Gennady Rozhdestvensky

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Rozhdestvensky at the Prague Spring Festival in 2007

Gennady Nikolayevich Rozhdestvensky, CBE (Russian: Генна́дий Никола́евич Рожде́ственский; 4 May 1931 – 16 June 2018[1]) was a Soviet and Russian conductor,[2] People's Artist of the USSR (1976), and Hero of Socialist Labour (1990).

Biography[edit]

Gennady Rozhdestvensky was born in Moscow. His parents were the noted conductor and pedagogue Nikolai Anosov and soprano Natalya Rozhdestvenskaya. His given name was Gennady Nikolayevich Anosov, but he adopted his mother’s maiden name in its masculine form for his professional career so as to avoid the appearance of nepotism. His younger brother, the painter P.N. Anosov, retained their father's name.[3]

He studied conducting with his father at the Moscow Conservatory and piano with Lev Oborin. Already known for having conducted Tchaikovsky's The Nutcracker ballet at the Bolshoi Theatre at the age of 20, he quickly established his reputation. He premiered many works by Soviet composers, including Edison Denisov's Le soleil des Incas ("The Sun of the Incas"; 1964),[4] as well as giving the Russian premiere of Benjamin Britten's A Midsummer Night's Dream and the Western premiere of Dmitri Shostakovich's Fourth Symphony at the 1962 Edinburgh Festival.

He became general artistic director of the Bolshoi Theatre in 2000, and in 2001 conducted the world premiere of the original version of Sergei Prokofiev's opera The Gambler.[5] Not long afterwards he resigned, citing desertion by singers, production problems and hostile coverage by the Moscow press.[6]

Among the works dedicated to Rozhdestvensky are Sofia Gubaidulina's symphony Stimmen... Verstummen... and several of Alfred Schnittke's works, such as Symphony No. 1, Symphony No. 8, and Symphony No. 9.[7] Schnittke wrote of him:

I once calculated that there are now some forty compositions written for Rozhdestvensky—either derived from his ideas or else he was the first to conduct them. I could not believe it, but it really is so. I could even say that nearly all my own work as a composer depended on contact with him and on the many talks we had. It was in these talks that I conceived the idea for many of my compositions. I count that as one of the luckiest circumstances of my life.[8]

Conducting[edit]

Rozhdestvensky was considered a versatile conductor and a highly cultured musician with a supple stick technique. In moulding his interpretations, he gave a clear idea of the structural outlines and emotional content of a piece, combined with a performing style which melded logic, intuition and spontaneity.[3] In the Soviet Union, he recorded extensively with the big three major contemporary soloists David Oistrakh (violin,[9] Sviatoslav Richter (piano)[10] and Mstislav Rostropovich (cello).[11]

Rozhdestvensky is featured in the documentary Notes interdites: scènes de la vie musicale en Russie Soviétique (English title: "The Red Baton"),[12] which examines the hardships faced by musicians in the Soviet Union under Stalinism. In it, he describes the political situation and its impact on his life, as well as those of Shostakovich, Prokofiev, Stravinsky, Richter and other colleagues. The role of Tikhon Khrennikov, Secretary of the Union of Soviet Composers, is discussed extensively.

On a lighter note, the documentary features Rozhdestvensky discussing the art of conducting, and includes footage of masterclasses, rehearsals with students from the Moscow Conservatory and Zürich's Tonhalle orchestra, as well as snippets of Rozhdestvensky conducting Shostakovich's 7th Symphony, Tchaikovsky's Romeo and Juliet, and Alfred Schnittke's Dead Souls.

Shostakovich interpreter[edit]

In 2016, Rozhdestvensky was awarded the 7th International Shostakovich Prize for his contribution to the interpretation of the work of Dmitri Shostakovich. At Edinburgh in 1964, he conducted the first performance outside the Soviet Union of the 4th symphony.[13] His 1983 recording of the 8th symphony is considered a classic.[14] He edited the second volume of the collected works of Shostakovich published in 1984, including the Symphony No. 3 and Symphony No. 4.[15]

Personal life[edit]

In 1969, Rozhdestvensky married the pianist Viktoria Postnikova. Together they recorded Tchaikovsky's piano concertos.[13] Their son, Sasha Rozhdestvensky, is a violinist, with whom Rozhdestvensky senior recorded the Glazunov and Shostakovich violin concertos in 2007.[16]

Gennady Rozhdestvensky died on 16 June 2018.[1][2]

Orchestra tenures[edit]

With the USSR Ministry of Culture Symphony Orchestra he recorded all the symphonies of Dmitri Shostakovich, Alexander Glazunov, Anton Bruckner, Alfred Schnittke, and Arthur Honegger. He also performed all the symphonies of Ralph Vaughan Williams in Leningrad in the late 1980s. Those have been released, by the Melodiya label, in a complete CD box set in April 2014.

He conducted many of the world's greatest orchestras, including the Berlin Philharmonic, the Royal Concertgebouw Orchestra, the Boston Symphony Orchestra, the Chicago Symphony Orchestra, the Cleveland Orchestra, the Israel Philharmonic Orchestra, and the London Symphony Orchestra.

Honours and awards[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Ушел из жизни дирижер и пианист Геннадий Рождественский". Новости Mail.Ru (in Russian). Retrieved 16 June 2018. 
  2. ^ a b Schweitzer, Vivien (2018-06-17). "Gennady Rozhdestvensky, a Leading Russian Conductor, Dies at 87". The New York Times. Retrieved 2018-06-19. 
  3. ^ a b Yampol'sky, I.M., ed. Stanley Sadie, "Rozhdestvensky, Gennady (Nikolayevich)", The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, First Edition (London: Macmillan, 1980), 20 vols. ISBN 0-333-23111-2
  4. ^ Edison Denisov by Yuri Kholopov and Valeria Tsenova. Harwood Academic Publishers, 1995.
  5. ^ "Gennadi Rozhdestvensky: Conductor". State Academic Bolshoi Theatre. Archived from the original on 3 June 2011. Retrieved 19 April 2009. 
  6. ^ Jeremy Eichler (22 November 2008). "Miffed at BSO, famed maestro backs out". The Boston Globe. Retrieved 19 April 2009. 
  7. ^ a b c Геннадий Рождественский, дирижёр | Saint-Petersburg Philharmonia, Санкт-Петербургская академическая филармония
  8. ^ Schnittke, Alfred (2002). Alexander Ivashkin, ed. A Schnittke Reader. Indiana University Press. p. 77. ISBN 9780253109170. 
  9. ^ Lawrence B Johnson (10 May 1998). "Ever the Spellbinder With a Violin's Voice". New York Times. Retrieved 19 June 2018. 
  10. ^ "Bruno Monsaingeon Edition Vol 3 - Sviatoslav Richter / Gennadi Rozhdestvensky". EuroArts. 22 Apr 2016. Retrieved 19 June 2018. 
  11. ^ Kyle MacMillan (December 18, 2016). "Gennady Rozhdestvensky returns with a double dose of Shostakovich". CSO Sounds and Stories. Retrieved 19 June 2018. 
  12. ^ Notes Interdites, Bruno Monsaingeon, 2004, 55m 44s.
  13. ^ a b "The conductor Gennady Rozhdestvensky has died". Gramophone. Retrieved 17 June 2018. 
  14. ^ "Gennady Rozhdestvensky". Rayfield Allied. Retrieved 17 June 2018. 
  15. ^ Derek C. Hulme (18 February 2010). Dmitri Shostakovich Catalogue: The First Hundred Years and Beyond. Scarecrow Press. pp. 238–. ISBN 978-0-8108-7265-3. 
  16. ^ Gavin Dixon. "Review". MusicWeb International. Retrieved 17 June 2018. 
  17. ^ Указ Президента СССР от 18 октября 1990 года № УП-889 «О присвоении звания Героя Социалистического Труда тов. Рождественскому Г.Н.»
  18. ^ Ведомости Верховного Совета СССР. – М.: Издание Верховного Совета СССР, 1967. – № 44 (1 ноября). – 681 – 716 с. – [Статьи 586 – 605].
  19. ^ Указ Президиума Верховного Совета СССР от 4 мая 1981 года № 4823—X «О награждении дирижера Рождественского Г.Н. орденом Трудового Красного Знамени»
  20. ^ Геннадий Рождественский награждён Орденом Восходящего Солнца
  21. ^ Указ Президиума Верховного Совета РСФСР от 15 сентября 1959 года «О присвоении почетных званий РСФСР творческим работникам Государственного ордена Ленина академического Большого театра Союза ССР»
  22. ^ Указ Президиума Верховного Совета РСФСР от 24 мая 1966 года «О присвоении почетного звания народный артист РСФСР творческим работникам Государственного академического Большого театра Союза ССР»
  23. ^ Указ Президиума Верховного Совета СССР от 25 мая 1976 года № 4019—IX «О присвоении почетного звания народного артиста СССР творческим работникам Государственного академического Большого театра СССР»
  24. ^ Геннадий Рождественский стал командором Превосходнейшего ордена Британской империи

References[edit]

External links[edit]

Cultural offices
Preceded by
Alexander Gauk
Music Director, Tchaikovsky Symphony Orchestra of Moscow Radio
1961–1974
Succeeded by
Vladimir Fedoseyev
Preceded by
Evgeny Svetlanov
Music Director, Bolshoi Theatre, Moscow
1965–1970
Succeeded by
Yuri Simonov
Preceded by
Antal Doráti
Principal Conductor, Royal Stockholm Philharmonic Orchestra
1974–1977
Succeeded by
Yuri Ahronovich
Preceded by
Maxim Shostakovich
Principal Conductor, State Symphony Capella of Russia
1981–1992
Succeeded by
Valery Polyansky
Preceded by
Paavo Berglund
Principal Conductor, Royal Stockholm Philharmonic Orchestra
1991–1995
Succeeded by
Andrew Davis and Paavo Järvi