Place name changes in Turkey

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Enver Pasha issued an edict in 1916 that all place names originating from non-Muslim peoples would be changed

Place name changes in Turkey have been undertaken, periodically, in bulk from 1913 to the present by successive Turkish governments. Thousands of names within the Turkish Republic or its predecessor the Ottoman Empire have been changed from their popular or historic alternatives in favour of recognizably Turkish names, as part of Turkification policies. The governments have argued that such names are foreign or divisive, while critics of the changes have described them as chauvinistic. Names changed were usually of Armenian, Greek, Georgian, Laz, Bulgarian, Kurdish (Zazaki), Syriac[1] or Arabic origin.

Turkey's efforts to join the European Union in the early 21st century have led to a decrease in the incidence of such changes from local government, and the central government even more so. In some cases legislation has restored the names of certain villages (primarily those housing Kurdish and Zaza minorities).[citation needed] Place names that changed formally have frequently persisted in local dialects and languages throughout the ethnically diverse country.

This policy began during the final years of the Ottoman Empire and continued into its successor, the Turkish Republic. Under the Kemalist government, specialized governmental commissions were created for the purpose of changing names. Approximately 28,000 topographic names were changed, which included 12,211 village and town names, and 4,000 mountain, river, and other topographic names. Most name changes occurred in the eastern regions of the country where minority ethnicities form a large part or a majority of the population.


Ottoman Empire[edit]

The Committee of Union and Progress took the reins of the Ottoman government through a coup d'état in 1913.[2] At the height of World War I and during the final years of the Ottoman Empire, when the ethnic cleansing policies of non-Muslim Greek, Armenian, and Assyrian minorities were underway, Minister of War Enver Pasha issued an edict (ferman) on October 6, 1916, declaring:[3][4][5][6][7]

It has been decided that provinces, districts, towns, villages, mountains, and rivers, which are named in languages belonging to non-Muslim nations such as Armenian, Greek or Bulgarian, will be renamed into Turkish. In order to benefit from this suitable moment, this aim should be achieved in due course.

General Directorate of State Archives of the Republic of Turkey, İstanbul Vilayet Mektupçuluğu, no. 000955, 23 Kânunuevvel 1331 (October 6, 1916) Ordinance of Enver Paşa

Enver Pasha did not change the geographical names belonging to Muslim minorities (i.e. Arabs and Kurds) due to the Ottoman government's role as a Caliphate.[8] His decree inspired many Turkish intellectuals to write in support of such measures. One such intellectual, Hüseyin Avni Alparslan (1877–1921), a Turkish soldier and author of books about Turkish language and culture, was inspired by the efforts of Enver Pasha, writing in his book Trabzon İli Lâz mı? Türk mü? (Is the Trabzon province Laz or Turkish?) that:[9]

If we want to be the owner of our country, then we should turn even the name of the smallest village into Turkish and not leave its Armenian, Greek or Arabic variants.

Only in this way can we paint our country with its colors.

It is not known how many geographical names were changed under the ordinance. The ultimate overarching objective behind it failed due to the collapse of the Ottoman government and trials of its leaders before Ottoman and European courts for massacres against ethnic minorities committed in 1915.[6][10]

A decreased level of cultural repression has taken place in the Turkish Republic; however, non-mainstream Turkic origin place names have invariably been officially renamed over the course of time.[5][8]

Republic of Turkey[edit]

Turkish nationalism and secularism were two of the six founding principles of the Turkish Republic.[11] Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the leader of the early decades of the Republic, aimed to create a nation state (Turkish: Ulus) from the Turkish remnants of the Ottoman Empire. During the first three decades of the Republic, efforts to Turkify[12][8][6] geographical names were a recurring theme.[13][14][15][16] Imported maps containing references to historical regions such as Armenia, Kurdistan, or Lazistan (the official name of the province of Rize until 1921) were prohibited (as was the case with Der Grosse Weltatlas, a map published in Leipzig).[17]

By 1927, all street and square names in Istanbul which were not of Turkish origin were changed.[18][19]

In 1940 the Ministry of Internal Affairs (MoIA) issued a circular which called for original or foreign language place names to be substituted with Turkish place names.[20] Journalist and writer Ayşe Hür has noted that after the death of Atatürk and during the Democratic period of the Turkish Republic in the late 1940s and 50s, "ugly, humiliating, insulting or derisive names, even if they were Turkish, were subjected to changes. Village names with lexical components meaning red (kızıl), bell (çan), church (kilise, e.g. Kirk Kilise) were changed. To do away with "separatist notions", the Arabic, Persian, Armenian, Kurdish, Georgian, Tatar, Circassian, and Laz village names were also changed."[21]

The Special Commission for Name Change (Ad Değiştirme İhtisas Kurulu) was created in 1952 under the supervision of the Ministry of the Interior.[20] It was invested with the power to change all names that were not within the jurisdiction of the municipalities like streets, parks or places. In the commission were representatives from the Turkish Language Society (Türk Dil Kurumu), from the faculties geography, language and history from the Ankara University, the Military General Staff and the ministries of Defense, Internal Affair and education. The committee was working until 1978 and 35% of the villages in Turkey got their names changed.[20] The initiative proved successful, as approximately 28,000 topographic names were changed, including 12,211 village and town names and 4,000 mountain, river, and other topographic names.[22][23][24][25][26] This figure also included names of streets, monuments, quarters, neighborhoods, and other components that make up certain municipalities.[13][22][18] The committee was reinstated after the military coup of 1980 in 1983 and it changed the names of 280 villages. It was closed again in 1985 due to inefficiency.[20] During the heightened tension between Kurdish rebels and the Turkish government, the focus of geographical name changing in the 1980s was on Kurdish villages, towns, rivers.etc.[12][27]

In 1981, the Turkish government stated in the preface of Köylerimiz, a publication dedicated to names of Turkish villages, that:

Approximately 12,000 village names that are non-Turkish, understood to originate from non-Turkish roots, and identified as causing confusion have been examined and replaced with Turkish names, and put into effect by the Substitution Committee for Foreign Names functioning at the Directorate General for Provincial Governments in our Ministry.[28]

At the culmination of the policy, no geographical or topographical names of non-Turkish origin remained.[15] Some of the newer names resembled their native names, but with revised Turkish connotations (i.e. Aghtamar was changed to Akdamar).

Current status[edit]

Although geographical names have been formally changed in Turkey, their native names persist and continue in local dialects throughout the country.[29] At times, Turkish politicians have also used the native names of cities during their speeches. In 2009, when addressing a crowd in the town of Güroymak, president Abdullah Gül used the native name Norşin.[30] Also that year, when talking about his family origins, Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan used the native Greek name of Potamya instead of Güneysu.[30]

Efforts at restoring the former names of geographical terms have been recently introduced in Turkey.[31] In September 2012, legislation was introduced to restore the names of (primarily Kurdish) villages to their former native names.[32] According to the bill, the province of Tunceli would be named Dersim, Güroymak would be named Norşin, and Aydınlar would be named Tilo.[32] But the Turkish Government authority was opposed to the name Dersim as the local municipality wanted to introduce the name Dersim for Tunceli.[33]

Comparative analysis[edit]

Most of the geographical name changes occurred in the eastern provinces of the country and on the coast of the eastern Black Sea, where minority populations tend to live. Through independent study, etymologist Sevan Nişanyan estimates that, of the geographical location name changes, 4,200 were Greek, 4,000 Kurdish, 3,600 Armenian, 750 Arabic, 400 Assyrian, 300 Georgian, 200 Laz, and 50 others.[5][13][14][15][16] The official statistics of The Special Commission for Name Change (Ad Degistirme Ihtisas Komisyonu) claim that the total number of villages, towns, cities, and settlements renamed is 12,211.[22][24] The chart below lists the provinces and the number of villages or towns renamed.[34][27]

Percentage of geographical name changes in Turkey from 1916 onwards
Province Number Province Number Province Number Province Number Province Number
Erzurum 653 Kastamonu 295 Giresun 167 Amasya 99 Denizli 53
Mardin 647 Gaziantep 279 Zonguldak 156 Kütahya 93 Burdur 49
Diyarbakır 555 Tunceli 273 Bursa 136 Yozgat 90 Niğde 48
Van 415 Bingöl 247 Ordu 134 Afyon 88 Uşak 47
Sivas 406 Tokat 245 Hakkari 128 Kayseri 86 Isparta 46
Kars 398 Bitlis 236 Hatay 117 Manisa 83 Kırşehir 39
Siirt 392 Konya 236 Sakarya 117 Çankırı 76 Kırklareli 35
Trabzon 390 Adıyaman 224 Mersin 112 Eskişehir 70 Bilecik 32
Şanlıurfa 389 Malatya 217 Balıkesir 110 Muğla 70 Kocaeli 26
Elazığ 383 Ankara 193 Kahramanmaraş 105 Aydın 69 Nevşehir 24
Ağrı 374 Samsun 185 Rize 105 İzmir 68 Istanbul 21
Erzincan 366 Bolu 182 Çorum 103 Sinop 59 Edirne 20
Gümüşhane 343 Adana 169 Artvin 101 Çanakkale 53 Tekirdağ 19
Muş 297 Antalya 168

Notable geographical name changes[edit]


Armenian geographic names were first changed under the reign of Sultan Abdul Hamid II. In 1880, the word Armenia was banned from use in the press, schoolbooks, and governmental establishments, to be replaced with words like Anatolia or Kurdistan.[35][36][37][38][39] Armenian name changing continued under the early Republican era up until the 21st century. It included the Turkification of last names, change of animal names,[40] change of the names of Armenian historical figures (i.e. the name of the prominent Balyan family was concealed under the identity of a superficial Italian family called Baliani),[41][42] and the change and distortion of Armenian historical events.[43]

Most Armenian geographical names were in the eastern provinces of the Ottoman empire. Villages, settlements, or towns that contain the suffix -kert, meaning built or built by (i.e. Manavazkert (today Malazgirt), Norakert, Dikranagert, Noyakert), -shen, meaning village (i.e. Aratashen, Pemzashen, Norashen), and -van, meaning town (i.e. Charentsavan, Nakhichevan, Tatvan), signify an Armenian name.[8] Throughout Ottoman history, Turkish and Kurdish tribesmen have settled into Armenian villages and changed the native Armenian names (i.e. the Armenian Norashen was changed to Norşin). This was especially true after the Armenian genocide, when much of eastern Turkey was depopulated of its Armenian population.[8]

Sevan Nişanyan estimates that 3,600 Armenian geographical locations have been changed.[5]

Armenian geographical names renamed in Turkey
Notable name changes of Armenian geographical locations:[44][45]
Armenian name Named changed to: Notes
Govdun Goydun Armenian: "House of cows"
Aghtamar Akdamar Of unknown meaning[46]
Turkish: White vein
Akn Eğin, later Kemaliye Armenian: "Fountain"[47]
Manavazkert Malazgirt Armenian: "City of Menua" (named after Urartian king Menua)
Vostan Gevaş Armenian: "Belongs to King"
Kayl Ket Kelkit River Armenian: "Wolf River".[48] The village of Kelkit in the
Gümüşhane Province also gets its name from the Kelkit River.
Norashen Güroymak Armenian: "New city". A proposal has been introduced to
restore its former name. The Kurdish community of Güroymak
claim it is a Kurdish native name called "Norşin".[32]
Çermuk Çermik Armenian: "Hot springs"
Khachkar Kaçkar Armenian: Khachkar or cross-stone.[49][50]
Everek Develi Derives from the Armenian word Averag meaning ruins.
Karpert Harput, later Elazığ Armenian: "Rock fortress"
Ani Anı[51] Historical capital of Bagratuni Armenia. Turkish: "Memory"[52]
Sevaverag Siverek Armenian: "Black ruins"
Chabakchur (Çabakçur) Bingöl Armenian: "rough waters". Turkish: "Thousand lakes".
Çabakçur was used until 1944.
Kurds refer to the city as Çolig.
Metskert Mazgirt Armenian: "Big city"
Pertak Pertek Armenian: "Small castle"


Most Assyrian name changes occurred in the southeast of Turkey near the Syrian border in the Tur Abdin region. The Tur Abdin (Syriac: ܛܘܼܪ ܥܒ݂ܕܝܼܢ) is a hilly region incorporating the eastern half of Mardin Province, and Şırnak Province west of the Tigris, on the border with Syria. The name 'Tur Abdin' is from the Syriac language meaning 'mountain of the servants (of God)'. Tur Abdin is of great importance to Syriac Orthodox Christians, for whom the region used to be a monastic and cultural heartland. The Assyrian/Syriac people[53][54] of Tur Abdin call themselves Suroye and Suryoye, and traditionally speak an Eastern Aramaic dialect called Turoyo.[55]

After the Assyrian genocide, the Assyrians of the region were either depopulated or massacred. Currently, there are 5, 000 Assyrians living in the region.[56]

Nişanyan estimates that 400 Assyrian geographical locations have been changed.[5]

Map showing native names of Assyrian villages in the Tur Abdin region
Notable name changes of Assyrian geographical locations:[44][45]
Assyrian name Named changed to: Notes
Kafrô Taxtaytô Elbeğendi Eastern Aramaic: "Lower Village"[57]
Barsomik Tütenocak Named after Nestorian Patriarch Bar Sawma
Merdô Mardin Eastern Aramaic: "Fortresses"[58][59]
Iwardo Gülgöze Eastern Aramaric: "Fountain of flowers"
Arbo Taşköy Eastern Aramaic: "Goat"
Qartmîn Yayvantepe Eastern Aramaic: "Middle village"
Kfargawsô Gercüş Eastern Aramaic: "Sheltered village"
Kefshenne Kayalı Eastern Aramaic: "Stone of peace"
Beṯ Zabday İdil Named after Babai the Great who founded a
monastery and school in the region.
Xisna d'Kêpha (Hisno d'Kifo) Hasankeyf Eastern Aramaic: "Rock fortress"
Zaz İzbırak
Anḥel Yemişli

Georgian and Laz[edit]

The historical region of Tao-Klarjeti, which includes the modern provinces of Artvin, Rize, Ardahan and the northern part of Erzurum, has long been the center of Georgian culture and religion. Lazistan and Tao-Klarjeti, then part of the Georgian Principality of Samtskhe, was conquered by the Ottoman Empire in the middle of the 16th century. Due to linguistic differences, the new Ottoman administration in his records on Gurjistan Vilayet [tr] (Province of Georgia) adapted Georgian geographical names in Ottoman-Turkish style. Some geographical names were changed so drastically that it has become almost impossible to determine its original form. Geographical name changes by the Ottomans became intense in 1913. After the collapse of the Ottoman Empire in 1923, the new Turkish government continued old policy. The first attempts by Turkish republican officials to change Georgian geographical names began in 1925.[60] The changes in geographical names periodically took place after 1959 and continued throughout of 20th century. Despite the fact that Georgians were making significant minority in the region, in 1927 the provincial council of Artvin banned Georgian language.[61] The inhabitants however retained usage of old geographical names in colloquial speech.

Between 1914 to 1990, Turkish semi-autonomous bureaucratic regimes changed 33% geographical names in Rize and 39% in Artvin.[62]

Nişanyan estimates that 500 Georgian and Laz geographical names have been changed to Turkish .[5]

Georgian and Laz geographical names renamed in Turkey
Notable name changes of Georgian and Laz geographical locations:[44]
Locations assigned completely new names
Georgian and Laz name Named changed to: Notes
Tsqarostavi Öncül Georgian: "Source of a Spring"
Dolisqana Hamamlı Georgian: "Wheat field"
Berta Ortaköy Georgian: "Site of monks"
Veli Sevimli Georgian: "Field"/"Meadow"
Taoskari Çataksu Georgian "Gate of Tao"
Akhalta Yusufeli Georgian: "Site of the new"
Makriali Kemalpaşa
Vits'e Fındıklı Laz: "Branch"
Atina Pazar
Muzareti Çakırüzüm, Göle Georgian: "A closed site"
Location names altered to sound Turkish
Georgian and Laz name Named changed to: Notes
Shavsheti Şavşat Georgian: "Land of the Shavsh (Georgian subethnic group)"
Artanuji Ardanuç Laz-Mingrelian: "Bay of Artani"
Oltisi Oltu
K'ola Göle related to the name of Colchis


Many of the Greek names have maintained their origins from the Byzantine empire and Empire of Trebizond era.

With the establishment of the Ottoman empire, many Turkish name changes have continued to retain their Greek origins. For example, the modern name "İzmir" derives from the former Greek name Σμύρνη "Smyrna", through the first two syllables of the phrase "εις Σμύρνην" (pronounced "is Smirnin"), which means "to Smyrna" in Greek. A similar etymology also applies to other Turkish cities with former Greek names, such as İznik (from the phrase "is Nikaean", meaning "to Nicaea"), or even for the Greek island of Kos, called "İstanköy" in Turkish.[44]

Nişanyan estimates that 4,200 Greek geographical locations have been changed, the most of any ethnic minority.[5]

Greek geographical names renamed in Turkey
Notable name changes of Greek geographical locations:[44][45]
Greek name Named changed to: Notes
Potamia Güneysu Greek: "River". On August 12, 2009, when talking about his family
origins, Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan used the native Greek
name of Potamya instead of Güneysu.[30]
Néa Phôkaia Yenifoça
Hadrianoupolis Edirne Greek: "City of Hadrian". Founded by Emperor Hadrian in about 123 A.D. Became temporary Ottoman capital after Ottoman conquest in 1363.[63]
Kallipolis Gelibolu Greek: "Beautiful city". The city was founded in the 5th century B.C.[64]
Makri Fethiye Greek: "long". Following the population exchange between Greece and Turkey,
the Greeks of Makri were sent to Greece where they founded the town of
Nea Makri (New Makri).[65]
Kalamaki Kalkan Until the early 1920s, the majority of its inhabitants were Greeks. They left
in 1923 because of the exchange of populations between Greece and Turkey
after the Greco-Turkish War and emigrated to Attica, where they founded
the town of Kalamaki.[66]
Konstantinoupolis Istanbul Greek: "City of Constantine". Founded by Emperor Constantine in 330 A.D.
The name Istanbul has been in use since even before the 1453 Ottoman conquest.
Different names of the city coexisted during the Ottoman times, until all names other
than Istanbul became completely obsolete towards the late empire.[67]
Neopolis Kuşadası It was known as Neopolis (New city) during the Byzantine era and later as
Scala Nova or Scala Nuova under the Genoese and Venetians.[68]
Nikaia İznik Named after the wife of Lysimachus. The Nicene Creed was named after the First Council of Nicaea, which met in the city in 325 A.D.
Nikomedeia İzmit Named after Nicomedes I of Bithynia, who re-founded the city in 264 B.C.
Sinasos Mustafapaşa In 1924, during the exchange of populations between Greece and Turkey,
the Greeks of the town left to Greece and founded Nea Sinasos, a town in the
northern part of the island of Euboea.
Smyrna İzmir
Ancient Greek city located at a central and strategic point on the Aegean coast of Anatolia. Greeks left the city after the Great Fire of Smyrna in 1922 to Greece
The Princes' Islands
  • Proti
  • Prinkipo
  • Antigoni
  • Halki

Prens Adaları

During the Byzantine period, princes and other royalty were exiled on the
islands, and later members of the Ottoman sultan's family were exiled there
as well, giving the islands their present name.
Theotokia Gölyazı Greek city which was founded during the ancient times.


The Kurdish (and Zaza) geographical name changes were exempt under the Ottoman Empire due to the Islamic religious orientation of Kurds. During the Republican era and especially after the Dersim massacre, Kurdish geographical name changes became more common.[8] During the Turkish Republican era, the words Kurdistan and Kurds were banned. The Turkish government had disguised the presence of the Kurds statistically by categorizing them as Mountain Turks.[69][70] This classification was changed to the new euphemism of Eastern Turk in 1980.[71]

Nişanyan estimates that 4,000 Kurdish (and Zaza) geographical locations have been changed.[5]

Kurdish geographical names renamed in Turkey
Notable name changes of Kurdish geographical locations:[44][45][72]
Kurdish and Zazaki name Named changed to: Notes
Qilaban Uludere Kurdish: "Castellan"
Dersîm Tunceli province In September 2012, legislation was
promulgated to restore the name
of the province of Tunceli to Dersim.[32]
Qoser Kızıltepe Kurdish: "Red mountain"
Şax Çatak Kurdish: "Tree branch" or "Mountain"
Êlih Batman
Karaz Kocaköy
Pîran Dicle Zazaki and Krd.: "Wise men"
Hênî Hani Hênî: Zaz. Spring
Dara Hênî Genç Dar: Tree, Hênî: Spring
Ginc (Genc) Kaleköy, Solhan Inhabited by Zazas. The name
comes from Middle Persian گنج "genc", which means
treasure. This city should not be confused
with the modern day city of Genç.
Genc was the center of Bingöl Province between
1924–1927. In 1936 the city was moved to
Dara Hênî where the Dara Hênî's name
was ultimately changed to Genç.
Çolig Bingöl The meaning of the name is interpreted as
somewhere that is in a deep valley.
Şemrex Mazıdağı Kurdish: "Road to Damascus (Şam)"
Norgeh Pazaryolu Kurdish: "Place of light"
Amed Diyarbakır Armenians also refer to the city as
Dikranagerd (Armenian: built by King Tigran). "Amida" was the name used by the Romans and Byzantines.
Colemêrg Hakkari Hakkari was known as Çölemerik in
accordance with government records in 1928.
Armenians refer to the city as Gghmar which
was noted in Tovma Artsruni's History of
the House of Artsrunik
written in the 10th
Serêkaniyê Ceylanpınar Kurdish: "Head of spring (a natural fountain)"
Riha Şanlıurfa The city was referred to as Edessa in a
4th-century Greek text. It was also referred
to as El-Ruha in a 7th-century Arabic text.
The city was changed to Urfa. In 1984 the
Turkish National Assembly changed its
name to Şanlıurfa meaning Glorious Urfa
in honor of the city's dedication to the
Turkish War of Independence.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Yazidis in Turkey on the verge of extinction". Israel National News. 27 April 2017. Retrieved 2019-02-01.
  2. ^ Naimark, Norman M. (2002). Fires of hatred: ethnic cleansing in twentieth-century Europe (1. Harvard Univ. Press paperback ed., 2. print. ed.). Cambridge, Mass. [u.a.]: Harvard Univ. Press. p. 26. ISBN 978-0-674-00994-3.
  3. ^ General Directorate of State Archives of the Republic of Turkey, İstanbul Vilayet Mektupçuluğu, no. 000955, 23 Kânunuevvel 1331 (October 6, 1916) Ordinance of Enver Pasha (retrieved from the private archives of Sait Çetinoğlu)
  4. ^ Ungor; Polatel, Ugur; Mehmet (2011). Confiscation and Destruction: The Young Turk Seizure of Armenian Property. Continuum International Publishing Group. p. 224. ISBN 978-1-4411-3055-6.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h Nisanyan, Sevan (2011). Hayali Coğrafyalar: Cumhuriyet Döneminde Türkiye'de Değiştirilen Yeradları (PDF) (in Turkish). Istanbul: TESEV Demokratikleşme Programı. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 August 2015. Retrieved 12 January 2013. Turkish: Memalik-i Osmaniyyede Ermenice, Rumca ve Bulgarca, hasılı İslam olmayan milletler lisanıyla yadedilen vilayet, sancak, kasaba, köy, dağ, nehir, ilah. bilcümle isimlerin Türkçeye tahvili mukarrerdir. Şu müsaid zamanımızdan süratle istifade edilerek bu maksadın fiile konması hususunda himmetinizi rica ederim.
  6. ^ a b c Öktem, Kerem (2003). Creating the Turk's Homeland: Modernization, Nationalism and Geography in Southeast Turkey in the late 19th and 20th Centuries (PDF). Harvard: University of Oxford, School of Geography and the Environment, Mansfield Road, Oxford, OX1 3TB, UK. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-11-09. Retrieved 2013-01-19.
  7. ^ Dündar, Fuat (2001). İttihat ve Terakki'nin Müslümanları iskân politikası: (1913–1918) (in Turkish) (1. ed.). İstanbul: İletisim. p. 284. ISBN 978-975-470-911-7. Retrieved 12 January 2013.
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  10. ^ Haigazn Kazarian (trans.). "Verdict ("Kararname") of the Turkish Military Tribunal". Published in theOfficial Gazetteof Turkey(Takvimi Vekayi),no. 3604 (supplement), July 22, 1919. Retrieved 12 January 2013.
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  14. ^ a b Jongerden, edited by Joost; Verheij, Jelle (3 August 2012). Social relations in Ottoman Diyarbekir, 1870–1915. Leiden: Brill. p. 300. ISBN 978-90-04-22518-3. {{cite book}}: |first= has generic name (help)
  15. ^ a b c Simonian, Hovann H., ed. (2007). The Hemshin: history, society and identity in the highlands of northeast Turkey (Repr. ed.). London: Routledge. p. 161. ISBN 978-0-7007-0656-3.
  16. ^ a b Jongerden, Joost (2007). The settlement issue in Turkey and the Kurds : an analysis of spatial policies, modernity and war ([Online-Ausg.]. ed.). Leiden, the Netherlands: Brill. p. 354. ISBN 978-90-04-15557-2. Retrieved 12 January 2013.
  17. ^ (in Turkish) Başbakanlık Cumhuriyet Arşivi (31 August 1939): 'Leipzigde basılmış olan Der Grosse Weltatlas adlı haritanın hudutlarımız içinde Ermenistan ve Kürdistanı göstermesi sebebiyle yurda sokulmaması.' [On the ban of importing the map 'Der Grosse Weltatlas' because it shows Armenia and Kurdistan within our borders], Bakanlar Kurulu Kararları Katalogu [Catalogue of the decisions of the Council of Ministers].
  18. ^ a b Okutan, M. Çağatay (2004). Tek parti döneminde azınlık politikaları (in Turkish) (1. ed.). İstanbul: İstanbul Bilgi Üniv. Yayınları. p. 215. ISBN 978-975-6857-77-9. Retrieved 8 March 2013.
  19. ^ "'Milli' Olmadığı İçin İsmi Değiştirilen İstanbul Sokakları" (in Turkish). Ofpof. 1 October 2015.
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  • Muvahhid Zeki (2010). Artvin Vilâyeti hakkında ma'lûmât-ı umûmîyye (in Turkish). İstanbul. ISBN 978-9944-197-52-6.

External links[edit]