Jinn

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Genie)
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Imam Ali Conquers Jinn, unknown artist, Ahsan-ol-Kobar (1568) Golestan Palace

Jinn (Arabic: جن‎, jinn), also Romanized as djinn or Anglicized as genies (with the more broad meaning of spirits or demons, depending on source),[1][2] are supernatural creatures in early pre-Islamic Arabian and later Islamic mythology and theology. Since jinn are neither innately evil nor innately good, Islam was able to adapt spirits from other religions during its expansion.[3]Jinn are not a strictly Islamic concept; rather, they may represent several pagan beliefs integrated into Islam.[4][5]

Besides the jinn, Islam acknowledges the existence of demons (Shayāṭīn). The lines between demons and jinn are often blurred, since malevolent jinn are also called shayāṭīn in some sources.[6][7] However both Islam and non-Islamic scholarship generally distinguishes between angels, jinn and demons (shayāṭīn) as three different types of spiritual entities in Islamic traditions.[8][9] Conflation of jinn with demons can only apply to the demonic jinn known from Islamic folk-lore, not about the Quranic- or theological jinn, who do not turn into demons themselves.[10] The jinn are distinguished from demons in that they can be both evil and good, while genuine demons are exclusively evil.[11] Some academic scholars assert that demons are related to monotheistic traditions and jinn to polytheistic traditions.[12]

In an Islamic context, the term jinn is used for both a collective designation for any supernatural creature and also to refer to a specific type of supernatural creature.[13]

Etymology[edit]

Jinn is an Arabic collective noun deriving from the Semitic root JNN (Arabic: جَنّ / جُنّ‎, jann), whose primary meaning is "to hide" or "to conceal". Some authors interpret the word to mean, literally, "beings that are concealed from the senses".[14] Cognates include the Arabic majnūn ("possessed", or generally "insane"), jannah ("garden", also “heaven”), and janīn ("embryo").[15] Jinn is properly treated as a plural, with the singular being jinnī.

The origin of the word Jinn remains uncertain.[2] Some scholars relate the Arabic term jinn to the Latin genius, as a result of syncretism during the reign of the Roman empire under Tiberius Augustus,[16] but this derivation is also disputed.[17] Another suggestion holds that jinn may be derived from Aramaic "ginnaya" (Classical Syriac: ܓܢܬܐ‎) with the meaning of "tutelary deity",[18] or also "garden". Others claim a Persian origin of the word, in the form of the Avestic "Jaini", a wicked (female) spirit. Jaini were among various creatures in the possibly even pre-Zoroastrian mythology of peoples of Iran.[19][20]

The Anglicized form genie is a borrowing of the French génie, from the Latin genius, a guardian spirit of people and places in Roman religion. It first appeared[21] in 18th-century translations of the Thousand and One Nights from the French,[22] where it had been used owing to its rough similarity in sound and sense and further applies to benevolent intermediary spirits, in contrast to the malevolent spirits called demon and heavenly angels, in literature.[23] In Assyrian art, creatures ontologically between humans and divinities are also called genie.[24]

Pre-Islamic Arabia[edit]

Jinn were worshipped by many Arabs during the Pre-Islamic period,[25] but, unlike gods, jinn were not regarded as immortal. In ancient Arabia, the term jinn also applied to all kinds of supernatural entities among various religions and cults; thus, Zoroastrian, Christian, and Jewish angels and demons were also called "jinn".[25]

The exact origins of belief in jinn are not entirely clear.[26] Some scholars of the Middle East hold that they originated as malevolent spirits residing in deserts and unclean places, who often took the forms of animals;[26] others hold that they were originally pagan nature deities who gradually became marginalized as other deities took greater importance.[26] According to common Arabian belief, soothsayers, pre-Islamic philosophers, and poets were inspired by the jinn.[25][26] However, jinn were also feared and thought to be responsible for causing various diseases and mental illnesses.[27][26] Julius Wellhausen observed that such spirits were thought to inhabit desolate, dingy, and dark places and that they were feared.[28] One had to protect oneself from them, but they were not the objects of a true cult.[28]

Islamic theology[edit]

In the Islamic sense, the term jinn is used in two different ways:

  • As invisible entities, who roamed the earth before Adam, created by God out of a "mixture of fire" or "smokeless fire" (marijin min nar). They are believed to resemble humans in that they eat and drink, have children and die, are subject to judgment, so will either be sent to heaven or hell according to their deeds.[29] But they were much faster and stronger than humans.[30] This jinn are distinct from an angelic tribe called Al-jinn, named after Jannah (the Gardens), heavenly creatures created out of the fires of samum in contrast to the genus of jinn created out of mixture of fire, who waged war against the genus of jinn and regarded as able to sin, unlike their light created counterpart.[31][32]
  • As the opposite of al-Ins (something in shape) referring to any object that cannot be detected by human sensory organs, including angels, demons and the interior of human beings. Thus every demon and every angel is also a jinn, but not every jinn is an angel or a demon.[33][34][35][36] Al-Jahiz categorizes the jinn in his work Kitab al-Hayawan as follows: If he is pure, clean, untouched by any defilement, being entirely good, he is an angel, if he is faithless, dishonest, hostile, wicked, he is demon, if he succeeds in supporting an edifice, lifting a heavy weight and listening at the doors of Heaven he is a marid and if he more than this, he is an ifrit.[37]

Belief in jinn is not included among the six articles of Islamic faith, as belief in angels is, however at least some Muslims believe it essential to the Islamic faith.[38][39] Jinn are mentioned approximately 29 times in the Quran often together with humans,[40] and the 72 surah (chapter) named after them (Al-Jinn). They are also mentioned in collections of Ṣaḥīḥ (authentic) hadith.[41] One hadith divides them into three groups, with one type flying through the air; another that are snakes and dogs; and a third that moves from place to place like human.[42]

In Islamic tradition, Muhammad was sent as a prophet to both human and jinn communities, and that prophets and messengers were sent to both communities.[43][44] Traditionally Surah 72 is held to tell about the revelation to jinn and several stories mention one of Muhammad's followers accompanied him, witnessing the revelation to the jinn.[45]

Another Islamic prophet, who is related to interactions with jinn, is Solomon. In the Quran, he is said to be a king in ancient Israel and was gifted by God to talk to animals and jinn. God granted him authority over the rebellious jinn or marid, thus Solomon forced them to build the First Temple. Beliefs regarding Solomon and his power over the jinn were later extended in folklore and folktales.

Related to common traditions, the angels were created on Wednesday, the jinn on Thursday and humans on Friday, but not the very next day, rather more than 1000 years later.[46] The community of the jinn race were like those of humans, but then corruption and injustice among them increased and all warnings sent by God were ignored. Consequently, God sent his angels to battle the infidel jinn. Just a few survived, and were ousted to far islands or to the mountains. With the revelation of Islam, the jinn were given a new chance to access salvation.[42][47][48] But because of their prior creation, the jinn would attribute themselves to a superiority over humans and envy them for their place and rank on earth.[49]

Development of Islamic Jinn belief[edit]

The black king of the djinns, Al-Malik al-Aswad, from the late 14th century Book of Wonders

In the beginning of Islam[edit]

In early Islamic development, the status of jinn were reduced from that of deities[50] to minor spirits. To assert a strict monotheism and the Islamic concept of Tauhid, all affinities between the jinn and God were denied, thus jinn were placed parallel to humans, also subject to God's judgment and able to attain Paradise or Hell. However, even though their status as tutelary deities was reduced, they were not consequently regarded as demons.[51] In later revelations, the concept of demons and angels distinct from the pagan jinn were made.[52] T. Fahd stated, the jinn were related to the pagan belief, while the demons and angels were borrowed from monotheistic concepts of angels and demons. In later revelations the demons and the jinn seems to be used interchangeably, here placing the jinn with the devil, against the angels and Muhammad.[citation needed]

Jinn belief in the later centuries[edit]

Zulqarnayn with the help of some jinn, building the Iron Wall to keep the barbarian Gog and Magog from civilized peoples (16th century Persian miniature)

When Islam spread outside of Arabia, belief in the jinn was assimilated with local belief about spirits and deities from Iran, Africa, Turkey and India.[53] Persians, for example, identified the jinn in the Quran with the Div from Zoroastrian lore.[42] Developed from various traditions and local folklore, but not mentioned in canonical Islamic scriptures, jinn were thought to be able to possess humans; Morocco especially has many possession traditions, including exorcism rituals.[54] In Sindh the concept of the jinni was introduced during the Abbasid Era and has become a common part of local folklore, also including stories of both male jinn called "jinn" and female jinn called "Jiniri". Folk stories of female jinn include stories such as the Jejhal Jiniri. Although, due to the cultural influence, the concept of jinn may vary, all share some common features. The jinn are believed to live in societies resembling these of humans, practicing religion (including Islam, Christianity and Judaism), having emotions, needing to eat and drink, and can procreate and raise families. Additionally, they fear iron, generally appear in desolate or abandoned places, and are stronger and faster than humans.[42] Generally, jinn are thought to eat bones and prefer rotten flesh over fresh flesh.[55] In later Albanian lore, jinn (Xhindi) live either on earth or under the surface and may possess persons, who insulted them, by for example, if their children are trodden upon or hot water was thrown on them.[56]

The composition and existence of jinn is the subject of various debates during the Middle Ages. According to Al-Shafi’i (founder of Shafi‘i schools), the invisibility of jinn is so certain that anyone who thinks they have seen one is ineligible to give legal testimony -- unless they are a Prophet.[57] According to Ashari, the existence of jinn can not be proven, because arguments concerning the existence of jinn are beyond human comprehension. Adepts of Ashʿari theology explained jinn are invisible to humans, because they lack the appropriate sense organs to envision them.[58] Critics argued, if jinn exist, their bodies must either be ethereal or made of solid material; if they were composed of the former, they would not able to do hard work, like carrying heavy stones. If they were composed of the latter, they would be visible to any human with functional eyes.[59] Critics therefore refused to believe in a literal reading on jinn in Islamic sacred texts, preferring to view them as "unruly men".[42] On the other hand, advocates of belief in jinn assert that God's creation can exceed the human mind; thus, jinn are beyond human understanding. Since they are mentioned in Islamic texts, scholars such as Ibn Taimiyya and Ibn Hazm prohibit the denial of jinn. They also refer to spirits and demons among the Christians, Zoroastrians and Jews to "prove" their existence.[60] Ibn Taymiyya believed the jinn to be generally "ignorant, untruthful, oppressive and treacherous". He held that the jinn account for much of the "magic" that is perceived by humans, cooperating with magicians to lift items in the air, delivering hidden truths to fortune tellers, and mimicking the voices of deceased humans during seances.[61]

Other critics, such as Jahiz and Mas'udi, stated that sightings of jinn are due to psychological causes. According to Mas'udi, the jinn as described by traditional scholars, are not a priori false, but improbable. Jahiz states in his work Kitab al-Hayawan that loneliness induces humans to mind-games and wishful thinking, causing waswās (whisperings in the mind, traditionally thought to be caused by Satan). If he is afraid, he may see things that are not real. These alleged appearances are told to other generations in bedtime stories and poems, and with children of the next generation growing up with such stories, when they are afraid or lonely, they remember these stories, encouraging their imaginations and causing another alleged sighting of jinn.[62]

Later Sufi traditions related the meaning of jinn back to its origin "something that is concealed from sights", thus they were related to the hidden realm, including angels from the heavenly realm and the jinn from a sublunary realm. Ibn Arabi stated: "Only this much is different: The spirits of the jinn are lower spirits, while the spirits of angels are heavenly spirits".[63] The jinn share, due to their intermediary abode both angelic and human traits. According to some Sufi teachings, a jinn is like an "empty cup", composed of its own ego and intention, and a reflection of its observer.[64] Because jinn are closer to the material realm, it would be easier for human to contact a jinn, than an angel.[65]

In folk literature[edit]

Abbasid manuscript of the One Thousand and One Nights

Jinn can be found in the One Thousand and One Nights story of "The Fisherman and the Jinni";[66] more than three different types of jinn are described in the story of Ma‘ruf the Cobbler;[67][68] two jinn help young Aladdin in the story of Aladdin and the Wonderful Lamp;[69] as Ḥasan Badr al-Dīn weeps over the grave of his father until sleep overcomes him, and he is awoken by a large group of sympathetic jinn in the Tale of ‘Alī Nūr al-Dīn and his son Badr ad-Dīn Ḥasan.[70] In some stories, jinn are credited with the ability of instantaneous travel (from China to Morocco in a single instant); in others, they need to fly from one place to another, though quite fast (from Baghdad to Cairo in a few hours).

Modern era[edit]

Affirmation on the existence of Jinn as sapient creatures living along with humans is still widespread in the Middle Eastern world and mental illnesses are often attributed to jinn possession.[71]

Ahmadi interpret jinn not as supernatural beings, but as powerful men whose influence is felt even though they keep their distance from the common people. According to Mirza Tahir Ahmad, references to jinn could also mean microorganisms such as bacteria and viruses.[72] Others try to reconcile the traditional perspective on jinn, with modern sciences. Fethullah Gülen, leader of Hizmet movement, had put forward the idea, that jinn may be the cause of schizophrenia and cancer and that the Quranic references to jinn on "smokeless fire" could for that matter mean "energy".[73] Others again refuse connections between illness and jinn, but still believe in their existence, due to their occurrences in the Quran.[74]

Modern Salafi tenets of Islam, refuse reinterpretations of jinn and adhere to literalism, arguing the threat of jinn and their ability to possess humans, could be proven by Quran and Sunnah.[75] Jinn are taken as serious danger by adherents of Salafism.[citation needed] Saudi Arabia, following the Wahhabism strant of Salafism, imposes a death penalty for dealing with jinn to prevent sorcery and witchcraft.[76][77] Further, there is no distinction made between demons and indifferent spirits from other cultures, as Salafi scholars Umar Sulaiman Al-Ashqar stated,[78] that demons are actually simply unbelieving jinn. Muhammad Al-Munajjid, an important scholar in Salafism and founder of IslamQA, asserts that reciting various quranic verses and adhkaar (devotional acts involving the repetition of short sentences glorifying God) "prescribed in Sharia (Islamic law)" can protect against jinn.[57]

The importance of belief in jinn to Islamic belief in contemporary Muslim society was underscored by the judgment of apostasy by an Egyptian Sharia court in 1995 against liberal theologian Nasr Abu Zayd.[79] Abu Zayd was declared an unbeliever of Islam for — among other things — arguing that the reason for the presence of jinn in the Quran was that they (jinn) were part of Arab culture at the time of the Quran's revelation, rather than that they were part of God's creation.[39] Death threats led to Nasr Abu Zayd's leaving Egypt several weeks later.[Note 1]

Prevalence of belief[edit]

According a survey undertaken by the Pew Research Center in 2012, at least 86% in Morocco, 84% in Bangladesh, 63% in Turkey, 55% in Iraq, 53% in Indonesia, 47% in Thailand and 15% elsewhere in Central Asia, Muslims affirm the existence of jinn. The low rate in Central Asia might be influenced by Soviet religious oppression.[81]

Sleep paralysis is conceptualized as a "Jinn attack" by many sleep paralysis sufferers in Egypt as discovered by Cambridge neuroscientist Baland Jalal.[82] A scientific study found that as many as 48 percent of those who experience sleep paralysis in Egypt believe it to be an assault by the jinn.[82] Almost all of these sleep paralysis sufferers (95%) would recite verses from the Quran during sleep paralysis to prevent future "Jinn attacks". In addition, some (9%) would increase their daily Islamic prayer (salah) to get rid of these attacks by jinn.[82] Sleep paralysis is generally associated with great fear in Egypt, especially if believed to be supernatural in origin.[83]

Depictions[edit]

Supernaturality[edit]

Jinn are not supernatural in the sense of being purely spiritual and transcendent to nature; while they are believed to be invisible (or often invisible) they also eat, drink, sleep, breed with the opposite sex, with offspring that resemble their parents. They are "natural" in the classical philosopical sense by consisting of an element, undergoing change and being bound in time and space.[84] Thus they interact in a tactile manner with people and objects. Unlike the jinn in Islamic belief and folklore, jinn in Middle Eastern folktales are often depicted as monstrous or magical creatures, and unlike the former, generally considered to be fictional.[85]

Appearance[edit]

The appearance of jinn can be divided into three major categories[86]:

Zoomorphic manifestation[edit]

Jinn are assumed to be able to appear in shape of various animals such as scorpions, cats, owls and onagers. The dog is also often related to jinn, especially black dogs. However piebald dogs are rather identified with hinn. Associations between dogs and jinn prevailed in Arabic-literature, but lost its meaning in Persian scriptures.[87] Serpents are the animals most associated with jinn. Islamic traditions knows many narratitions concerning a serpent who was actually a jinni.[88] However (except for the 'udhrut from Yemeni folklore) the jinn can not appear in form of wolves. The wolf is thought of as the natural predator of the jinn, who contrasts the jinn by his noble character and disables them to vanish.[89][90]

Jinn in form of storms and shadows[edit]

The jinn are also related to the wind. They may appear in mists or sandstorms.[91] Zubayr ibn al-Awam, who is held to have accompanied Muhammad during his lecture to the jinn, is said to view the jinn as shadowy ghosts with no individual structure.[92] According to a narration Ghazali asked Ṭabasī, famous for jinn-incantations, to reveal the jinn to him. Accordingly Tabasi showed him the jinn, seeing them like they were "a shadow on the wall". After Ghazali requested to speak to them, Ṭabasī stated, that for now he could not see more.[93] Although sandstorms are believed to be caused by jinn, others, such as Abu Yahya Zakariya' ibn Muhammad al-Qazwini and Ghazali attribute them to natural causes.[94] Otherwise sandstorms are thought to be caused by a battle between different groups of jinn.

Anthropomorphic manifestation[edit]

A common characteristic of the jinn is their lack of individuality, but they may gain individuality by materializing in human forms,[95] such as Sakhr and several jinn known from magical writings. But also in their anthropomorphed shape, they stay partly animalic and are not fully human. Therefore, individual jinn are commonly depicted as monstrous and anthropomorphized creatures with body parts from different animals or human with animalic traits.[96] Commonly associated with jinn in humanform are the Si'lah and the Ghoul. However, since they stay partly animalic, their bodies are depicted as fashioned out of two or more different species.[97] Some of them may have the hands of cats, the head of birds or wings rise from their shoulders.[98]

In witchcraft and magical literature[edit]

Zawba'a or Zoba'ah, the demon king of Friday

Witchcraft (Arabic: سِحْر sihr, which is also used to mean "magic, wizardry") is often associated with jinn and Afarit[99] around the Middle East. Therefore, a sorcerer may summon a jinn and force him to perform orders. Summoned jinn may be sent to the chosen victim to cause demonic possession. Such summonings were done by invocation,[100] by aid of talismans or by satisfying the jinn, thus to make a contract.[101] Jinn are also regarded as assistants of soothsayers. Soothsayers reveal information from the past and present; the jinn can be a source of this information because their lifespans exceed those of humans.[30]

Ibn al-Nadim, Muslim scholar of his Kitāb al-Fihrist, describes a book that lists 70 Jinn led by Fuqtus (Arabic: Fuqṭus فقْطس), including several jinn appointed over each day of the week.[102][103] Bayard Dodge, who translated al-Fihrist into English, notes that most of these names appear in the Testament of Solomon.[102] A collection of late fourteenth- or early fifteenth-century magico-medical manuscripts from Ocaña, Spain describes a different set of 72 jinn (termed "Tayaliq") again under Fuqtus (here named "Fayqayțūš" or Fiqitush), blaming them for various ailments.[104][105] According to these manuscripts, each jinni was brought before King Solomon and ordered to divulge their "corruption" and "residence" while the Jinn King Fiqitush gave Solomon a recipe for curing the ailments associated with each jinni as they confessed their transgressions.[106]

A disseminated treatise on the occult, written by al-Ṭabasī, called Shāmil, deals with subjugating demons and jinn by incantations, charms and the combination of written and recited formulae and to obtain supernatural powers through their aid. Al-Ṭabasī distinguished between licit and illicit magic, the later founded on disbelief, while the first on purity.[107]

Seven kings of the Jinn are traditionally associated with days of the week.[108]

  • Sunday: Al-Mudhib (Abu 'Abdallah Sa'id)
  • Monday: Murrah al-Abyad Abu al-Harith (Abu al-Nur)
  • Tuesday: Abu Mihriz (or Abu Ya'qub) Al-Ahmar
  • Wednesday: Barqan Abu al-'Adja'yb
  • Thursday: Shamhurish (al-Tayyar)
  • Friday: Abu Hasan Zoba'ah (al-Abyad)
  • Saturday: Abu Nuh Maimun

During the Rwandan genocide, both Hutus and Tutsis avoided searching local Rwandan Muslim neighborhoods because they widely believed the myth that local Muslims and mosques were protected by the power of Islamic magic and the efficacious jinn.[citation needed] In the Rwandan city of Cyangugu, arsonists ran away instead of destroying the mosque because they feared the wrath of the jinn, whom they believed were guarding the mosque.[109]

Comparative mythology[edit]

Ancient Mesopotamian religion[edit]

Beliefs in entities similar to the jinn are found throughout pre-Islamic Middle Eastern cultures.[26] The ancient Sumerians believed in Pazuzu, a wind demon,[26][110]:147–148 who was shown with "a rather canine face with abnormally bulging eyes, a scaly body, a snake-headed penis, the talons of a bird and usually wings."[110]:147 The ancient Babylonians believed in utukku, a class of demons which were believed to haunt remote wildernesses, graveyards, mountains, and the sea, all locations where jinn were later thought to reside.[26] The Babylonians also believed in the Rabisu, a vampiric demon believed to leap out and attack travelers at unfrequented locations, similar to the post-Islamic ghūl,[26] a specific kind of jinn whose name is etymologically related to that of the Sumerian galla, a class of Underworld demon.[111][112]

Lamashtu, also known as Labartu, was a divine demoness said to devour human infants.[26][110]:115 Lamassu, also known as Shedu, were guardian spirits, sometimes with evil propensities.[26][110]:115–116 The Assyrians believed in the Alû, sometimes described as a wind demon residing in desolate ruins who would sneak into people's houses at night and steal their sleep.[26] In the ancient Syrian city of Palmyra, entities similar to jinn were known as ginnayê,[26] an Aramaic name which may be etymologically derived from the name of the genii from Roman mythology.[26] Like jinn among modern-day Bedouin, ginnayê were thought to resemble humans.[26] They protected caravans, cattle, and villages in the desert[26] and tutelary shrines were kept in their honor.[26] They were frequently invoked in pairs.[26]

Judaism[edit]

Shedim, one of several supernatural creatures in early Jewish mythology, resemble the Islamic concept of jinn. Both are said to be invisible to human eyes but are subject to bodily desires, like procreating and the need to eat, and both may be malevolent or benevolent. Like the Islamic notion of jinn as pre-Adamites, Jewish lore also regard shedim as Pre-Adamites, replaced by human beings in some legends.[113][114] Narrations regarding Asmodeus, an antagonist in the Solomon legends, appears both in Islamic lore and in the Talmud as the king either of the jinn or the shedim.[85]:120

Buddhism[edit]

Similar to the Islamic idea of spiritual entities converting to one's own religion can be found on Buddhism lore. Accordingly, Buddha preached among humans, Devas, Asura spiritual entities who are like humans subject to the cycle of life, that resembles the Islamic notion of jinn, who are also ontologically placed among humans in regard of eschatological destiny.[115][116]

Christianity[edit]

Van Dyck's Arabic translation of the Old Testament uses the alternative collective plural "jann" (Arab:الجان); translation:al-jānn) to render the Hebrew word usually translated into English as "familiar spirit" (אוב , Strong #0178) in several places (Leviticus 19:31, 20:6, 1 Samuel 28:3,7,9, 1 Chronicles 10:13).[117]

Some scholars evaluated whether or not the jinn might be compared to fallen angels in Christian traditions. Comparable to Augustine's descriptions of fallen angels as ethereal, the jinn seems to be considered as the same substance. Although the myth of fallen angels is not absent in the Quran,[118] the jinn nevertheless differ in their major characteristics from that of fallen angels: While fallen angels fell from heaven, the jinn did not, but try to climb up to it in order to receive the news of the angels.[119]

Guanche mythology[edit]

In Guanche mythology from Tenerife in the Canary Islands, there existed the belief in beings that were similar to genies,[120] such as the maxios or dioses paredros ("attendant gods", domestic and nature spirits) and tibicenas (evil genies), as well as the demon Guayota (aboriginal god of evil) that, like the Arabic Iblīs, is sometimes identified with a genie.[121] The Guanches were the natives of the Canary Islands before they were colonised and enslaved by the Berbers under Juba II of Numidia.[citation needed]

In popular culture[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Sympathy against Abu Zayd was sufficiently strong that even a police guard guarding his residence in Cairo referred to him as an unbeliever, telling Abu Zayd's neighbors that he (the guard) was there "because of the kafir".[80]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ "jinn – Definition of jinn in English by Oxford Dictionaries". Oxford Dictionaries – English.
  2. ^ a b Tobias Nünlist Dämonenglaube im Islam Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG, 2015 ISBN 978-3-110-33168-4 p. 22 (German)
  3. ^ Tobias Nünlist Dämonenglaube im Islam Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG, 2015 ISBN 978-3-110-33168-4 p. 2 (German)
  4. ^ Tobias Nünlist Dämonenglaube im Islam Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG, 2015 ISBN 978-3-110-33168-4 p. 2 (German)
  5. ^ Jane Dammen McAuliffe Encyclopaedia of the Qurʼān Brill: VOlume 3, 2005 ISBN 9789004123564 p. 45
  6. ^ Robert Lebling (30 July 2010). Legends of the Fire Spirits: Jinn and Genies from Arabia to Zanzibar. I.B.Tauris. p. 87. ISBN 978-0-85773-063-3
  7. ^ Tobias Nünlist Dämonenglaube im Islam Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG, 2015 ISBN 978-3-110-33168-4 p. 3 (German)
  8. ^ Amira El-Zein Islam, Arabs, and Intelligent World of the Jinn Syracuse University Press 2009 ISBN 9780815650706 page 21
  9. ^ Tobias Nünlist Dämonenglaube im Islam Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG, 2015 ISBN 978-3-110-33168-4 p. 47 (German)
  10. ^ Eichler, Paul Arno, 1889 Die Dschinn, Teufel und Engel in Koran [microform] p. 60 (German)
  11. ^ Amira El-Zein Islam, Arabs, and Intelligent World of the Jinn Syracuse University Press 2009 ISBN 9780815650706 page 100
  12. ^ Tobias Nünlist Dämonenglaube im Islam Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG, 2015 ISBN 978-3-110-33168-4 p. 48 (German)
  13. ^ Tobias Nünlist Dämonenglaube im Islam Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG, 2015 ISBN 978-3-110-33168-4 p. 67 (German)
  14. ^ Edward William Lane. "An Arabic-English Lexicon". Archived from the original on 8 April 2015.. p. 462.
  15. ^ Wehr, Hans (1994). Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic (4 ed.). Urbana, Illinois: Spoken Language Services. p. 164. ISBN 978-0-87950-003-0.
  16. ^ Amira El-Zein Islam, Arabs, and Intelligent World of the Jinn Syracuse University Press 2009 ISBN 9780815650706 page 38
  17. ^ Tobias Nünlist Dämonenglaube im Islam Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG, 2015 ISBN 978-3-110-33168-4 p. 25 (German)
  18. ^ Tobias Nünlist Dämonenglaube im Islam Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG, 2015 ISBN 978-3-110-33168-4 p. 24 (German)
  19. ^ Tisdall, W. St. Clair. The Original Sources of the Qur'an, Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, London, 1905
  20. ^ The Religion of the Crescent or Islam: Its Strength, Its Weakness, Its Origin, Its Influence, William St. Clair Tisdall, 1895
  21. ^ Oxford English Dictionary, 3rd ed. "genie, n." Oxford University Press (Oxford), 2014.
  22. ^ Arabian Nights' entertainments, Vol. I, 1706, p. 14.
  23. ^ John L. Mckenzie The Dictionary Of The Bible Simon and Schuster 1995 ISBN 9780684819136 p. 192
  24. ^ Mehmet-Ali Ataç The Mythology of Kingship in Neo-Assyrian Art Cambridge University Press 2010 ISBN 9780521517904 p. 36
  25. ^ a b c Amira El-Zein Islam, Arabs, and Intelligent World of the Jinn Syracuse University Press 2009 ISBN 9780815650706 page 34
  26. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Lebling, Robert (2010). Legends of the Fire Spirits: Jinn and Genies from Arabia to Zanzibar. New York City, New York and London, England: I. B. Tauris. pp. 1–10. ISBN 978-0-85773-063-3.
  27. ^ Amira El-Zein Islam, Arabs, and Intelligent World of the Jinn Syracuse University Press 2009 ISBN 9780815650706 page 122
  28. ^ a b Irving M. Zeitlin (19 March 2007). The Historical Muhammad. Polity. pp. 59–60. ISBN 978-0-7456-3999-4.
  29. ^ Amira El-Zein Islam, Arabs, and Intelligent World of the Jinn Syracuse University Press 2009 ISBN 9780815650706 page 18
  30. ^ a b John Andrew Morrow Islamic Images and Ideas: Essays on Sacred Symbolism McFarland, 27 November 2013 ISBN 978-1-476-61288-1 page 73
  31. ^ Stephen J. Vicchio Biblical Figures in the Islamic Faith Wipf and Stock Publishers 2008 ISBN 978-1-556-35304-8 page 183
  32. ^ Reynolds, Gabriel Said, “Angels”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, THREE, Edited by: Kate Fleet, Gudrun Krämer, Denis Matringe, John Nawas, Everett Rowson. Consulted online on 06 October 2019 <http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/1573-3912_ei3_COM_23204> First published online: 2009 First print edition: 9789004181304, 2009, 2009-3
  33. ^ Scott B. Noegel, Brannon M. Wheeler The A to Z of Prophets in Islam and Judaism Scarecrow Press 2010 ISBN 978-1-461-71895-6 page 170
  34. ^ University of Michigan Muhammad Asad: Europe's Gift to Islam, Band 1 Truth Society 2006 ISBN 978-9-693-51852-8 page 387
  35. ^ Richard Gauvain Salafi Ritual Purity: In the Presence of God Routledge 2013 ISBN 978-0-710-31356-0 page 302
  36. ^ Husam Muhi Eldin al- Alousi The Problem of Creation in Islamic Thought, Qur'an, Hadith, Commentaries, and KalamNational Printing and Publishing, Bagdad, 1968 p. 26
  37. ^ Fahd, T. and Rippin, A., “S̲h̲ayṭān”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs. Consulted online on 06 October 2019 <http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/1573-3912_islam_COM_1054> First published online: 2012 First print edition: ISBN 9789004161214, 1960-2007
  38. ^ Ashqar, ʻUmar Sulaymān (1998). The World of the Jinn and Devils. Islamic Books. p. 8. Retrieved 13 March 2019.
  39. ^ a b Cook, Michael (2000). The Koran : A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press. pp. 46–7. ISBN 0192853449.
  40. ^ Robert Lebling (30 July 2010). Legends of the Fire Spirits: Jinn and Genies from Arabia to Zanzibar. I.B.Tauris. p. 21 ISBN 978-0-85773-063-3
  41. ^ "search jinn all hadith". quranx.com. Retrieved 11 March 2019.
  42. ^ a b c d e Hughes, Thomas Patrick (1885). "Genii". Dictionary of Islam: Being a Cyclopædia of the Doctrines, Rites, Ceremonies . London, UK: W.H.Allen. pp. 134–6. Retrieved 4 October 2019.
  43. ^ Quran 51:56–56
  44. ^ Muḥammad ibn Ayyūb al-Ṭabarī, Tuḥfat al-gharā’ib, I, p. 68; Abū al-Futūḥ Rāzī, Tafsīr-e rawḥ al-jenān va rūḥ al-janān, pp. 193, 341
  45. ^ Amira El-Zein Islam, Arabs, and Intelligent World of the Jinn Syracuse University Press 2009 ISBN 9780815650706 page 64
  46. ^ Tobias Nünlist Dämonenglaube im Islam Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG, 2015 ISBN 978-3-110-33168-4 p. 43 (German)
  47. ^ Gabriel Said Reynolds The Qur'an and Its Biblical Subtext Routledge 2010 ISBN 978-1-135-15020-4 page 41
  48. ^ Tubanur Yesilhark Ozkan A Muslim Response to Evil: Said Nursi on the Theodicy Routledge 2016 ISBN 978-1-317-18754-7 page 141
  49. ^ Tobias Nünlist Dämonenglaube im Islam Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG, 2015 ISBN 978-3-110-33168-4 p. 43 (German)
  50. ^ Christopher R. Fee, Jeffrey B. Webb American Myths, Legends, and Tall Tales: An Encyclopedia of American Folklore [3 volumes]: An Encyclopedia of American Folklore (3 Volumes) ABC-CLIO 2016 ISBN 978-1-610-69568-8 page 527
  51. ^ Amira El-Zein Islam, Arabs, and Intelligent World of the Jinn Syracuse University Press 2009 ISBN 9780815650706 page 52
  52. ^ Jacques Waardenburg Islam: Historical, Social, and Political Perspectives Walter de Gruyter 2008 ISBN 978-3-110-20094-2 page 40
  53. ^ Juan Eduardo Campo Encyclopedia of Islam Infobase Publishing 2009 ISBN 978-1-438-12696-8 page 402
  54. ^ Joseph P. Laycock Spirit Possession around the World: Possession, Communion, and Demon Expulsion across Cultures: Possession, Communion, and Demon Expulsion across Cultures ABC-CLIO 2015 ISBN 978-1-610-69590-9 page 243
  55. ^ Abu’l-Fotūḥ, XVII, pp. 280–281
  56. ^ Robert Elsie A Dictionary of Albanian Religion, Mythology and Folk Culture C. Hurst & Co. Publishers 2001 ISBN 9781850655701 p. 134
  57. ^ a b Salih Al-Munajjid, Muhammed. "Protection From the Jinn". Islam Question and Answer. Retrieved 13 March 2019.
  58. ^ Amira El-Zein Islam, Arabs, and Intelligent World of the jinn Syracuse University Press 2009 ISBN 9780815650706 page 22
  59. ^ Tobias Nünlist Dämonenglaube im Islam Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG, 2015 ISBN 978-3-110-33168-4 p.33 (German)
  60. ^ Tobias Nünlist Dämonenglaube im Islam Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG, 2015 ISBN 978-3-110-33168-4 p.33 (German)
  61. ^ Ibn Taymiyyah, al-Furqān bayna awliyā’ al-Raḥmān wa-awliyā’ al-Shayṭān ("Essay on the Jinn"), translated by Abu Ameenah Bilal Phillips
  62. ^ Tobias Nünlist Dämonenglaube im Islam Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG, 2015 ISBN 978-3-110-33168-4 p.37 (German)
  63. ^ "http://www.ibnarabisociety.org/articles/futuhat_ch009.html
  64. ^ H.J. Witteveen The Heart of Sufism: Essential Writings of Hazrat Inayat Khan Shambhala Publications 1999 ISBN 978-0-834-82874-2
  65. ^ Amira El-Zein Islam, Arabs, and Intelligent World of the Jinn Syracuse University Press 2009 ISBN 9780815650706 page 50
  66. ^ The fisherman and the Jinni at About.com Classic Literature
  67. ^ Idries Shah – Tales of the Dervishes at ISF website
  68. ^ "MA'ARUF THE COBBLER AND HIS WIFE".
  69. ^ The Arabian Nights – ALADDIN; OR, THE WONDERFUL LAMP at About.com Classic Literature
  70. ^ The Arabian Nights – TALE OF NUR AL-DIN ALI AND HIS SON BADR AL-DIN HASAN at About.com Classic Literature
  71. ^ G. Hussein Rassool Islamic Counselling: An Introduction to theory and practice Routledge, 16.07.2015 ISBN 978-1-31744-125-0 p. 58
  72. ^ Simon Ross Valentine (2008). Islam and the Ahmadiyya Jama'at: History, Belief, Practice. Columbia University Press. pp. 142–143. ISBN 978-0-231-70094-8.
  73. ^ John Grant Denying Science: Conspiracy Theories, Media Distortions, and the War Against Reality Prometheus Books ISBN 978-1-616-14400-5
  74. ^ Alireza Doostdar The Iranian Metaphysicals: Explorations in Science, Islam, and the Uncanny ISBN 978-1-400-88978-5 Princeton University Press 2018 page 54
  75. ^ "Jinn Entering Human Bodies - Islam Question & Answer".
  76. ^ "The death penalty in Saudi Arabia: Facts and Figures".
  77. ^ "Saudi Arabia's War on Witchcraft". 19 August 2013.
  78. ^ "The Jinn - Islam Question & Answer".
  79. ^ "Nasr Abu Zayd, Who Stirred Debate on Koran, Dies at 66". REUTERS. 6 July 2010. Retrieved 10 December 2015.
  80. ^ Abou El-Magd, Nadia. "When the professor can't teach". arabworldbooks.com. Retrieved 14 March 2019. source Al-Ahram Weekly- 15 - 21 June 2000
  81. ^ G. Hussein Rassool Evil Eye, Jinn Possession, and Mental Health Issues: An Islamic Perspective Routledge, 16.08.2018 ISBN 9781317226987
  82. ^ a b c Jalal, Baland; Simons-Rudolph, Joseph; Jalal, Bamo; Hinton, Devon E. (1 October 2013). "Explanations of sleep paralysis among Egyptian college students and the general population in Egypt and Denmark". Transcultural Psychiatry. 51 (2): 158–175. doi:10.1177/1363461513503378. PMID 24084761.
  83. ^ Jalal, Baland; Hinton, Devon E. (1 September 2013). "Rates and Characteristics of Sleep Paralysis in the General Population of Denmark and Egypt". Culture, Medicine, and Psychiatry. 37 (3): 534–548. doi:10.1007/s11013-013-9327-x. ISSN 0165-005X.
  84. ^ Benjamin W. McCraw, Robert Arp Philosophical Approaches to the Devil Routledge 2015 ISBN 9781317392217
  85. ^ a b Robert Lebling Legends of the Fire Spirits: Jinn and Genies from Arabia to Zanzibar I.B.Tauris 2010 ISBN 978-0-857-73063-3
  86. ^ Tobias Nünlist Dämonenglaube im Islam Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG, 2015 ISBN 978-3-110-33168-4 p. 113 (German)
  87. ^ Tobias Nünlist Dämonenglaube im Islam Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG, 2015 ISBN 978-3-110-33168-4 p. 134 (German)
  88. ^ Tobias Nünlist Dämonenglaube im Islam Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG, 2015 ISBN 978-3-110-33168-4 p. 116 (German)
  89. ^ name="ReferenceA">Robert Lebling Legends of the Fire Spirits: Jinn and Genies from Arabia to Zanzibar Legends of the Fire Spirits: Jinn and Genies from Arabia to Zanzibar 2010 ISBN 978-0-857-73063-3 page 98
  90. ^ Tobias Nünlist Dämonenglaube im Islam Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG, 2015 ISBN 978-3-110-33168-4 p. 43 (German)
  91. ^ Hughes, Thomas Patrick. Dictionary of Islam. 1885. "Genii" p.136
  92. ^ Amira El-Zein Islam, Arabs, and Intelligent World of the Jinn Syracuse University Press 2009 ISBN 9780815650706 page 64
  93. ^ Travis Zadeh Commanding Demons and Jinn: The Sorcerer in Early Islamic Thought p.145
  94. ^ Tobias Nünlist Dämonenglaube im Islam Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG, 2015 ISBN 978-3-110-33168-4 p. 147 (German)
  95. ^ Tobias Nünlist Dämonenglaube im Islam Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG, 2015 ISBN 978-3-110-33168-4 p. 153 (German)
  96. ^ Tobias Nünlist Dämonenglaube im Islam Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG, 2015 ISBN 978-3-110-33168-4 p. 164 (German)
  97. ^ Amira El-Zein Islam, Arabs, and Intelligent World of the Jinn Syracuse University Press 2009 ISBN 9780815650706 page 164
  98. ^ Tobias Nünlist Dämonenglaube im Islam Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG, 2015 ISBN 978-3-110-33168-4 p. 160 (German)
  99. ^ Ian Richard Netton Encyclopaedia of Islam Routledge 2013 ISBN 978-1-135-17960-1 page 377
  100. ^ name="Robert Lebling">Robert Lebling Legends of the Fire Spirits: Jinn and Genies from Arabia to Zanzibar I.B.Tauris 2010 ISBN 978-0-857-73063-3 page 153
  101. ^ Gerda Sengers Women and Demons: Cultic Healing in Islamic Egypt BRILL 2003 ISBN 978-9-004-12771-5 page 31
  102. ^ a b Bayard Dodge, ed. and trans. The Fihrist of al-Nadim: A Tenth-Century Survey of Muslim Culture. New York: Columbia University Press, 1970. pp. 727–8.
  103. ^ Robert Lebling. Legends of the Fire Spirits: Jinn and Genies from Arabia to Zanzibar. I.B. Taurus, 2010. p.38
  104. ^ Celia del Moral. Magia y Superstitión en los Manuscritos de Ocaña (Toledo). Siglos XIV-XV. Proceedings of the 20th Congress of the Union Européenne des Arabisants et Islamisants, Part Two; A. Fodor, ed. Budapest, 10–17 September 2000. pp.109–121
  105. ^ Joaquina Albarracin Navarro & Juan Martinez Ruiz. Medicina, Farmacopea y Magia en el "Misceláneo de Salomón". Universidad de Granada, 1987. p.38 et passim
  106. ^ Shadrach, Nineveh (2007). The Book of Deadly Names. Ishtar Publishing. ISBN 978-0978388300.
  107. ^ Travis Zadeh Commanding Demons and Jinn: The Sorcerer in Early Islamic Thought Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, 2014 p-143-145
  108. ^ Robert Lebling (30 July 2010). Legends of the Fire Spirits: Jinn and Genies from Arabia to Zanzibar. I.B.Tauris. p. 87. ISBN 978-0-85773-063-3.
  109. ^ Kubai, Anne (April 2007). "Walking a Tightrope: Christians and Muslims in Post-Genocide Rwanda". Islam and Christian-Muslim Relations. 18 (2): 219–235. doi:10.1080/09596410701214076.
  110. ^ a b c d Black, Jeremy; Green, Anthony (1992). Gods, Demons and Symbols of Ancient Mesopotamia: An Illustrated Dictionary. The British Museum Press. ISBN 978-0-7141-1705-8.
  111. ^ Cramer, Marc (1979). The Devil Within. W.H. Allen. ISBN 978-0-491-02366-5.
  112. ^ "Cultural Analysis, Volume 8, 2009: The Mythical Ghoul in Arabic Culture / Ahmed Al-Rawi". Socrates.berkeley.edu. Retrieved 23 March 2011.
  113. ^ Carol K. Mack, Dinah Mack A Field Guide to Demons, Vampires, Fallen Angels and Other Subversive Spirits Skyhorse Publishing 2013 ISBN 978-1-628-72150-8
  114. ^ "Shedim: Eldritch Beings from Jewish Folklore". 7 March 2014.
  115. ^ Amira El-Zein Islam, Arabs, and Intelligent World of the Jinn Syracuse University Press 2009 ISBN 9780815650706 page 165
  116. ^ Marie Musæus-Higgins Poya Days Asian Educational Services 1925 ISBN 978-8-120-61321-8 page 14
  117. ^ "Arabic Bible – Arabic Bible Outreach Ministry". arabicbible.com.
  118. ^ Wouter J. Hanegraaff, Jeffrey Kripal Hidden Intercourse: Eros and Sexuality in the History of Western Esotericism BRILL, 16.10.2008 ISBN 9789047443582 p. 53
  119. ^ Mehdi Azaiez, Gabriel Said Reynolds, Tommaso Tesei, Hamza M. Zafer The Qur'an Seminar Commentary / Le Qur'an Seminar: A Collaborative Study of 50 Qur'anic Passages / Commentaire collaboratif de 50 passages coraniques Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG ISBN 9783110445459 Q 72
  120. ^ "Los guanches y los perros llegaron juntos a Tenerife". 7 July 2013. (Spanish)
  121. ^ Guanche Religion Archived 2 October 2009 at the Wayback Machine (Spanish)

Bibliography[edit]

  • Al-Ashqar, Dr. Umar Sulaiman (1998). The World of the Jinn and Devils. Boulder, CO: Al-Basheer Company for Publications and Translations.
  • Barnhart, Robert K. The Barnhart Concise Dictionary of Etymology. 1995.
  • "Genie". The Oxford English Dictionary. Second edition, 1989.
  • Abu al-Futūḥ Rāzī, Tafsīr-e rawḥ al-jenān va rūḥ al-janān IX-XVII (pub. so far), Tehran, 1988.
  • Moḥammad Ayyūb Ṭabarī, Tuḥfat al-gharā’ib, ed. J. Matīnī, Tehran, 1971.
  • A. Aarne and S. Thompson, The Types of the Folktale, 2nd rev. ed., Folklore Fellows Communications 184, Helsinki, 1973.
  • Abu’l-Moayyad Balkhī, Ajā’eb al-donyā, ed. L. P. Smynova, Moscow, 1993.
  • A. Christensen, Essai sur la Demonologie iranienne, Det. Kgl. Danske Videnskabernes Selskab, Historisk-filologiske Meddelelser, 1941.
  • R. Dozy, Supplément aux Dictionnaires arabes, 3rd ed., Leyden, 1967.
  • H. El-Shamy, Folk Traditions of the Arab World: A Guide to Motif Classification, 2 vols., Bloomington, 1995.
  • Abū Bakr Moṭahhar Jamālī Yazdī, Farrokh-nāma, ed. Ī. Afshār, Tehran, 1967.
  • Abū Jaʿfar Moḥammad Kolaynī, Ketāb al-kāfī, ed. A. Ghaffārī, 8 vols., Tehran, 1988.
  • Edward William Lane, An Arabic-English Lexicon, Beirut, 1968.
  • L. Loeffler, Islam in Practice: Religious Beliefs in a Persian Village, New York, 1988.
  • U. Marzolph, Typologie des persischen Volksmärchens, Beirut, 1984. Massé, Croyances.
  • M. Mīhandūst, Padīdahā-ye wahmī-e dīrsāl dar janūb-e Khorāsān, Honar o mordom, 1976, pp. 44–51.
  • T. Nöldeke "Arabs (Ancient)", in J. Hastings, ed., Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics I, Edinburgh, 1913, pp. 659–73.
  • S. Thompson, Motif-Index of Folk-Literature, rev. ed., 6 vols., Bloomington, 1955.
  • S. Thompson and W. Roberts, Types of Indic Oral Tales, Folklore Fellows Communications 180, Helsinki, 1960.
  • Solṭān-Moḥammad ibn Tāj al-Dīn Ḥasan Esterābādī, Toḥfat al-majāles, Tehran.
  • Nünlist, Tobias (2015). Dämonenglaube im Islam. Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG,. ISBN 978-3-110-33168-4.CS1 maint: extra punctuation (link)
  • Moḥammad b. Maḥmūd Ṭūsī, Ajāyeb al-makhlūqāt va gharā’eb al-mawjūdāt, ed. M. Sotūda, Tehran, 1966.

Further reading[edit]

  • Crapanzano, V. (1973) The Hamadsha: a study in Moroccan ethnopsychiatry. Berkeley, CA, University of California Press.
  • Drijvers, H. J. W. (1976) The Religion of Palmyra. Leiden, Brill.
  • El-Zein, Amira (2009) Islam, Arabs, and the intelligent world of the Jinn. Contemporary Issues in the Middle East. Syracuse, NY, Syracuse University Press. ISBN 978-0-8156-3200-9.
  • El-Zein, Amira (2006) "Jinn". In: J. F. Meri ed. Medieval Islamic civilization – an encyclopedia. New York and Abingdon, Routledge, pp. 420–421.
  • Goodman, L.E. (1978) The case of the animals versus man before the king of the Jinn: A tenth-century ecological fable of the pure brethren of Basra. Library of Classical Arabic Literature, vol. 3. Boston, Twayne.
  • Maarouf, M. (2007) Jinn eviction as a discourse of power: a multidisciplinary approach to Moroccan magical beliefs and practices. Leiden, Brill.
  • Taneja, Anand V. (2017) Jinnealogy: Time, Islam, and Ecological Thought in the Medieval Ruins of Delhi. Stanford, CA, Stanford University Press. ISBN 978-1503603936
  • Zbinden, E. (1953) Die Djinn des Islam und der altorientalische Geisterglaube. Bern, Haupt.

External links[edit]