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A geographical pole, also known as a geographic pole, is either of the two points on a planet, moon, or other relatively large rotating body where the body's axis of rotation meets its surface. As with Earth's North and South Poles, they are usually called that body's "north pole" and "south pole", one lying 90 degrees in one direction from the body's equator and the other lying 90 degrees in the opposite direction from the equator. Every planet has geographical poles.
Perturbations in a body's rotation mean that geographical poles are prone to "wander" slightly on its surface. Every few years, for instance, the Earth's North and South Poles vary cyclically by a few metres. As cartography requires exact and unchanging coordinates, the averaged locations of geographical poles are taken as fixed cartographical poles (cartographic poles) and become the points where the body's great circles of longitude intersect.
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