoking/BMI[383]
  • alcohol drinking/education[382]
    • female alcohol consumption/college completion[378]
    • female alcohol consumption/years of schooling[378]
  • alcoholism/divorce[384]
  • alcohol effects on arithmetic performance / alcohol effects on motor coordination[385]
  • willingness to drive drunk/Eysenck personality scales[386]
  • executive function/substance abuse/substance dependency, longitudinal[387]
  • schizophrenia
    • alcohol consumption/schizophrenia[378]
    • schizophrenia/marijuana use[388]
    • schizophrenia/nicotine or alcohol or cocaine[389][272]
  • longitudinal stability of gambling[390]

Biological[edit]

  • blood levels of metabolites[391]
  • tiredness/HDL cholesterol[65]
  • tiredness/HbA1c[65]
  • tiredness/triglycerides[65]
  • self-reported health/systolic and diastolic blood pressure[66]
  • birth weight/diastolic blood pressure[93]
  • birth weight/systolic blood pressure[93]
  • birth weight/total cholesterol[93]
  • birth weight/HDL cholesterol[93]
  • birth weight/LDL cholesterol[93]
  • ADHD/HDL cholesterol[77]
  • ADHD/triglycerides[77]
  • Triglycerides / subjective well-being[67]
  • Triglycerides / neuroticism[67]
  • Triglycerides / depressive symptoms[67]
  • fasting insulin/triglycerides[85]
  • fasting glucose/fasting triglycerides[85]
  • waist-hip ratio/fasting triglycerides[85]
  • fasting triglycerides/BMI[85]
  • HDL/triglycerides[85]
  • early puberty/fasting insulin[81]
  • early puberty/lipid profiles[81]
  • early puberty/bone mineral density[81]
  • age at first sex/femoral neck bone mineral density[82]
  • age at first sex/lumbar spine bone mineral density[82]
  • age at first sex/fasting glucose[82]
  • age at first sex/HDL cholesterol[82]
  • age at first sex/LDL cholesterol[82]
  • age at first sex/total cholesterol[82]
  • age at first sex/triglycerides[82]
  • age at first sex/fasting insulin[82]
  • age at first sex/HbA1C[82]
  • age at first sex/diastolic blood pressure[82]
  • age at first sex/systolic blood pressure[82]
  • fasting HDL/BMI[85]
  • systolic blood pressure/BMI[85]
  • spousal systolic blood pressure[92]
  • waist-hip ratio/fasting glucose[85]
  • waist-hip ratio/fasting insulin[85]
  • waist-hip ratio/HDL[85]
  • waist-hip ratio/systolic blood pressure[85]
  • fasting glucose/fasting insulin[85]
  • fasting glucose/HDL[85]
  • fasting glucose/systolic blood pressure[85]
  • fasting insulin/HDL[85]
  • fasting insulin/systolic blood pressure[85]
  • HDL/systolic blood pressure[85]
  • liver enzymes/total cholesterol[19]
  • liver enzymes/LDL cholesterol[19]
  • liver enzymes/HDL cholesterol[19]
  • liver enzymes/triglycerides[19]
  • liver enzymes/glucose[19]
  • liver enzymes/insulin[19]
  • liver enzymes/HOMA-B[19]
  • liver enzymes/HOMA-IR[19]
  • liver enzymes/c-reactive protein[19]
  • liver enzymes/alcohol consumption[19]
  • cortisol/cortisone levels in child/adolescent hair[392]

Disease[edit]

  • Heart failure / Coronary artery disease[393]
  • Atrial Fibrilation / Coronary artery disease[393]
  • Cerebral Infarction / Coronary artery disease[393]
  • immune disorders[18][394][395][396]
  • breast cancer / ovarian cancer / prostate cancer[397]
  • tiredness/type 2 diabetes[65]
  • sleep/type 2 diabetes[280]
  • Type 2 diabetes/hypertension[48][50]
  • rheumatoid arthritis/hypertension[48]
  • psoriasis/type 2 diabetes[398]
  • birth weight/type 2 diabetes[93]
  • birth weight/2 hour glucose response[93]
  • birth weight/fasting insulin[93]
  • birth weight/Hb1Ac[93]
  • difficulty sleeping/type 2 diabetes[71]
  • oversleeping/type 2 diabetes[70]
  • difficulty sleeping/fasting insulin[71]
  • difficulty sleeping/fasting glucose[71]
  • daytime sleepiness/HOMA-IR[71]
  • daytime sleepiness/fasting insulin[71]
  • difficulty sleeping/HOMA-IR[71]
  • psoriasis/BMI[398]
  • self-reported health/coronary artery disease[66]
  • triglycerides/coronary artery disease[399][400][401]
  • birth weight/coronary artery disease[93]
  • self-reported health/ischaemic stroke[66]
  • C-reactive protein/ischemic vascular disease[402]
  • coronary artery disease/LDL[400][401]
  • coronary artery disease/HDL[400]
  • coronary artery disease/BMI[400]
  • coronary artery disease/systolic blood pressure[400]
  • coronary artery disease/type 1 diabetes[400]
  • daytime sleepiness/coronary artery disease[71]
  • difficulty sleeping/coronary artery disease[71]
  • coronary artery calcification (CAC)/coronary artery disease[401]
  • Lp(a)/coronary artery disease[401]
  • LP-PLA2 activity/coronary artery disease[401]
  • carotid plaque/coronary artery disease[401]
  • vWF/coronary artery disease[401]
  • FVIII/coronary artery disease[401]
  • height/coronary artery disease[401]
  • self-reported health/type 2 diabetes[66]
  • rheumatoid arthritis/lupus[403][404]
  • early puberty/type 2 diabetes[81]
  • early puberty/cardiovascular disease[81]
  • early puberty/polycystic ovary syndrome[81]
  • age at first sex/rheumatoid arthritis[82]
  • age at first sex/ulcerative colitis[82]
  • age at first sex/Crohn's disease[82]
  • Crohn's disease/ulcerative colitis[405][406][407]
    • Crohn's disease/ulcerative colitis/ankylosing spondylitis/psoriasis/coeliac disease[408][409]
  • self-reported sleep duration/Crohn's disease[71]
  • difficulty sleeping/Crohn's disease[71]
  • age at first sex/cardiovascular disease[82]
  • age at first sex/type 2 diabetes[82]
  • type 2 diabetes/Dyslipidemia[50]
  • type 2 diabetes/osteoarthritis[50]
  • type 2 diabetes/osteoporosis[50]
  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)/pulmonary fibrosis/asthma/lung function[410]
  • asthma/type 2 diabetes[50]
  • asthma/ADHD[411]
  • insomnia/type 2 diabetes[73]
  • insomnia/coronary artery disease[73]
  • insomnia/asthma[73]
  • cardiovascular disease/type 2 diabetes[50]
  • esophageal adenocarcinoma/Barrett's esophagus[412]
  • Intracranial aneurysms/abdominal aortic aneurysms/thoracic aortic aneurysms[413]
  • asthma/allergic diseases[407]
    • Allergic rhinitis/asthma[50]
  • Allergic rhinitis/hypertension[50]
  • Allergic rhinitis/osteoarthritis[50]
  • asthma/cardiovascular disease[50]
  • asthma/Dyslipidemia[50]
  • asthma/hypertension[50]
  • asthma/osteoarthritis[50]
  • cardiovascular disease/Dyslipidemia[50]
  • cardiovascular disease/hypertension[50]
  • cardiovascular disease/osteoarthritis[50]
  • low-density lipoprotein cholesterol/amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)[414]
  • amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)/schizophrenia[415]
  • HIV/ulcerative colitis[283]
  • HIV/marijuana[283]
  • age-related macular degeneration/primary open-angle glaucoma[416]
  • age-related macular degeneration/myopia[416]
  • age-related macular degeneration/Vertical cup-disc ratio[416]
  • age-related macular degeneration/Optic disc - Cup area[416]
  • age-related macular degeneration/hypertension[416]
  • age-related macular degeneration/coronary artery disease[416]
  • age-related macular degeneration/blood pressure[416]
  • age-related macular degeneration/HDL cholesterol[416]
  • age-related macular degeneration/LDL cholesterol[416]
  • age-related macular degeneration/Triglycerides[416]
  • age-related macular degeneration/Bone mineral density - femoral neck[416]
  • age-related macular degeneration/Psoriasis[416]
  • age-related macular degeneration/Rheumatoid arthritis[416]
  • age-related macular degeneration/Systemic lupus erythematosis[416]
  • age-related macular degeneration/C-reactive protein[416]
  • age-related macular degeneration/Cutaneous malignant melanoma[416]

Transfer[edit]

Trans-population[edit]
  • African/European schizophrenia[417]
  • East Asian/European schizophrenia[415]
  • lifetime, recurrent, & female major depressive disorder: East Asian/European[418]
  • gene expression[419]
  • rheumatoid arthritis[419]
  • type 2 diabetes[419][420]
Trans-cohort[edit]
  • depressive symptoms: GERA/PGC,[67] GERA/UKB,[67] UKB/PGC[67][277]
    • major depressive disorder+recurrent major depressive disorder+female major depressive disorder/major depressive disorder[96]
    • female/male / major depressive disorder+recurrent major depressive disorder[96]
  • neuroticism: UK Biobank (UKB) / Genetics of Personality Consortium[67]
  • autism: PGC (USA)/iPSYCH (Denmark)[158]
  • male/female Empathy Quotient score[240]
  • male/female Systemizing Quotient-Revised (SQ-R)[240]
  • male/female Eyes Test empathy score[138]
  • ARIC/EHR phenotype consistencies[421]
  • male/female alcohol consumption[378]
  • between-cohort IQ measurements[131]
  • ADHD: PGC/iPSYCH cohorts[77]; PGC case-controls / trios[77]; meta-analysis/EAGLE general population[77]; meta-analysis/23andMe self-reported diagnoses[77]
  • male/female differences in testosterone/progesterone[103]
Trans-method[edit]
  • custom immunochip (iChip) SNP array/standard SNP array (comparing their estimates for the Crohn's disease/ulcerative colitis genetic correlation)[405]
  • major depressive order: Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) clinical depression diagnosis/23andMe self-report depression[305]
  • major depressive disorder/self-declared depression[422]
  • Big Five personality traits in Genetics of Personality Consortium/23andMe cohorts[250]
  • self-reported height/clinically measured height[423]

Animal/plant[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Falconer 1960
  2. ^ Neale & Maes 1996, Methodology for genetics studies of twins and families (6th ed.). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer.
  3. ^ a b pg 123 of Plomin 2012
  4. ^ pg194-195 of Jensen 1980, Bias in Mental Testing
  5. ^ Martin & Eaves 1977, "The Genetical Analysis of Covariance Structure"
  6. ^ a b Eaves et al 1978, "Model-fitting approaches to the analysis of human behaviour"
  7. ^ Loehlin & Vandenberg 1968, "Genetic and environmental components in the covariation of cognitive abilities: An additive model", in Progress in Human Behaviour Genetics, ed. S. G. Vandenberg, pp. 261278. Johns Hopkins, Baltimore.
  8. ^ Purcell 2002, "Variance components models for gene-environment interaction in twin analysis"
  9. ^ a b Kohler et al 2011, "Social Science Methods for Twins Data: Integrating Causality, Endowments and Heritability"
  10. ^ Wagner & Zhang 2011, "The pleiotropic structure of the genotype-phenotype map: The evolvability of complex organisms"
  11. ^ a b c Cheverud 1988, "A comparison of genetic and phenotypic correlations"
  12. ^ Krapohl et al 2015, "Phenome-wide analysis of genome-wide polygenic scores"
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs Hagenaars et al 2016, "Shared genetic aetiology between cognitive functions and physical and mental health in UK Biobank (N=112 151) and 24 GWAS consortia"
  14. ^ a b c Hill et al 2016, "Molecular genetic contributions to social deprivation and household income in UK Biobank (n=112,151)"
  15. ^ a b "LD Hub: a centralized database and web interface to perform LD score regression that maximizes the potential of summary level GWAS data for SNP heritability and genetic correlation analysis", Zheng et al 2016
  16. ^ Sivakumaran et al 2011, "Abundant pleiotropy in human complex diseases and traits"
  17. ^ a b Solovieff et al 2013, "Pleiotropy in complex traits: challenges and strategies"
  18. ^ a b Cotsapas et al 2011, "Pervasive sharing of genetic effects in autoimmune disease"
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Chambers et al 2011, "Genome-wide association study identifies loci influencing concentrations of liver enzymes in plasma"
  20. ^ a b c d e Mottus et al 2017, "Markers of Psychological Differences and Social and Health Inequalities: Possible Genetic and Phenotypic Overlaps"
  21. ^ Pickrell 2015, "Fulfilling the promise of Mendelian randomization"
  22. ^ Smith 2015, "Mendelian randomization: a premature burial?"; "Understanding Mendelian Randomization"
  23. ^ Burgess et al 2016, "Beyond Mendelian randomization: how to interpret evidence of shared genetic predictors"
  24. ^ Hagenaars et al 2016b, "Cognitive ability and physical health: a Mendelian randomization study"
  25. ^ Bowden et al 2015, "Mendelian randomization with invalid instruments: effect estimation and bias detection through Egger regression"
  26. ^ eg Falconer cites the example of chicken size and egg laying: chickens grown large for genetic reasons lay later, fewer, and larger eggs, while chickens grown large for environmental reasons lay quicker and more but normal sized eggs (pg315 of Falconer 1960); Falconer in Table 19.1 on pg316 also provides examples of opposite-signed phenotypic & genetic correlations: fleece-weight/length-of-wool & fleece weight/body-weight in sheep, and body-weight/egg-timing & body-weight/egg-production in chicken. One consequence of the negative chicken correlations was that, despite moderate heritabilities and a positive phenotypic correlation, selection had begun to fail to yield any improvements (pg329) according to "Genetic slippage in response to selection for multiple objectives", Dickerson 1955.
  27. ^ Kruuk, Loeske E. B.; Slate, Jon; Pemberton, Josephine M.; Brotherstone, Sue; Guinness, Fiona; Clutton-Brock, Tim (2002). "Antler Size in Red Deer: Heritability and Selection but No Evolution" (PDF). Evolution. 56 (8): 1683–95. PMID 12353761. doi:10.1111/j.0014-3820.2002.tb01480.x. 
  28. ^ a b Krapohl & Plomin 2016, "Genetic link between family socioeconomic status and children's educational achievement estimated from genome-wide SNPs"
  29. ^ pg 397 of Plomin et al 2012
  30. ^ Tong et al 2017, "Shared regulatory sites are abundant in the human genome and shed light on genome evolution and disease pleiotropy"
  31. ^ Munafo et al 2016, "Collider Scope: How selection bias can induce spurious associations"
  32. ^ Hewitt et al 1988, "Resolving the causes of developmental continuity or 'tracking.' I. Longitudinal twin studies during growth"
  33. ^ a b Deary et al 2012, "Genetic contributions to stability and change in intelligence from childhood to old age"
  34. ^ "The substantial comorbidity between specific cognitive disabilities is largely due to genetic factors, meaning that the same genes affect different learning disabilities although there are also disability-specific genes." pg184-185 of Plomin et al 2012
  35. ^ Rietveld et al 2013, "GWAS of 126,559 individuals identifies genetic variants associated with educational attainment"
  36. ^ a b Rietveld et al 2014, "Common genetic variants associated with cognitive performance identified using the proxy-phenotype method"
  37. ^ a b Andreassen et al 2013, "Improved Detection of Common Variants Associated with Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder Using Pleiotropy-Informed Conditional False Discovery Rate"
  38. ^ Porter & O'Reilly, "Multivariate simulation framework reveals performance of multi-trait GWAS methods"
  39. ^ et al 2017, "Meta-GWAS Accuracy and Power (MetaGAP) Calculator Shows that Hiding Heritability Is Partially Due to Imperfect Genetic Correlations across Studies"
  40. ^ Hazel 1943, "The Genetic Basis for Constructing Selection Indexes"
  41. ^ Rae 1951, "The Importance of Genetic Correlations in Selection"
  42. ^ Hazel & Lush 1943, "The efficiency of three methods of selection"
  43. ^ Lerner 1950, Population genetics and animal improvement: as illustrated by the inheritance of egg production
  44. ^ Falconer 1960, pg324-329
  45. ^ Conner 2012, "Quantitative genetic approaches to evolutionary constraint: how useful?"
  46. ^ Beldade et al 2002, "Developmental constraints versus flexibility in morphological evolution"
  47. ^ Allen et al 2008, "Differences in the selection response of serially repeated color pattern characters: standing variation, development, and evolution"
  48. ^ a b c d e Lee et al 2012, "Estimation of pleiotropy between complex diseases using single-nucleotide polymorphism-derived genomic relationships and restricted maximum likelihood"
  49. ^ "LD Score regression distinguishes confounding from polygenicity in genome-wide association studies", Bulik-Sullivan et al 2015 (see also Shi et al 2016); LDSC
  50. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Loh et al 2015, "Contrasting regional architectures of schizophrenia and other complex diseases using fast variance components analysis"
  51. ^ Majumdar et al 2017, "An efficient Bayesian meta-analysis approach for studying cross-phenotype genetic associations"
  52. ^ Shi et al 2016, "Contrasting the genetic architecture of 30 complex traits from summary association data"
  53. ^ Lynch 2000, "Estimating genetic correlations in natural populations"
  54. ^ Golan et al 2014, "Measuring missing heritability: Inferring the contribution of common variants"
  55. ^ Shi et al 2016, "Local genetic correlation gives insights into the shared genetic architecture of complex traits"
  56. ^ Posthuma & Boomsma 2000, "A note on the statistical power in extended twin designs"
  57. ^ a b DeFries et al 1987, "Genetic Stability of Cognitive Development From Childhood to Adulthood"
  58. ^ Wray et al 2012, "Impact of diagnostic misclassification on estimation of genetic correlations using genome-wide genotypes"
  59. ^ pg317-318 of Falconer 1960
  60. ^ a b Schmitt et al 2007b, "Review of twin and family studies on neuroanatomic phenotypes and typical neurodevelopment"
  61. ^ Almasy et al 1997, "Bivariate quantitative trait linkage analysis: pleiotropy versus co-incident linkages"
  62. ^ Heath et al 1989, "Testing structural equation models for twin data using LISREL"
  63. ^ Lee et al 2016, "Facial averageness and genetic quality: testing heritability, genetic correlation with attractiveness, and the paternal age effect"
  64. ^ Hagenaars et al 2016b, "Genetic Prediction of Male Pattern Baldness"
  65. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Deary et al 2016, "Genetic contributions to self-reported tiredness"
  66. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Harris et al 2015, "Molecular genetic contributions to self-rated health"
  67. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab Okbay et al 2016, "Genetic variants associated with subjective well-being, depressive symptoms, and neuroticism identified through genome-wide analyses"
  68. ^ Karvinen et al 2015, "Physical activity in adulthood: genes and mortality"
  69. ^ Hjelmborg et al 2008, "Genetic Influences on Growth Traits of BMI: A Longitudinal Study of Adult Twins"
  70. ^ a b c d Jones et al 2016, "Genome‐Wide Association Analyses in 128,266 Individuals Identifies New Morningness and Sleep Duration Loci"
  71. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah Lane et al 2016, "Genome-wide association analysis identifies novel loci for chronotype in 100,420 individuals from the UK Biobank"
  72. ^ a b Heath et al 1990, "Evidence for Genetic Influences on Sleep Disturbance and Sleep Pattern in Twins"
  73. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s Hammerschlag et al 2017, "Genome-wide association analysis of insomnia complaints identifies risk genes and genetic overlap with psychiatric and metabolic traits"
  74. ^ a b c Warrington et al 2017, "Maternal and fetal genetic contribution to gestational weight gain"
  75. ^ Wade et 2010, "Body mass index and breast size in women: same or different genes?"
  76. ^ Hwang et al 2016, "Sweet Taste Perception is Associated with Body Mass Index at the Phenotypic and Genotypic Level"
  77. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah Demontis et al 2017, "Discovery Of The First Genome-Wide Significant Risk Loci For ADHD" (table 5)
  78. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Sanchez-Roige et al 2017, "Genetics of the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC): genome-wide association study of delay discounting"
  79. ^ a b c d e f g Wong et al 2017, "Genetic Overlap Of Depression With Cardiometabolic Diseases And Implications For Drug Repurposing For Comorbidities"
  80. ^ Afari et al 2010, "Depression and Obesity: Do Shared Genes Explain the Relationship?"
  81. ^ a b c d e f g Day et al 2015, "Genetic determinants of puberty timing in men and women: shared genetic aetiology between sexes and with health-related outcomes"
  82. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at Day et al 2016, "Physical and neurobehavioral determinants of reproductive onset and success"
  83. ^ a b c Mustelin et al 2009, "Physical activity reduces the influence of genetic effects on BMI and waist circumference: a study in young adult twins"
  84. ^ Schnurr et al 2016, "Genetic Correlation between Body Fat Percentage and Cardiorespiratory Fitness Suggests Common Genetic Etiology
  85. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Vattikuti et al 2012, "Heritability and Genetic Correlations Explained by Common SNPs for Metabolic Syndrome Traits"
  86. ^ a b c Nederend et al 2016, "Heritability of heart rate recovery and vagal rebound after exercise"
  87. ^ Eppinga et al 2016, "Identification of genomic loci associated with resting heart rate and shared genetic predictors with all-cause mortality"
  88. ^ a b de Geus et al 2003, "Genetic correlation of exercise with heart rate and respiratory sinus arrhythmia"
  89. ^ a b Kupper et al 2005, "A genetic analysis of ambulatory cardiorespiratory coupling"
  90. ^ Snieder et al 1997, "Heritability of respiratory sinus arrhythmia: Dependency on task and respiration rate"
  91. ^ a b c d Trzaskowski et al 2013, "DNA Evidence for Strong Genome-Wide Pleiotropy of Cognitive and Learning Abilities"
  92. ^ a b c d e Robinson et al 2017, "Genetic evidence of assortative mating in humans"
  93. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u Horikoshi et al 2016, "Genome-wide associations for birth weight and correlations with adult disease"
  94. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q De Silva et al 2017, "Genetic architecture of early childhood growth phenotypes gives insights into their link with later obesity"
  95. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Barban et al 2016, "Genome-wide analysis identifies 12 loci influencing human reproductive behavior" (supplement)
  96. ^ a b c d e f g Hall et al 2017, "Genome-Wide Meta-Analyses Of Stratified Depression In Generation Scotland And UK Biobank"
  97. ^ Zietsch et al 2013, "Perfect genetic correlation between number of offspring and grandoffspring in an industrialized human population"
  98. ^ Black 1982, "Quantitative genetics of anthropometric variation in the Solomon Islands"
  99. ^ a b c d e f g "Novel genetic loci underlying human intracranial volume identified through genome-wide association", Adams et al 2016
  100. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Trampush et al 2017, "GWAS meta-analysis reveals novel loci and genetic correlates for general cognitive function: a report from the COGENT consortium"
  101. ^ a b c d Hodgson et al 2016, "Shared Genetic Factors Influence Head Motion During MRI and Body Mass Index"
  102. ^ a b Jones et al 2017, "GWAS of self-reported mosquito bite size, itch intensity and attractiveness to mosquitoes implicates immune-related predisposition loci"
  103. ^ a b c Grotzinger et al 2017, "Genetic and Environmental Influences on Pubertal Hormones in Human Hair across Development"
  104. ^ a b Pennington et al 2000, "A twin MRI study of size variations in human brain"
  105. ^ Posthuma et al 2000, "Multivariate genetic analysis of brain structure in an extended twin design"
  106. ^ Baaré et al 2001, "Quantitative genetic modeling of variation in human brain morphology"
  107. ^ a b Posthuma et al 2002, "The association between brain volume and intelligence is of genetic origin"
  108. ^ Thompson et al 2002, "Mapping genetic influences on human brain structure"
  109. ^ Wright et al 2002, "Genetic contributions to regional variability in human brain structure: methods and preliminary results"
  110. ^ a b Carmelli et al 2002, "Quantitative genetic modeling of regional brain volumes and cognitive performance in older male twins"
  111. ^ a b Posthuma et al 2003, "Genetic correlations between brain volumes and the WAIS-III dimensions of verbal comprehension, working memory, perceptual organization, and processing speed"
  112. ^ Pfefferbaum et al 2004, "Morphological changes in aging brain structures are differentially affected by time-linked environmental influences despite strong genetic stability"
  113. ^ a b Hulshoff Pol et al 2006, "Genetic contributions to human brain morphology and intelligence"
  114. ^ Peper et al 2007, "Genetic influences on human brain structure: a review of brain imaging studies in twins"
  115. ^ Schmitt et al 2007a, "A multivariate analysis of neuroanatomic relationships in a genetically informative pediatric sample"
  116. ^ Schmitt et al 2008, "Identification of genetically mediated cortical networks: a multivariate study of pediatric twins and siblings"
  117. ^ Panizzon et al 2009, "Distinct Genetic Influences on Cortical Surface Area and Cortical Thickness"
  118. ^ a b Chiang et al 2009, "Genetics of brain fiber architecture and intellectual performance"
  119. ^ Schmitt et al 2010, "A Twin Study of Intracerebral Volumetric Relationships"
  120. ^ a b Betjemann et al 2010, "Genetic Covariation Between Brain Volumes and IQ, Reading Performance, and Processing Speed"
  121. ^ Rimol et al, 2010, "Cortical thickness is influenced by regionally specific genetic factors"
  122. ^ Eyler et al, 2011, "Genetic patterns of correlation among subcortical volumes in humans: results from a magnetic resonance imaging twin study"
  123. ^ Chen et al 2011, "Genetic Influences on Cortical Regionalization in the Human Brain"
  124. ^ Chen et al 2012, "Hierarchical Genetic Organization of Human Cortical Surface Area"
  125. ^ Chen et al 2013, "Genetic topography of brain morphology"
  126. ^ Eyler et al 2014, "Conceptual and Data-based Investigation of Genetic Influences and Brain Asymmetry: A Twin Study of Multiple Structural Phenotypes"
  127. ^ Rentería et al 2014, "Genetic architecture of subcortical brain regions: common and region-specific genetic contributions"
  128. ^ Hibar et al 2015, "Common genetic variants influence human subcortical brain structures"
  129. ^ Wen et al 2016, "Distinct Genetic Influences on Cortical and Subcortical Brain Structures"
  130. ^ a b Shen et al 2016, "Heritability and genetic correlation between the cerebral cortex and associated white matter connections"
  131. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Sniekers et al 2017, "GWAS of 78,308 individuals identifies new loci and genes influencing human intelligence"
  132. ^ a b c Levine et al 2015, "Epigenetic age of the pre-frontal cortex is associated with neuritic plaques, amyloid load, and Alzheimer's disease related cognitive functioning"
  133. ^ Turner et al 2005, "Genomic Susceptibility Loci for Brain Atrophy in Hypertensive Sibships From the GENOA Study"
  134. ^ Kochunov et al 2009, "Analysis of genetic variability and whole genome linkage of whole-brain, subcortical and ependymal hyperintense white matter volume"
  135. ^ Kochunov et al 2010, "Whole brain and regional hyperintense white matter volume and blood pressure: overlap of genetic loci produced by bivariate, whole-genome linkage analyses"
  136. ^ Kochunov et al 2011, "Blood pressure and cerebral white matter share common genetic factors in Mexican Americans"
  137. ^ Fennema-Notestine et al 2016, "White matter disease in midlife is heritable, related to hypertension, and shares some genetic influence with systolic blood pressure"
  138. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Genome-wide meta-analysis of cognitive empathy: heritability, and correlates with sex, neuropsychiatric conditions and brain anatomy", Warrier et al 2016
  139. ^ Zhou et al 2016, "Genetic overlap between in-scanner head motion and the default network connectivity"
  140. ^ Plomin, R., DeFries, J. C, & McClearn, G. E. (1980). Behavioral genetics: A primer. San Francisco: Freeman.
  141. ^ Plomin & DeFries 1981 "Multivariate behavioral genetics and development: Twin studies". In L. Gedda, P. Parisi, & W. E. Nance (Eds.), Progress in clinical and biological research, Vol. 69B, Twin research 3: Intelligence, personality, and development (pp. 25-33). New York: Liss.
  142. ^ Plomin, R., & DeFries, J. C. (1985). Origins of individual differences in infancy: The Colorado Adoption Project. Orlando, FL: Academic Press
  143. ^ Bishop et al 2003, "Development genetic analysis of general cognitive ability from 1 to 12 years in a sample of adoptees, biological siblings, and twins"
  144. ^ Trzaskowski et al 2013, "DNA evidence for strong genetic stability and increasing heritability of intelligence from age 7 to 12"
  145. ^ a b Briley & Tucker-Drob 2017, "Comparing the Developmental Genetics of Cognition and Personality over the Life Span"
  146. ^ a b "Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Heritability of a General Psychopathology Factor in Children", Neumann et al 2016
  147. ^ Brooks et al 1990, "Reading performance and general cognitive ability: A multivariate genetic analysis of twin data"
  148. ^ Cardon et al 1990, "Genetic correlations between reading performance and IQ in the Colorado Adoption Project"
  149. ^ Arden et al 2015, "The association between intelligence and lifespan is mostly genetic"
  150. ^ a b c d e Tucker-Drob et al 2016 , "Genetically-Mediated Associations Between Measures of Childhood Character and Academic Achievement"
  151. ^ a b c Luciano et al 2006, "The heritability of conscientiousness facets and their relationship to IQ and academic achievement"
  152. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj Hill et al 2017, "Genetic contribution to two factors of neuroticism is associated with affluence, better health, and longer life"
  153. ^ a b c Marioni et al 2014, "Molecular genetic contributions to socioeconomic status and intelligence"
  154. ^ Hagenaars et al 2017, "Genetic contributions to trail making test performance in UK Biobank"
  155. ^ Rimfeld et al 2017, "Phenotypic and genetic evidence for a unifactorial structure of spatial abilities"
  156. ^ a b c d e f g Wood et al 2010, "Separation of genetic influences on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms and reaction time performance from those on IQ"
  157. ^ a b c d "Association between polygenic risk scores for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and educational and cognitive outcomes in the general population", Stergiakouli et al 2016
  158. ^ a b c Robinson et al 2016, "Genetic risk for autism spectrum disorders and neuropsychiatric variation in the general population"
  159. ^ Hubbard et al 2016, "Evidence of Common Genetic Overlap Between Schizophrenia and Cognition"
  160. ^ Toulopoulou et al 2007, "Substantial genetic overlap between neurocognition and schizophrenia: genetic modeling in twin samples"
  161. ^ Toulopoulou et al 2010, "Impaired intellect and memory: a missing link between genetic risk and schizophrenia?"
  162. ^ Fowler et al 2012, "A population-based study of shared genetic variation between premorbid IQ and psychosis among male twin pairs and sibling pairs from Sweden"
  163. ^ McIntosh et al 2013, "Polygenic risk for schizophrenia is associated with cognitive change between childhood and old age"
  164. ^ van Scheltinga et al 2013, "Schizophrenia genetic variants are not associated with intelligence"
  165. ^ Lencz et al 2014, "Molecular genetic evidence for overlap between general cognitive ability and risk for schizophrenia: a report from the Cognitive Genomics consorTium (COGENT)"
  166. ^ Bansal et al 2017, "Genetics of educational attainment aid in identifying biological subcategories of schizophrenia"
  167. ^ a b c d e f g Okbay et al 2016, "Genome-wide association study identifies 74 loci associated with educational attainment"
  168. ^ a b Petrill & Thompson 1993, "The phenotypic and genetic relationships among measures of cognitive ability, temperament, and scholastic achievement"
  169. ^ Thompson et al 1988, "Multivariate analysis of cognitive and temperament measures in 24-month-old adoptive and nonadoptive sibling pairs"
  170. ^ Husén 1959, Psychological Twin Research
  171. ^ Sundet et al 2005, "Resolving the genetic and environmental sources of the correlation between height and intelligence: a study of nearly 2600 Norwegian male twin pairs"
  172. ^ Silventoinen et al 2006, "Genetic contributions to the association between height and intelligence: Evidence from Dutch twin data from childhood to middle age"
  173. ^ Beauchamp et al 2011, "On the sources of the height-intelligence correlation: new insights from a bivariate ACE model with assortative mating"
  174. ^ Keller et al 2013, "The genetic correlation between height and IQ: shared genes or assortative mating?"
  175. ^ Marioni et al 2014, "Common Genetic Variants Explain the Majority of the Correlation Between Height and Intelligence: The Generation Scotland Study"
  176. ^ Kuntsi & Stevenson 2001, "Psychological mechanisms in hyperactivity: II. The role of genetic factors"
  177. ^ Nigg et al 2004, "Evaluating the endophenotype model of ADHD neuropsychological deficit: results for parents and siblings of children with ADHD combined and inattentive subtypes"
  178. ^ Bidwell et al 2007, "Testing for neuropsychological endophenotypes in siblings discordant for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder"
  179. ^ Luciano et al 2004a, "A genetic investigation of the covariation among inspection time, choice reaction time, and IQ subtest scores"
  180. ^ Kuntsi et al 2014, "The separation of ADHD inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms: pathways from genetic effects to cognitive impairments and symptoms"
  181. ^ a b Miller et al 2012, "The heritability and genetic correlates of mobile phone use: a twin study of consumer behavior"
  182. ^ a b Johnson et al 2006, "Genetic and environmental influences on academic achievement trajectories during adolescence"
  183. ^ Baker et al 2006, "Genetics of Educational Attainment in Australian Twins: Sex Differences and Secular Changes"
  184. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Belsky et al 2016, "The genetics of success: How single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with educational attainment relate to life-course development"
  185. ^ a b Tambs et al 1989, "Genetic and environmental contributions to the covariance between occupational status, educational attainment, and IQ: A study of twins"
  186. ^ a b Lichtenstein & Pedersen 1997, "Does genetic variance for cognitive abilities account for genetic variance in educational achievement and occupational status? A study of twins reared apart and twins reared together"
  187. ^ a b Johnson et al 2005, "Disruptive behavior and school grades: Genetic and environmental relations in 11-year-olds"
  188. ^ a b c Kovas et al 2007, "The genetic and environmental origins of learning abilities and disabilities in the early school years"
  189. ^ a b Rimfeld et al 2015, "Pleiotropy across academic subjects at the end of compulsory education"
  190. ^ Martin 1975, "The inheritance of scholastic abilities in a sample of twins. II. Genetical analysis of examination results"
  191. ^ Bartels et al 2002, "Heritability of educational achievement in 12-year-olds and the overlap with cognitive ability"
  192. ^ Calvin et al 2012, "Multivariate genetic analyses of cognition and academic achievement from two population samples of 174,000 and 166,000 school children"
  193. ^ Johnson et al 2009, "Genetic and environmental transactions underlying educational attainment"
  194. ^ Wainwright et al 2005a, "The genetic basis of academic achievement on the Queensland Core Skills Test and its shared genetic variance with IQ"; Wainwright et al 2005b, "Multivariate Genetic Analysis of Academic Skills of the Queensland Core Skills Test and IQ Highlight the Importance of Genetic g"
  195. ^ Chambers 2000, "Academic achievement and IQ: A longitudinal genetic analysis" (as cited in Wainwright et al 2005)
  196. ^ Petrill & Wilkerson 2000, "Intelligence and achievement: A behavioral genetic perspective"
  197. ^ Thompson et al 1991, "Associations between cognitive abilities and scholastic achievement: Genetic overlap but environmental differences"
  198. ^ a b Gillis et al 1993, Comorbidity of Reading and Mathematics Disabilities: Genetic and Environmental Etiologies
  199. ^ Wadsworth et al 1995b, "Cognitive ability and academic achievement in the Colorado Adoption Project: A multivariate genetic analysis of parent-offspring and sibling data"
  200. ^ Wadsworth, S. J. (1994). "School achievement". In J. C. DeFries, R. Plomin, and D. W. Fulker (eds.), Nature and Nurture During Middle Childhood, Blackwell, Oxford
  201. ^ Wadsworth et al 1995a, "Covariation among measures of cognitive ability and academic achievement in the Colorado Adoption Project: Sibling analysis"
  202. ^ a b c d e f g h Krapohl et al 2014, "The high heritability of educational achievement reflects many genetically influenced traits, not just intelligence"
  203. ^ Behrman et al 1977, "Controlling for and measuring the effects of genetic and family environment in equations for schooling and labour market success", In Kinometrics, ed. P. Taubman. North Holland: Amsterdam
  204. ^ Johnson et al 2010, "Education reduces the effects of genetic susceptibilities to poor physical health"
  205. ^ Amin et al 2015, "Schooling has smaller or insignificant effects on adult health in the us than suggested by cross-sectional associations: new estimates using relatively large samples of identical twins"
  206. ^ Behrman et al 2011, "Does more schooling reduce hospitalization and delay mortality? new evidence based on Danish twins"
  207. ^ Fujiwara & Kawachi 2009, "Is education causally related to better health? A twin fixed-effect study in the USA"
  208. ^ Lundborg 2013, "The health returns to education: What can we learn from twins?"
  209. ^ Webbink et al 2010, "Does education reduce the probability of being overweight?"
  210. ^ a b c Boardman et al 2015, "What can genes tell us about the relationship between education and health?"
  211. ^ Greven et al 2009, "More than just IQ: school achievement is predicted by self-perceived abilities - but for genetic rather than environmental reasons"
  212. ^ Hicks et al 2008, "Moderating effects of personality on the genetic and environmental influences of school grades helps to explain sex differences in scholastic achievement"
  213. ^ a b Rimfeld et al 2016, "True grit and genetics: Predicting academic achievement from personality"
  214. ^ a b c d e f g "Educational attainment and personality are genetically intertwined", Mottus et al 2016
  215. ^ Gottschling et al 2012, "The prediction of school achievement from a behavior genetic perspective: Results from the German twin study on Cognitive Ability, Self-Reported Motivation, and School Achievement (CoSMoS)"
  216. ^ Spinath et al 2008, "The nature and nurture of intelligence and motivation in the origins of sex differences in elementary school achievement"
  217. ^ Hicks et al 2008, "Moderating effects of personality on the genetic and environmental influences of school grades helps to explain sex differences in scholastic achievement"
  218. ^ Newsome et al 2014, "Genetic and environmental influences on the co-occurrence of early academic achievement and externalizing behavior"
  219. ^ Polderman et al 2010, "A systematic review of prospective studies on attention problems and academic achievement"
  220. ^ Saudino & Plomin 2007, "Why are hyperactivity and academic achievement related?"
  221. ^ Harlaar et al 2011, "Associations between reading achievement and independent reading in early elementary school: A genetically-informative cross-lagged study"
  222. ^ Harlaar et al 2007, "Reading exposure: a (largely) environmental risk factor with environmentally-mediated effects on reading performance in the primary school years"
  223. ^ Little et al 2016, "Exploring the Co-Development of Reading Fluency and Reading Comprehension: A Twin Study"
  224. ^ Tosto et al 2016, "The genetic architecture of oral language, reading fluency, and reading comprehension: a twin study from 7 to 16 years"
  225. ^ Plourde et al 2016, "Phenotypic and genetic associations between reading and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder dimensions in adolescence"
  226. ^ Weiner et al 2016, "Polygenic transmission disequilibrium confirms that common and rare variation act additively to create risk for autism spectrum disorders"
  227. ^ Peyrot et al 2015, "The association between lower educational attainment and depression owing to shared genetic effects? Results in ~25 000 subjects"
  228. ^ López-León et al 2009, "Genetic factors influence the clustering of depression among individuals with lower socioeconomic status"
  229. ^ Mezuk et al 2013, "Integrating social science and behavioral genetics: testing the origin of socioeconomic disparities in depression using a genetically informed design"
  230. ^ Vermeiren et al 2012, "Do genetic factors contribute to the relation between education and metabolic risk factors in young adults? A twin study"
  231. ^ Zadro et al 2016, "Does educational attainment increase the risk of low back pain when genetics is considered? A population based study of Spanish twins"
  232. ^ Silventoinen et al 2004, "Heritability of body height and educational attainment in an international context: comparison of adult twins in Minnesota and Finland"
  233. ^ DiPrete et al 2017, "Genetic Instrumental Variable (GIV) Regression: Explaining Socioeconomic And Health Outcomes In Non-Experimental Data"
  234. ^ Marioni et al 2016, "Genetic variants linked to education predict longevity"
  235. ^ Gill et al 1985, "Further evidence for genetic influences on educational achievement"
  236. ^ a b Markowitz et al 2005, "The etiology of mathematical and reading (dis)ability covariation in a sample of Dutch twins"
  237. ^ Davis et al 2014, "The correlation between reading and mathematics ability at age twelve has a substantial genetic component"
  238. ^ a b Rimfeld et al 2016, "Genetics affects choice of academic subjects as well as achievement"
  239. ^ a b c d e f g Bell et al 2016, "PgmNr 430: GWASs of ability to carry a musical tune and mathematical educational attainment"
  240. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Genome-wide analyses of empathy and systemizing: heritability and correlates with sex, education, and psychiatric risk", Warrier et al 2016
  241. ^ Hanscombe et al 2011, "Chaotic homes and school achievement: A twin study"
  242. ^ Haworth et al 2013, "Understanding the science-learning environment: A genetically sensitive approach"
  243. ^ Boutwell et al 2017, "On the genetic and environmental reasons why intelligence correlates with criminal victimization"
  244. ^ Smith et al 2016, "Food fussiness and food neophobia share a common etiology in early childhood"
  245. ^ Randall et al 2016, "Toward a genetic understanding of dental fear: evidence of heritability"
  246. ^ a b Olson et al 1989, "Specific deficits in component reading and language skills: Genetic and environmental influences", Journal of Learning Disabilities
  247. ^ Tuvblad et al 2016, "Heritability and Longitudinal Stability of Planning and Behavioral Disinhibition Based on the Porteus Maze Test"
  248. ^ Wang et al 2016, "Not All Risks Are Created Equal: A Twin Study and Meta-Analyses of Risk Taking Across Seven Domain"
  249. ^ Ono et al 2000, "Genetic structure of the five-factor model of personality in a Japanese twin population"
  250. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac Lo et al 2016, "Genome-wide analyses for personality traits identify six genomic loci and show correlations with psychiatric disorders" (supplement)
  251. ^ Distel et al 2009, "The five-factor model of personality and borderline personality disorder: a genetic analysis of comorbidity"
  252. ^ Haworth et al 2009, "Generalist Genes and High Cognitive Abilities"
  253. ^ Andrews et al 2009, "Neurodevelopmental disorders: Cluster 2 of the proposed meta-structure for DSM-V and ICD-11"
  254. ^ Docherty, Kovas, Petrill, & Plomin 2010, "Generalist genes analysis of DNA markers associated with mathematical ability and disability reveals shared influence across ages and abilities"
  255. ^ Davis et al 2009 "Learning abilities and disabilities: generalist genes in early adolescence"
  256. ^ Calvin et al 2012, "Multivariate Genetic Analyses of Cognition and Academic Achievement from Two Population Samples of 174,000 and 166,000 School Children"
  257. ^ Chow et al 2013, "Generalist genes and cognitive abilities in Chinese twins"
  258. ^ Kovas & Plomin 2007, "Learning Abilities and Disabilities: Generalist Genes, Specialist Environments"
  259. ^ Light et al 1998, "Multivariate behavioral genetic analysis of achievement and cognitive measures in reading-disabled and control twin pair"
  260. ^ Knopik, Alarcon, & DeFries 1997, "Comorbidity of mathematics and reading deficits: Evidence for a genetic etiology"
  261. ^ Harlaar et al 2005, "Genetic influences on early word recognition abilities and disabilities: a study of 7-year-old twins"
  262. ^ DeFries et al 1991, "Colorado Reading Project: An update"
  263. ^ Baker 1986, "Estimating genetic correlations among phenotypes: An analysis of criminal convictions and psychiatric-hospital diagnoses in Danish adoptees"
  264. ^ Vonberg & Bigdeli 2016, "Genetic Correlation Between Schizophrenia and Epilepsy"
  265. ^ Purcell et al 2009, "Common polygenic variation contributes to risk of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder"
  266. ^ Ripke et al 2011, "Genome-wide association study identifies five new schizophrenia loci"
  267. ^ a b c d e Psychiatric Genomics Consortium 2013, "Genetic relationship between 5 psychiatric disorders estimated from genome-wide SNPs",
  268. ^ Lichtenstein et al 2009, "Common genetic determinants of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder in Swedish families: a population-based study"
  269. ^ Charney et al 2017, "Evidence for genetic heterogeneity between clinical subtypes of bipolar disorder"
  270. ^ a b c Nivard et al 2016, "Genetic overlap between schizophrenia and developmental psychopathology: a longitudinal approach applied to common childhood disorders between age 7 and 15 years"
  271. ^ Hamshere et al 2013a, "High loading of polygenic risk for ADHD in children with comorbid aggression"
  272. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Docherty et al 2017, "Polygenic prediction of the phenome, across ancestry, in emerging adulthood"
  273. ^ a b Duncan et al 2017, "Largest GWAS of PTSD (N=20070) yields genetic overlap with schizophrenia and sex differences in heritability"
  274. ^ Hamshere et al 2013b, "Shared polygenic contribution between childhood attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and adult schizophrenia"
  275. ^ Franke et al 2016, "Genetic influences on schizophrenia and subcortical brain volumes: large-scale proof of concept"
  276. ^ a b c d e "Partitioning heritability analysis reveals a shared genetic basis of brain anatomy and schizophrenia", Lee et al 2016
  277. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Howard et al 2017, "The Stratification Of Major Depressive Disorder Into Genetic Subgroups"
  278. ^ Power et al 2017, "Genome-wide Association for Major Depression Through Age at Onset Stratification: Major Depressive Disorder Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium"
  279. ^ a b Ward et al 2017, "Genome-Wide Analysis Of 113,968 Individuals In UK Biobank Identifies Four Loci Associated With Mood Instability"
  280. ^ a b Byrne et al 2016, "Genetic Correlation Analysis Suggests Association between Increased Self-Reported Sleep Duration in Adults and Schizophrenia and Type 2 Diabetes", Sleep
  281. ^ a b Power et al 2015, "Polygenic risk scores for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder predict creativity"
  282. ^ Wang et al 2016, "Genetic factor common to schizophrenia and HIV infection is associated with risky sexual behavior: antagonistic vs. synergistic pleiotropic SNPs enriched for distinctly different biological functions"
  283. ^ a b c Power et al 2017, "A genome-wide polygenic approach to HIV uncovers link to inflammatory bowel disease and identifies potential novel genetic variants"
  284. ^ Lane et al 2016, "Genome-wide association analyses of sleep disturbance traits identify new loci and highlight shared genetics with neuropsychiatric and metabolic traits"
  285. ^ Dima et al 2016, "The polygenic risk for bipolar disorder influences brain regional function relating to visual and default state processing of emotional information"
  286. ^ Bidwell et al 2017, "Genetic influences on ADHD symptom dimensions: Examination of a priori candidates, gene-based tests, genome-wide variation, and SNP heritability"
  287. ^ Groen-Blokhuis et al 2014, "Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Polygenic Risk Scores Predict Attention Problems in a Population-Based Sample of Children"
  288. ^ Martin et al 2014, "Genetic Risk for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Contributes to Neurodevelopmental Traits in the General Population"
  289. ^ Chang et al 2013, "Developmental Twin Study of Attention Problems: High Heritabilities Throughout Development"
  290. ^ Rommelse et al 2010, "Shared heritability of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder"
  291. ^ a b Stergiakouli et al 2017, "Shared genetic influences between dimensional ASD and ADHD symptoms during child and adolescent development"
  292. ^ a b c Pinto et al 2016, "Understanding the covariation of tics, attention-deficit/hyperactivity, and obsessive-compulsive symptoms: a population-based adult twin study"
  293. ^ a b Mathews & Grados 2011, "Familiality of Tourette syndrome, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: heritability analysis in a large sib-pair sample"
  294. ^ van Hulzen et al 2016, "Genetic overlap between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Bipolar Disorder: Evidence from GWAS meta-analysis"
  295. ^ Rydell et al 2017, "Genetic and environmental contributions to the association between ADHD and affective problems in early childhood—A Swedish population-based twin study"
  296. ^ Vierikko et al 2004, "Genetic and environmental influences on the relationship between aggression and hyperactivity-impulsivity as rated by teachers and parents"
  297. ^ Boisvert et al 2012, "Genetic and environmental overlap between low self-control and delinquency"
  298. ^ Schmitz & Mrazek 2001, "Genetic and environmental influences on the associations between attention problems and other problem behaviors"
  299. ^ Nadder et al 1998, "Genetic effects on ADHD symptomatology in 7-to 13-year-old twins: results from a telephone survey"
  300. ^ Nadder et al 2002, "Genetic effects on the variation and covariation of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional-defiant disorder/conduct disorder (ODD/CD) symptomatologies across informant and occasion of measurement"
  301. ^ Young et al 2000, "Genetic and environmental influences on behavioral disinhibition"
  302. ^ Burt et al 2001, "Sources of comorbidity among attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder: the importance of shared environment"
  303. ^ Eaves et al 2001, "Genetic and environmental causes of covariation in interview assessments of disruptive behavior in child and adolescent twins"
  304. ^ Silberg et al 1996, "Genetic and environmental influences on the covariation between hyperactivity and conduct disturbance in juvenile twins"
  305. ^ a b c Hyde et al 2016, "Identification of 15 genetic loci associated with risk of major depression in individuals of European descent"
  306. ^ Ligthart & Boomsma 2012, "Causes of comorbidity: Pleiotropy or causality? Shared genetic and environmental influences on migraine and neuroticism"
  307. ^ a b c d e f Power & Pluess 2015, "Heritability estimates of the Big Five personality traits based on common genetic variants"
  308. ^ Eaves & Eysenck 1975, "The nature of extraversion: A genetical analysis"
  309. ^ "Genetic risk variants for social anxiety", Stein et al 2017
  310. ^ a b c Gao et al 2016, "Genome-Wide Association Study of Loneliness Demonstrates a Role for Common Variation"
  311. ^ Lahey et al 2011, "Higher-order genetic and environmental structure of prevalent forms of child and adolescent psychopathology"
  312. ^ Spatola et al 2007, "A general population twin study of the CBCL/6-18 DSM-oriented scales"
  313. ^ Pettersson et al 2013, "Different neurodevelopmental symptoms have a common genetic etiology"
  314. ^ Tackett et al 2013, "Common genetic influences on negative emotionality and a general psychopathology factor in childhood and adolescence"
  315. ^ Porsch et al 2016, "Longitudinal Heritability of Childhood Aggression"
  316. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Mann et al 2017, "Sensation seeking and impulsive traits as personality endophenotypes for antisocial behavior: Evidence from two independent samples"
  317. ^ a b c O'Connor et al 1998a, "Genetic contributions to continuity, change, and co-occurrence of antisocial and depressive symptoms in adolescence"; O'Connor et al 1998b, "Co-occurrence of depressive symptoms and antisocial behaviour in adolescence: A common genetic liability"
  318. ^ McGuffin et al 2003, "The heritability of bipolar affective disorder and the genetic relationship to unipolar depression"
  319. ^ Cederlöf et al 2015, "Etiological overlap between obsessive-compulsive disorder and anorexia nervosa: a longitudinal cohort, multigenerational family and twin study"
  320. ^ Davis et al 2013, "Partitioning the heritability of Tourette syndrome and obsessive compulsive disorder reveals differences in genetic architecture"
  321. ^ Yu et al 2015, "Cross-disorder genome-wide analyses suggest a complex genetic relationship between Tourette's syndrome and OCD"
  322. ^ a b c Zilhao et al 2016, "Cross-Disorder Genetic Analysis of Tic Disorders, Obsessive-Compulsive, and Hoarding Symptoms"
  323. ^ Mathews et al 2014, "Partitioning the etiology of hoarding and obsessive-compulsive symptoms"
  324. ^ Iervolino et al 2011, "A multivariate twin study of obsessive-compulsive symptom dimensions"
  325. ^ Iervolino et al 2009, "Prevalence and heritability of compulsive hoarding: a twin study"
  326. ^ Nordsletten et al 2013, "Overlap and specificity of genetic and environmental influences on excessive acquisition and difficulties discarding possessions: Implications for hoarding disorder"
  327. ^ Tambs et al 2009, "Structure of genetic and environmental risk factors for dimensional representations of DSM-IV anxiety disorders"
  328. ^ Chantarujikapong et al 2001, "A twin study of generalized anxiety disorder symptoms, panic disorder symptoms and post-traumatic stress disorder in men"
  329. ^ Hettema et al 2005, "The structure of genetic and environmental risk factors for anxiety disorders in men and women"
  330. ^ Bulik et al 2010, "Understanding the relation between anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa in a Swedish national twin sample"
  331. ^ Munn et al 2010, "Bivariate analysis of disordered eating characteristics in adolescence and young adulthood"
  332. ^ Bulik et al 2003, "Genetic and environmental contributions to obesity and binge eating"
  333. ^ Sullivan et al 1998, "Genetic epidemiology of binging and vomiting"
  334. ^ O'Connor et al 2016, "Genetic and environmental associations between body dissatisfaction, weight preoccupation, and binge eating: Evidence for a common factor with differential loadings across symptom type"
  335. ^ "Anorexia nervosa and major depression: shared genetic and environmental risk factors", Wade et al 2000
  336. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Duncan et al 2016, “Genome-Wide Association Study Reveals First Locus for Anorexia Nervosa and Metabolic Correlations”
  337. ^ "Bulimia nervosa and major depression: a study of common genetic and environmental factors", Walters et al 1992
  338. ^ a b c Guerreiro et al 2016, "Genome-wide analysis of genetic correlation in dementia with Lewy bodies, Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases"
  339. ^ Hibar et al 2017, "Novel genetic loci associated with hippocampal volume"
  340. ^ Waldron et al 2008, "Childhood Sexual Abuse Moderates Genetic Influences on Age at First Consensual Sexual Intercourse in Women"
  341. ^ Shakoor et al 2016, "Association between stressful life events and psychotic experiences in adolescence: evidence for gene-environment correlations"
  342. ^ Silberg et al 1987, "Genetic and environmental factors in primary dysmenorrhea and its relationship to anxiety, depression, and neuroticism"
  343. ^ a b Weiss et al 2016, "Personality Polygenes, Positive Affect, and Life Satisfaction"
  344. ^ Amare et al 2017, "The genetic overlap between mood disorders and cardio-metabolic diseases: A systematic review of genome wide and candidate gene studies"
  345. ^ a b Scherrer et al 2003, "A Twin Study of Depression Symptoms, Hypertension, and Heart Disease in Middle-Aged Men"
  346. ^ a b c López-León et al 2010, "Shared genetic factors in the co-occurrence of symptoms of depression and cardiovascular risk factors"
  347. ^ Kendler et al 1987, "Symptoms of anxiety and symptoms of depression: same genes, different environments?"
  348. ^ Kendler et al 1992, "Major depression and generalized anxiety disorder. Same genes, (partly) different environments?"
  349. ^ Kendler 1996/2004, "Major depression and generalised anxiety disorder same genes, (Partly) different environments - Revisited"
  350. ^ Kendler et al 2007, "The sources of co-morbidity between major depression and generalized anxiety disorder in a Swedish national twin sample"
  351. ^ Middeldorp et al 2005, "The co-morbidity of anxiety and depression in the perspective of genetic epidemiology. A review of twin and family studies"
  352. ^ a b c Mather et al 2016, "An Underlying Common Factor, Influenced by Genetics and Unique Environment, Explains the Covariation Between Major Depressive Disorder, Generalized Anxiety Disorder, and Burnout: A Swedish Twin Study"
  353. ^ a b Kendler et al 1995, "The structure of the genetic and environmental risk factors for six major psychiatric disorders in women: phobia, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, bulimia, major depression and alcoholism"
  354. ^ Kendler et al 1993, "Major depression and phobias: the genetic and environmental sources of comorbidity"
  355. ^ Gorwood 2004, "Generalized anxiety disorder and major depressive disorder comorbidity: an example of genetic pleiotropy?"
  356. ^ Klein et al 2003, "Family study of co-morbidity between major depressive disorder and anxiety"
  357. ^ Klein & Riso 1993, "Psychiatric disorders: problems of boundaries and comorbidity". In Basic Issues in Psychopathology (ed. C. G. Costello), pp. 19–66. Guilford Press
  358. ^ Neale & Kendler 1995, "Models of comorbidity for multifactorial disorders"
  359. ^ Heath et al 1993, "Testing hypotheses about direction of causation using cross-sectional family data"
  360. ^ Duffy & Martin 1994, "Inferring the direction of causation in cross-sectional twin data: theoretical and empirical considerations"
  361. ^ a b Bogo et al 2017, "Prevalence, Incidence Proportion, and Heritability for Tinnitus: A Longitudinal Twin Study"
  362. ^ a b c d e Hall et al 2017, "Genome-Wide Association and Polygenic Genetic Correlation Analyses of Real-Life Community Functioning in Patients with Psychotic Disorders"
  363. ^ Stringer et al 2016, "Genome-wide association study of lifetime cannabis use based on a large meta-analytic sample of 32330 subjects from the International Cannabis Consortium"
  364. ^ Treur et al 2016, "Heritability of high sugar consumption through drinks and the genetic correlation with substance use"
  365. ^ Heath & Martin 1994, "Genetic influences on alcohol consumption patterns and problem drinking: results from the Australian NH&MRC twin panel follow-up survey"
  366. ^ Grant et al 2009, "Alcohol consumption indices of genetic risk for alcohol dependence"
  367. ^ Dick et al 2011, "Measures of Current Alcohol Consumption and Problems: Two Independent Twin Studies Suggest a Complex Genetic Architecture"
  368. ^ Kendler et al 2010, "The relationship between genetic influences on alcohol dependence and on patterns of alcohol consumption"
  369. ^ Carey et al 2016, "Reward-related ventral striatum activity links polygenic risk for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder to problematic alcohol use in young adulthood"
  370. ^ a b c d e f Sanchez-Roige et al 2017, "Genome-wide association study of Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) scores in 20,328 research participants of European ancestry"
  371. ^ Young et al 2006, "Genetic and Environmental Vulnerabilities Underlying Adolescent Substance Use and Problem Use: General or Specific?"
  372. ^ Han et al 1999, "Lifetime tobacco, alcohol and other substance use in adolescent Minnesota twins: Univariate and multivariate behavioral genetic analyses"
  373. ^ Swan et al 1996, "The consumption of tobacco, alcohol, and caffeine in Caucasian male twins: A multivariate genetic analysis"
  374. ^ a b c Vink et al 2014, "Polygenic risk scores for smoking: predictors for alcohol and cannabis use?"
  375. ^ Koopmans et al 1997, "Association between alcohol use and smoking in adolescent and young adult twins: a bivariate genetic analysis"
  376. ^ a b Swan et al 1997, "Heavy consumption of cigarettes, alcohol and coffee in male twins"
  377. ^ a b c d e f g h Reed et al 1994, "Correlation of alcohol consumption with related covariates and heritability estimates in older adult males over a 14- to 18-year period: The NHLBI Twin Study"
  378. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Clarke et al 2017, "Genome-wide association study of alcohol consumption and genetic overlap with other health-related traits in UK Biobank (N=112,117)"
  379. ^ Slutske et al 1998, "Common genetic risk factors for conduct disorder and alcohol dependence"
  380. ^ a b Grove et al 1990, "Heritability of substance abuse and antisocial behavior: A study of monozygotic twins reared apart"
  381. ^ Pickens et al 1995, "Common genetic mechanisms in alcohol, drug, and mental disorder comorbidity"
  382. ^ a b Johnson et al 2011, "Does Education Confer a Culture of Healthy Behavior? Smoking and Drinking Patterns in Danish Twins"
  383. ^ a b Sudharsanan et al 2016, "Limited Common Origins of Multiple Adult Health-Related Behaviors: Evidence from U.S. Twins."
  384. ^ Salvatore et al 2016, "Alcohol use disorder and divorce: Evidence for a genetic correlation in a population-based Swedish sample"
  385. ^ Boomsma et al 1987b, "Factor and simplex models for repeated measures: Application to two psychomotor measures of alcohol sensitivity in twins"
  386. ^ Martin & Boomsma 1989, "Willingness to drive when drunk and personality: A twin study"
  387. ^ Gustavson et al 2017, "Executive Functions and Substance Use: Relations in Late Adolescence and Early Adulthood"
  388. ^ Verweija et al 2017, "Genetic association between schizophrenia and cannabis use"
  389. ^ Hartz et al 2017, "Association Between Substance Use Disorder And Polygenic Liability To Schizophrenia"
  390. ^ King et al 2017, "Genetic and Environmental Origins of Gambling Behaviors From Ages 18 to 25: A Longitudinal Twin Family Study"
  391. ^ Zheng et al 2017, "PhenoSpD: an atlas of phenotypic correlations and a multiple testing correction for the human phenome"
  392. ^ Tucker-Drob et al 2017, "Genetic influences on hormonal markers of chronic hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal function in human hair"
  393. ^ a b c Verweij et al 2017, "Identification of 15 novel risk loci for coronary artery disease and genetic risk of recurrent events, atrial fibrillation and heart failure"
  394. ^ Sirota et al 2009, "Autoimmune disease classification by inverse association with SNP alleles"
  395. ^ Jostins et al 2012, "Host-microbe interactions have shaped the genetic architecture of inflammatory bowel disease"
  396. ^ Venema et al 2016, "The genetic background of Inflammatory Bowel Disease: From correlation to causality"
  397. ^ Sakoda et al 2013, "Turning of COGS moves forward findings for hormonally mediated cancers"
  398. ^ a b Lønnberg et al 2016, "Association of Psoriasis With the Risk for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Obesity"
  399. ^ Do et al 2013, "Common variants associated with plasma triglycerides and risk for coronary artery disease"
  400. ^ a b c d e f LeBlanc et al 2016, "Identifying Novel Gene Variants in Coronary Artery Disease and Shared Genes with Several Cardiovascular Risk Factors"
  401. ^ a b c d e f g h i van Iperen et al 2016, "Genetic analysis of emerging risk factors in coronary artery disease"
  402. ^ Zacho et al 2008, "Genetically elevated C-reactive protein and ischemic vascular disease"
  403. ^ Márquez et al 2016, "A combined large-scale meta-analysis identifies COG6 as a novel shared risk locus for rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus"
  404. ^ Criswell et al 2005, "Analysis of families in the multiple autoimmune disease genetics consortium (MADGC) collection: the PTPN22 620W allele associates with multiple autoimmune phenotypes"
  405. ^ a b Chen et al 2014, "Estimation and partitioning of (co)heritability of inflammatory bowel disease from GWAS and immunochip data"
  406. ^ Cleynen et al 2016, "Inherited determinants of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis phenotypes: a genetic association study"
  407. ^ a b Zhu et al 2017, "Shared Genetic Architecture Of Asthma With Allergic Diseases: A Genome-wide Cross Trait Analysis Of 112,000 Individuals From UK Biobank"
  408. ^ Parkes et al 2013, "Genetic insights into common pathways and complex relationships among immune-mediated disease"
  409. ^ Ellinghaus et al 2016, "Analysis of five chronic inflammatory diseases identifies 27 new associations and highlights disease-specific patterns at shared loci"
  410. ^ "Genetic loci associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap with loci for lung function and pulmonary fibrosis", Hobbs et al 2017
  411. ^ Morgensen et al 2011, "Association between childhood asthma and ADHD symptoms in adolescence – a prospective population-based twin study"
  412. ^ Ek et al 2013, "Germline genetic contributions to risk for esophageal adenocarcinoma, Barretts Esophagus, and gastroesophageal reflux"
  413. ^ van 't Hof et al 2016, "Shared Genetic Risk Factors of Intracranial, Abdominal, and Thoracic Aneurysms"
  414. ^ Chen et al 2017, "Polygenic Link Between Blood Lipids And Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis"
  415. ^ a b McLaughlin et al 2017, "Genetic correlation between amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and schizophrenia"
  416. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Grassmann et al 2017, "Genetic pleiotropy between age-related macular degeneration and 16 complex diseases and traits"
  417. ^ Candia et al 2013, "Additive Genetic Variation in Schizophrenia Risk Is Shared by Populations of African and European Descent"
  418. ^ Bigdeli et al 2017, "Genetic effects influencing risk for major depressive disorder in China and Europe"
  419. ^ a b c Brown et al 2016, "Transethnic genetic correlation estimates from summary statistics"
  420. ^ Lau et al 2017, "High-Resolution Genetic Maps Identify Multiple Type 2 Diabetes Loci at Regulatory Hotspots in African Americans and Europeans"
  421. ^ Mosley et al 2016, "Defining a Contemporary Ischemic Heart Disease Genetic Risk Profile using Historical Data"
  422. ^ Zeng et al 2016, "Shared genetics and couple-associated environment are major contributors to the risk of both clinical and self-declared depression"
  423. ^ MacGregor et al 2006, "Bias, precision and heritability of self-reported and clinically measured height in Australian twins"
  424. ^ Hopkins et al 2014, "Chimpanzee Intelligence Is Heritable"
  425. ^ Mulders et al 2016, "Estimating the purebred-crossbred genetic correlation for uniformity of eggshell color in laying hens"
  426. ^ Palomar et al 2016, "Heritability of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis burden and its genetic correlation with development time in a population of Common toad (Bufo spinosus)"
  427. ^ Muñoz et al 2016, "Rising Out of the Ashes: Additive Genetic Variation for Crown and Collar Resistance to Hymenoscyphus fraxineus in Fraxinus excelsior"
  428. ^ Ritland & Ritland, "Inferences about quantitative inheritance based on natural population structure in the yellow monkeyflower, Mimulus guttatus"
  429. ^ van Kleunen & Ritland 2004, "Predicting evolution of floral traits associated with mating system in a natural plant population"
  430. ^ van Kleunen & Ritland 2005, "Estimating Heritabilities and Genetic Correlations with Marker-Based Methods: An Experimental Test in Mimulus guttatus"
  431. ^ Mousseau et al 1998, "A novel method for estimating heritability using molecular markers"
  432. ^ Gray et al 1995, "Breeding for Resistance to Infectious Disease in Small Ruminants"
  433. ^ Cheverud and Buikstra 1981b, "Quantitative Genetics of Skeletal Nonmetric Traits in the Rhesus Monkeys on Cayo Santiago. II. Phenotypic, Genetic, and Environmental Correlations between traits"
  434. ^ Smith et al 1962, "Genetic parameters of British Large White bacon pigs"
  435. ^ Leamy 1977, "Genetic and Environmental Correlations of Morphometric Traits in Random-bred House Mice"
  436. ^ Bailey 1956, "A comparison of genetic and environmental principal components of morphogenesis in mice"
  437. ^ Andrew et al 2005, "Marker-based quantitative genetics in the wild?: The heritability and genetic correlation of chemical defenses in Eucalyptus"
  438. ^ Buechel et al 2016, "Artificial selection on male genitalia length alters female brain size"
  439. ^ Chester & Weera 2016, "Genetic correlation between alcohol preference and conditioned fear: Exploring a functional relationship"
  440. ^ Yadav et al 2016, "Genetic variability and correlation studies for quantitative traits in kodo millet (Paspalum scrobiculatum L.)"
  441. ^ Chippindale et al 2001, "Negative genetic correlation for adult fitness between sexes reveals ontogenetic conflict in Drosophila"
  442. ^ Collet et al 2016, "Rapid evolution of the intersexual genetic correlation for fitness in Drosophila melanogaster"
  443. ^ Tieman et al 2017, "A chemical genetic roadmap to improved tomato flavor"
  444. ^ Syed et al 2017, "Pathogen Dependent Phenotypic But No Genetic Correlation Between Sexual Activity And Immunity In Male Drosophila melanogaster Subjected To Differential Sexual Selection"

External links[edit]