Guernsey

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This article is about both the eponymous island itself and the whole administrative unit and jurisdiction of Guernsey of which it is by far the largest component. For the whole Bailiwick that also includes Alderney and Sark, see Bailiwick of Guernsey. For other uses, see Guernsey (disambiguation).
Guernsey
Flag Coat of arms
Anthem:  God Save The Queen 'Sarnia Cherie  (official) a
Parishes of Guernsey
Parishes of Guernsey
Status Part of a Crown dependency
Capital St. Peter Port (St. Pierre Port)
49°27′N 2°36′W / 49.450°N 2.600°W / 49.450; -2.600
Official languages
Recognised regional languages
Ethnic groups North European (predominant)
Part of Bailiwick of Guernsey
Leaders
 •  Monarch Queen Elizabeth II
 •  Lieutenant Governor Vice Admiral Ian Corder CB
 •  President of Policy & Resources Committee Gavin St Pier
Establishment
 •  Administrative separation from mainland Normandy
1204 
 •  Liberation
from Nazi Germany

9 May 1945 
Area
 •  Total 65 km2
25 sq mi
 •  Water (%) 0
Population
 •  2014 estimate 62,711[1]
 •  Density 965/km2
2,499.3/sq mi
Currency Guernsey Pound, Pound sterlingd (GGP, GBP)
Time zone GMT
 •  Summer (DST)  (UTC+1)
Drives on the left
Calling code +44e
ISO 3166 code GG
Internet TLD .gg
a. For occasions when regional distinguishing anthem required.
b. English is the only official language. French sometimes used for legislative purposes.
c. Now extinct.[2]
d. The States of Guernsey issue their own sterling coins and banknotes (see Guernsey pound).
e.
  • +44 1481 (landline)
  • +44 7781 (Sure Guernsey Ltd)
  • +44 7839 (Guernsey Airtel)
  • +44 7911 (Jersey Telecom / 24 Seven Communications Ltd)

Guernsey is a jurisdiction within the Bailiwick of Guernsey, a Crown dependency. Situated in the English Channel off the coast of Normandy, the jurisdiction embraces not only all ten parishes on the island of Guernsey, but also the much smaller inhabited islands of Herm, Jethou and Lihou together with many small islets and rocks. The jurisdiction is not part of the Commonwealth of Nations. However, defence and most foreign relations are handled by the British Government.[3]

The whole jurisdiction lies within the Common Travel Area of the British Isles and is not a member of the European Union, but has a special relationship with it, being treated as part of the European Community for the purposes of free trade in goods. Taken together with the separate jurisdictions of Alderney and Sark it forms the Bailiwick of Guernsey. The two Bailiwicks of Guernsey and Jersey together form the geographical grouping known as the Channel Islands.

History[edit]

Main article: History of Guernsey

Etymology[edit]

The name "Guernsey", as well as that of neighbouring "Jersey", is of Old Norse origin. The second element of each word, "-ey", is the Old Norse for "island", while the original root, "guern(s)", is of uncertain origin and meaning.[4]

Early history[edit]

Around 6000 BC, rising seas created the English Channel and separated the Norman promontories that became the bailiwicks of Guernsey and Jersey from continental Europe.[5] Neolithic farmers then settled on its coast and built the dolmens and menhirs found in the islands today.

During their migration to Brittany, Britons occupied the Lenur islands (the former name of the Channel Islands[6]) including Sarnia or Lisia (Guernsey) and Angia (Jersey). Travelling from the Kingdom of Gwent, Saint Sampson, later the abbot of Dol in Brittany, is credited with the introduction of Christianity to Guernsey.[7]

In 933 AD, the islands, formerly under the control of William I, then Duchy of Brittany were annexed by the Duchy of Normandy. The island of Guernsey and the other Channel Islands represent the last remnants of the medieval Duchy of Normandy.[7]

The island of Guernsey seen from 33,000 feet looking North

During the Middle Ages, the island was a haven for pirates that would use the "lamping technique" to ground ships close to her waters . This intensified during the Hundred Years War, when, starting in 1339, the island was occupied by the Capetians on several occasions.[7] The Guernsey Militia was operational in 1337 and would help defend the island for a further 600 years.

In 1372, the island was invaded by Aragonese mercenaries under the command of Owain Lawgoch (remembered as Yvon de Galles), who was in the pay of the French king. Lawgoch and his dark-haired mercenaries were later absorbed into Guernsey legend as invading fairies from across the sea.[8]

Early modern history[edit]

Castle Cornet seen at night over the harbour of St Peter Port.

In the mid-16th century, the island was influenced by Calvinist reformers from Normandy. During the Marian persecutions, three women, the Guernsey Martyrs, were burned at the stake for their Protestant beliefs.[9]

During the English Civil War, Guernsey sided with the Parliamentarians. The allegiance was not total, however; there were a few Royalist uprisings in the southwest of the island, while Castle Cornet was occupied by the Governor, Sir Peter Osborne, and Royalist troops. In December 1651, with full honours of war, Castle Cornet surrendered,[10] it was the last Royalist outpost anywhere in the British Isles to surrender.

Wars against France and Spain during the 17th and 18th centuries gave Guernsey shipowners and sea captains the opportunity to exploit the island's proximity to mainland Europe by applying for letters of marque and turning their merchantmen into privateers.

By the beginning of the 18th century, Guernsey's residents were starting to settle in North America.[11] The threat of invasion by Napoleon prompted many defensive structures to be built at the end of that century. The 19th century saw a dramatic increase in prosperity of the island, due to its success in the global maritime trade, and the rise of the stone industry.

20th century[edit]

During World War I, approximately 3,000 island men served in the British Expeditionary Force. Of these, about 1,000 served in the Royal Guernsey Light Infantry regiment formed from the Royal Guernsey Militia in 1916.[12]

For most of World War II, the Channel Islands were occupied by German troops. Before the occupation, 80% of Guernsey children had been evacuated to England to live with relatives or strangers during the war. Some children were never reunited with their families.[13] The occupying German forces deported over 1,000 Guernsey residents to camps in southern Germany, notably to the Lager Lindele (Lindele Camp) near Biberach an der Riß and to Laufen. Guernsey was very heavily fortified during World War II out of all proportion to the island's strategic value. Life for the civilians on the island was very difficult, especially after June 1944 when the island was under siege. German defences remain a lasting reminder of those times.

During the late 1940s the island repaired the damage caused to its buildings during the occupation. The tomato industry started up again and thrived until the 1970s when it hit a sharp, terminal decline. Tourism has remained important. Finance businesses grew in the 1970s and expanded in the next two decades and are important employers.

Politics[edit]

Main article: Politics of Guernsey

States of Guernsey[edit]

Main article: States of Guernsey

The deliberative assembly of the States of Guernsey (États de Guernesey) is called the States of Deliberation (États de Délibération) and consists of 38 People's Deputies, elected from multi- or single-member districts every four years. There are also two representatives from Alderney, a semi-autonomous dependency of the Bailiwick, but Sark sends no representative since it has its own legislature. The Bailiff or Deputy Bailiff preside in the assembly. There are also two non-voting members: H.M. Procureur (Attorney General) and H.M. Comptroller (Solicitor General), both appointed by the Crown and collectively known as the Law Officers of the Crown.

A projet de loi is the equivalent of a UK bill or a French projet de loi, and a law is the equivalent of a UK act of parliament or a French loi. A draft law passed by the states can have no legal effect until formally approved by Her Majesty in Council and promulgated by means of an order in council. Laws are given the Royal Sanction at regular meetings of the Privy Council in London, after which they are returned to the islands for formal registration at the Royal Court.

The states also make delegated legislation known as 'ordinances' (Ordonnances) and 'orders' (ordres) which do not require the Royal Assent. Commencement orders are usually in the form of ordinances.

The legal jurisdiction of Guernsey needs Royal Assent from the Privy Council for its primary legislation (in a similar fashion to Alderney and Sark). Each jurisdiction raises its own taxation,[14] although in 1949 Alderney (but not Sark) transferred its fiscal rights to Guernsey.

Courts[edit]

The oldest Courts of Guernsey can be traced back to the 9th century. The principal court is the Royal Court and exercises both civil and criminal jurisdiction. Additional courts, such as the Magistrate's Court, which deals with minor criminal matters, and the Court of Appeal, which hears appeals from the Royal Court, have been added to the Island's legal system over the years.

Crown[edit]

The Lieutenant Governor of Guernsey is the representative of The Crown in right of the république of the Bailiwick of Guernsey".[15] The official residence of the Lieutenant Governor is Government House. Since 2016 the incumbent is Rear Admiral Ian Corder.

External relations[edit]

Several European countries have a consular presence within the jurisdiction. The French Consulate is based at Victor Hugo's former residence at Hauteville House. The German Honorary Consulate is based at a local design and advertising agency.

While the jurisdiction of Guernsey has complete autonomy over internal affairs and certain external matters, the topic of complete independence from the British Crown has been discussed widely and frequently, with ideas ranging from Guernsey obtaining independence as a Dominion to the bailiwicks of Guernsey and Jersey uniting and forming an independent Federal State within the Commonwealth, whereby both islands retain their independence with regards to domestic affairs but internationally, the islands would be regarded as one state.[7]

Parishes[edit]

Main article: Parishes of Guernsey

Each parish is administered by a Douzaine. Douzeniers are elected for a six-year mandate, two Douzeniers being elected by parishioners at a parish meeting in November each year. The senior Douzenier is known as the Doyen (Dean). Two elected Constables (Connétables) carry out the decisions of the Douzaine, serving for between one and three years. The longest serving Constable is known as the Senior Constable and his or her colleague as the Junior Constable.

Guernsey is divided into ten administrative parishes for local government purposes. Guernsey's Church of England parishes fall under the See of Canterbury (from 2015[when?])[citation needed], previously under the Bishopric of Winchester.

Parish Population (2001) Area (vergees) Area (km²) Area (sq mi)
1. Castel 8,975 6,219 10.2 3.9
2. Forest 1,549 2,498 4.1 1.6
3. St Andrew 2,409 2,752 4.5 1.7
4. St Martin 6,267 4,468 7.3 2.8
5. St Peter Port 16,488 3,914 6.4 2.5
6. St Pierre du Bois 2,188 3,808 6.2 2.4
7. St Sampson 8,592 3,816 6.3 2.4
8. St Saviour 2,696 3,900 6.4 2.5
9. Torteval 973 1,891 3.1 1.2
10. Vale 9,573 5,446 8.9 3.4
The parishes of Guernsey.

Geography[edit]

Guernsey in its region

Situated around 49°35′N 2°20′W / 49.583°N 2.333°W / 49.583; -2.333, Guernsey, Herm and some other smaller islands together have a total area of 71 square kilometres (27 sq mi) and coastlines of about 46 kilometres (29 mi). Elevation varies from sea level to 110 m (360 ft) at Hautnez on Guernsey.

There are many smaller islands, islets, rocks and reefs in Guernsey waters. Combined with a tidal range of 10m and fast currents of up to 12 knots, this makes sailing in local waters dangerous.

Guernsey coastal rocks.

The island of Guernsey has a population of around 63,000 in 24 square miles (62 km2) and forms the legal and administrative centre of the jurisdiction of Guernsey and the shopping and service centre for all three jurisdictions. The parliament of the whole jurisdiction of Guernsey, including the nearby inhabited islands of Herm, Jethou and Lihou,[14] plus the neighbouring jurisdiction of Alderney is the States of Guernsey.[16]

Climate[edit]

Guernsey's climate is temperate with mild winters and warm, sunny summers. The warmest months are July and August, when temperatures are generally around 20 °C (68 °F) with some days occasionally going above 24 °C (75 °F). On average, the coldest month is February with an average weekly mean air temperature of 6 °C (42.8 °F). Average weekly mean air temperature reaches 16 °C (60.8 °F) in August. Snow rarely falls and is unlikely to settle, but is most likely to fall in February. The temperature rarely drops below freezing, although strong wind-chill from Arctic winds can sometimes make it feel like it. The rainiest months are December (average 112 mm (4.4 in)), November (average 104 mm (4.09 in)) and January (average 92 mm (3.62 in)). July is, on average, the sunniest month with 250 hours recorded sunshine; December the least with 58 hours recorded sunshine.[17] 50% of the days are overcast.

A number of records were set in 2014. It was the highest annual mean temperature of 12.4 °C. This is 0.3 °C higher than for any other year, due to an almost complete absence of cold snaps during the winter months. Three very wet months meant that the winter was the wettest on record. Halloween turned out to be warmer than any other on record, with the temperature peaking at 18.3 °C.[18]

Climate data for Guernsey
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 8.7
(47.7)
8.4
(47.1)
10.0
(50)
11.8
(53.2)
14.9
(58.8)
17.5
(63.5)
19.5
(67.1)
19.8
(67.6)
18.0
(64.4)
15.1
(59.2)
11.8
(53.2)
9.5
(49.1)
13.8
(56.8)
Daily mean °C (°F) 6.9
(44.4)
6.5
(43.7)
7.8
(46)
9.2
(48.6)
12.1
(53.8)
14.5
(58.1)
16.6
(61.9)
17.0
(62.6)
15.5
(59.9)
13.0
(55.4)
10.0
(50)
7.8
(46)
11.4
(52.5)
Average low °C (°F) 5.0
(41)
4.6
(40.3)
5.6
(42.1)
6.6
(43.9)
9.2
(48.6)
11.5
(52.7)
13.6
(56.5)
14.1
(57.4)
12.9
(55.2)
10.8
(51.4)
8.1
(46.6)
6.0
(42.8)
9.0
(48.2)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 92.5
(3.642)
70.2
(2.764)
67.0
(2.638)
53.1
(2.091)
50.9
(2.004)
45.5
(1.791)
42.1
(1.657)
47.7
(1.878)
57.5
(2.264)
95.0
(3.74)
104.3
(4.106)
112.9
(4.445)
838.7
(33.02)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.2 mm) 19.3 15.7 15.9 13.2 11.9 10.4 11.0 10.6 12.4 17.3 18.8 18.6 175.0
Average snowy days 2.8 4.0 1.3 0.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.5 1.7 11.0
Mean monthly sunshine hours 61.0 85.6 127.6 194.7 234.5 246.6 250.7 230.1 180.1 117.1 77.8 58.2 1,864
Source: Guernsey Met Office 2014 Weather Report[18]

Geology[edit]

Main article: Geology of Guernsey
Geology of Guernsey

Guernsey has a geological history stretching further back into the past than most of Europe. There is a broad geological division between the north and south of the Island. The Southern Metamorphic Complex is elevated above the geologically younger, lower lying Northern Igneous Complex. Guernsey has experienced a complex geological evolution (especially the rocks of the southern complex) with multiple phases of intrusion and deformation recognisable.

Economy[edit]

Financial services, such as banking, fund management, and insurance, account for about 37% of GDP.[19] Tourism, manufacturing, and horticulture, mainly tomatoes and cut flowers, especially freesias, have been declining. Light tax and death duties make Guernsey a popular offshore finance centre for private equity funds.

Guernsey does not have a Central Bank and it issues its own sterling coinage and banknotes. UK coinage and (English, Scottish and Northern Irish-faced) banknotes also circulate freely and interchangeably.[20]

Guernsey has the official ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 code GG and the official ISO 3166-1 alpha-3 code GGY; market data vendors, such as Reuters, will report products related to Guernsey using the alpha-3 code.

Guernsey has been given a credit rating of AA+ from Standard & Poor's.[21]

In 2013 there were over 31,000 people employed in Guernsey, with 3,000 being self-employed. 2,038 employing businesses of which 20% are in the finance industry.[22]

Infrastructure[edit]

Public services, such as water, wastewater, the two main harbours and the airport are still owned and controlled by the States of Guernsey. The electricity, and postal services have been commercialised by the States and are now operated by companies wholly owned by the States of Guernsey. Gas is supplied by an independent private company.

Sure telephone boxes on Guernsey

Guernsey Telecoms, which provided telecommunications, was sold by the States to Cable & Wireless plc, rebranded as Sure and was sold to Batelco in April 2013. Newtel was the first alternative telecommunications company on the island providing a range of residential and business telecommunication services as well as high specification data centres. Newtel was acquired by Wave Telecom in 2010 which in turn was acquired by JT, owned by Jersey Telecom, providing broadband and mobile services. Airtel-Vodafone also provide a mobile network.

Both the Guernsey Post postal boxes (since 1969) and the telephone boxes (since 2002) are painted blue, but otherwise are identical to their British counterparts, the red pillar box and red telephone box. In 2009 the telephone boxes at the bus station were painted yellow just like they used to be when Guernsey Telecoms was state-owned. The oldest pillar box still in use in the United Kingdom can be found in Union Street, St Peter Port and dates back to 1853.[23]

Transport[edit]

Ports and harbours exist at St Peter Port and St Sampson. There is a paved airport: Guernsey Airport but no working railway. The States of Guernsey wholly own their own airline, Aurigny Air Services. The decision to purchase the airline was made to protect important airlinks to and from the island and the sale was completed on 15 May 2003. It was announced that the States would sell Aurigny to a rival Channel Islands' airline, Blue Islands, in July 2010, but the talks fell through in September 2010 due to uncertainty as to whether arrival/departure slots at Gatwick Airport could be guaranteed.[24]

The Guernsey Railway, virtually an electric tramway, began working on 20 February 1892 and was abandoned on 9 June 1934. It replaced an earlier transport system which was worked by steam, the Guernsey Steam Tramway. The latter began service on 6 June 1879 with six locomotives. Alderney is now the only Channel Island with a working railway.[25]

Guernsey has a public bus service, operated by CT Plus on behalf of the States of Guernsey Environment Department.[26]

Business[edit]

The finance industry, including banking, fiduciary, captive insurance and fund management, is very important to Guernsey's economy. The island strives to be progressive and innovative in new products, whilst providing a high quality of service. Training of staff is a high priority. The industry regulator is the Guernsey Financial Services Commission. The Channel Islands Securities Exchange is based in Guernsey.

Guernsey also has a thriving non-finance industry. It is home to Specsavers Optical Group, which manages the largest optical chain in the UK and Ireland and also operates in Scandinavia, the Netherlands, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and Spain. Healthspan also has its headquarters in Guernsey.[27] During late 2011, the UK decided to end VAT relief on Channel Islands goods. This is no longer being contested by the Guernsey Government and several private firms.[28]

Data centres are a growing part of the Guernsey economy and are helping it diversify away from mainly finance related industries.

Tourism[edit]

Guernsey, with its sandy beaches, cliff walks, seascapes and offshore islands has been a tourist destination since at least the Victorian days.

Guernsey enters Britain in Bloom with St. Martin Parish winning the small town category twice in 2006 and 2011[29] Saint Peter Port winning the large coastal category in 2014 and St Peter's winning the small coastal prize in 2015.[30] Herm has won Britain in Bloom categories several times:[31] in 2002, 2008, and 2012, Herm won the Britain in Bloom Gold Award.[32]

The military history of the island has left a number of fortifications, including Castle Cornet, Fort Grey. Guernsey loophole towers and a large collection of German fortifications with a number of museums.

The use of the roadstead in front of St Peter Port by over 100 cruise ships a year is bringing over 100,000 day trip passengers to the island each year.[33]

Taxation and debt[edit]

Individuals resident in the Jurisdiction of Guernsey (which does not include Sark) pay income tax at the rate of 20% on their worldwide income.

Guernsey has a 0% corporation tax rate on most companies.

  • A 10% rate (income from banking business and, with effect from 1 January 2013, extended to domestic insurance business, fiduciary business, insurance intermediary business and insurance manager business).
  • A 20% rate (income from trading activities regulated by the Office of the Director General of Utility Regulation, and income from the ownership of lands and buildings).

Guernsey levies no capital gains, inheritance, capital transfer, value added (VAT / TVA) or general withholding taxes.

Personal gains made by regular trading in, for example, equities or goods is assessed as income rather than a capital gain and is consequently taxed as income.

As with other offshore centres, Guernsey is coming under pressure from bigger nations to change its way of doing business. Guernsey is changing the way its tax system works in order to remain OECD (and EU) compliant. Tax revenues are 18.2% of GDP.[34] From 1 January 2008 it has operated a Zero-Ten corporate tax system where most companies pay 0% corporate tax and a limited number of activities are subject to taxation, including banking activity (taxed at 10%), regulated utilities and income from the sale of land or building (taxed at 20%). As a result, annual accounts showed an overall fiscal deficit of £24m in 2011, which it aims to eliminate by economic growth and government expenditure restraint. The deficit is currently supported by drawing funds from reserves built up during periods of surplus.

The island issued a 30-year bond in December 2015 for £330m, its first bond in 80 years.[35]

Population[edit]

Demographics[edit]

The population is 62,948 (Jul 2015 est.).[36] The median age for males is 40 years and for females is 42 years. The population growth rate is 0.775% with 9.62 births/1,000 population, 8 deaths/1,000 population, and annual net migration of 6.07/1,000 population. The life expectancy is 80.1 years for males and 84.5 years for females. The Bailiwick ranked 10th in the world in 2015 with an average life expectancy of 82.47 years.[37] 1.54 children are born per woman. Ethnic groups consist of British and Norman French descent.

Border control[edit]

The whole jurisdiction of Guernsey is part of the Common Travel Area.

For immigration and nationality purposes it is UK law, and not Guernsey law, which applies (technically the Immigration Act 1971, extended to Guernsey by Order-in-Council). Guernsey may not apply different immigration controls to the UK. EEA nationals have free movement rights to enter, and remain in, the territory of the whole of the British Islands (which includes the jurisdiction of Guernsey), although there are de facto restrictions on occupation of housing by those who do not 'belong' to Guernsey (and that restriction includes people from Sark, until they have lived there for a number of years).

Housing restrictions[edit]

Guernsey undertakes a population management mechanism using restrictions over who may work in the island through control of which properties people may live in.

The housing market is split between local market properties and a set number of open market properties.[38] Anyone may live in an open market property, but local market properties can only be lived in by those who qualify – either through being born in Guernsey (to at least one local parent), by obtaining a housing licence, or by virtue of sharing a property with someone who does qualify (living en famille). Consequently, open market properties are much more expensive both to buy and to rent.

Housing licences are for fixed periods, often only valid for 4 years and only as long as the individual remains employed by a specified Guernsey employer. The licence will specify the type of accommodation and be specific to the address the person lives in,[39] and is often subject to a police record check.

These restrictions apply equally regardless of whether the property is owned or rented, and only apply to occupation of the property. Thus a person whose housing licence expires may continue to own a Guernsey property, but will no longer be able to live in it. There are no restrictions on who may own a property.

There are a number of routes to qualifying as a "local" for housing purposes. Generally, it is sufficient to be born to at least one Guernsey parent and to live in the island for ten years in a twenty-year period. In a similar way a partner (married or otherwise) of a local can acquire local status. Multiple problems arise following early separation of couples, especially if they have young children or if a local partner dies, in these situations personal circumstances and compassion can add weight to requests for local status. Once "local" status has been achieved it remains in place for life. Even a lengthy period of residence outside Guernsey does not invalidate "local" housing status.[40]

Although Guernsey's inhabitants are full British citizens, an endorsement restricting the right of establishment in other European Union states is placed in the passport of British citizens connected solely with the Channel Islands and Isle of Man. If classified with "Islander Status", the British passport will be endorsed as follows: 'The holder is not entitled to benefit from EU provisions relating to employment or establishment'. Those who have a parent or grandparent born in the United Kingdom itself (England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland), or who have lived in the United Kingdom for 5 years, are not subject to this restriction.[41]

People from or associated with Guernsey[edit]

Culture[edit]

Children on the Beach of Guernsey (1883) by Pierre-Auguste Renoir.
Main article: Culture of Guernsey

English is the language in general use by the majority of the population, while Guernésiais, the Norman language of the island, is spoken fluently by only about 2% of the population (according to 2001 census). However, 14% of the population claim some understanding of the language. Until the early twentieth century French was the only official language of the Bailiwick, and all deeds for the sale and purchase of real estate in Guernsey were written in French until 1971 . Family and place names reflect this linguistic heritage. George Métivier, considered by some to be the island's national poet, wrote in Guernesiais. The loss of the island's language and the Anglicisation of its culture, which began in the nineteenth century and proceeded inexorably for a century, accelerated sharply when the majority of the island's school children were evacuated to the UK for five years during the German occupation of 1940–1945.

George Métivier, considered by some[who?] to be the island's national poet.

Victor Hugo wrote some of his best-known works while in exile in Guernsey, including Les Misérables. His home in St. Peter Port, Hauteville House, is now a museum administered by the city of Paris. In 1866, he published a novel set on Guernsey, Travailleurs de la Mer (Toilers of the Sea), which he dedicated to the island.

The greatest novel by a Guernseyman is The Book of Ebenezer Le Page by G. B. Edwards. In addition to being a critically acclaimed work of literature, it contains a wealth of insights into Guernsey life during the twentieth century.[42] In September 2008, a blue plaque was affixed to the house on the Braye Road where Edwards was raised. A more recent novel by Guernseyman Peter Lihou,[43] Rachel's Shoe, describes the period when Guernsey was under German occupation during the Second World War.[44]

Henry Watson Fowler moved to Guernsey in 1903. He and his brother Francis George Fowler composed The King's English, the Concise Oxford Dictionary and much of Modern English Usage on the island.

The TV comedy series This is Jinsy is based on Guernsey and its two writers, Chris Bran and Justin Chubb, came from the island.

The national animals of the island of Guernsey are the donkey and the Guernsey cow. The traditional explanation for the donkey (âne in French and Guernésiais) is the steepness of St Peter Port streets that necessitated beasts of burden for transport (in contrast to the flat terrain of the rival capital of St. Helier in Jersey), although it is also used in reference to Guernsey inhabitants' stubbornness.

The Guernsey cow is a more internationally famous icon of the island. As well as being prized for its rich creamy milk, which is claimed by some to hold health benefits over milk from other breeds,[45] Guernsey cattle are increasingly being raised for their distinctively flavoured and rich yellowy-fatted beef. Butter made from the milk of Guernsey cows also has a distinctive yellow colour. Although since the 1960s the number of individual islanders raising these cattle for private supply has diminished significantly, Guernsey steers can still be occasionally seen grazing on L'Ancresse common.

Guernsey also hosts a breed of goat known as the Golden Guernsey, distinguished by its golden-coloured coat. At the end of World War II, the Golden Guernsey had almost been rendered extinct due to interbreeding on the island. The resurrection of this breed is largely credited to the work of a single woman, Miriam Milbourne. Although no longer considered to be critically endangered, the breed remains on the watchlist of the Rare Breeds Survival Trust.[46]

Guernsey people are traditionally nicknamed donkeys or ânes, especially by rival Jersey people – who, in turn, are nicknamed crapauds ("toads"). Inhabitants of each of the parishes of Guernsey also have traditional nicknames, although these have generally dropped out of use among the English-speaking population. The traditional nicknames are:[47]

Parish Guernésiais Translation
St Peter Port Cllichards "spitters"
St Sampson's Rôines "frogs"
Vale Hann'taons "cockchafers"
Castel Ânes-pur-sàng "pure-blooded donkeys"
St Saviour's Fouormillaons ants
St Pierre du Bois Etcherbaots beetles
Forest Bourdons bumblebees
St Martin's Dravans ray fish
St Andrew's Les croinchaons "the siftings"
Torteval Ânes à pids d'ch'fa "donkeys with horses' hooves"

The so-called Guernsey Lily, Nerine sarniensis, is also used as a symbol of the island, although this species was introduced to the island from South Africa.

A local delicacy is the ormer (Haliotis tuberculata), a variety of abalone harvested under strict laws from beaches at low spring tides.[48]

Of the many traditional Guernsey recipes, the most renowned is a stew called Guernsey Bean Jar. It is a centuries-old stew that is still popular with Islanders, particularly at the annual 'Viaer Marchi' festival, where it served as one of the main events. Chief ingredients include haricot and butter beans, pork and shin beef.

Guernsey Gâche is a special bread made with raisins, sultanas and mixed peel.

In July 2006, smoking in enclosed public places was banned, a law put in place to protect workers' right to a healthy working environment.

Sport[edit]

Main article: Sport in Guernsey

The island's traditional colour – including for sporting events – is green.

Guernsey participates in the biennial Island Games, which it hosted in 1987 and 2003 at Footes Lane. Guernsey participates as part of the Bailiwick of Guernsey team in the Commonwealth Games.

In those sporting events where Guernsey does not have international representation, but the British Home Nations are competing separately, highly skilled islanders may choose to compete for any of the Home Nations. There are, however, restrictions on subsequent transfers to represent other Home Nations. The football player Matt Le Tissier, for example, could have played for the Scotland national football team but played for England instead

Football in Guernsey is run by the Guernsey Football Association. The top tier of Guernsey football is the FNB Priaulx League where there are seven teams (Belgrave Wanderers, Northerners, Sylvans, St Martin's, Rovers, Rangers and Vale Recreation). The second tier is the Jackson League.

In the 2011–2012 season, Guernsey F.C. was formed and entered the Combined Counties League Division 1, becoming the first Channel Island club ever to compete in the English leagues. Guernsey became division champions comfortably on 24 March 2012,[49] they won the Combined Counties Premier Challenge Cup on 4 May 2012.[50] Their second season saw them promoted again on the final day in front of 1,754 'Green Lions' fans, this time to Division One South of the Isthmian League,[51][52] despite their fixtures being heavily affected not only by poor winter weather, but by their notable progression to the semi-finals of the FA Vase cup competition.[53] They play in level 8 of the English football pyramid.

The Corbet Football Field, donated by Jurat Wilfred Corbet OBE in 1932, has fostered the sport greatly over the years. Recently, the island upgraded to a larger, better-quality stadium, in Footes Lane.[54]

Guernsey has the second oldest tennis club in the world, at Kings, with courts built in 1875 and the island has produced a world class player, Heather Watson. Guernsey also has one of the oldest softball associations in the world. The Guernsey Softball Association was formally established in 1936, it is now one of the oldest and longest running softball associations to be found. Affiliated to the International Softball Federation (ISF) the GSA has both fast and slow pitch leagues with over 300 members.[55]

Guernsey was declared an affiliate member by the International Cricket Council (ICC) in 2005[56] and an associate member in 2008. The Guernsey cricket team plays in the World Cricket League and European Cricket Championship as well as the Sussex Cricket League.

Approximately 200 people play table tennis on a regular basis across four senior and two junior leagues. The Guernsey Gaels was founded in 1996 and competes in the European Gaelic football leagues. The island hosts its own tournament each year with teams from all over Europe visiting the island.

Guernsey also enjoys motor sports. In season, races take place on the sands on Vazon beach on the west coast. Le Val des Terres, a steeply winding road rising south from St Peter Port to Fort George, is often the focus of both local and international hill-climb races. In addition, the 2005, 2006, and 2007 World Touring Car Champion Andy Priaulx is a Guernseyman.

The racecourse on L'Ancresse Common was re-established in 2004, and races are held on most May day Bank Holidays, with competitors from Guernsey as well as Jersey, France and the UK participating. Sea angling around Guernsey and the other islands in the Bailiwick from shore or boat is a popular pastime for both locals and visitors with the Bailiwick boasting 12 UK records.

Education[edit]

Guernsey Grammar School.
Elizabeth College, in St Peter Port, Guernsey

The Education Department is part way through a programme of re-building its secondary schools. The Department has completed the building of La Rondin special needs school, the Sixth Form Centre at the Grammar School and the first phase of the new College of Further Education – a performing arts centre. The construction of St. Sampsons High was completed summer 2008 and admitted its first students in September 2008.

In 2008, the school leaving age was raised so the earliest date is the last Friday in June in the year a pupil turns 16, in line with England, Wales and Northern Ireland. This means students will be between 15 and 10 months and 16 and 10 months before being able to leave. Prior to this, students could leave school at the end of the term in which they turned 14, if they so wished: a letter was required to be sent to the Education department to confirm this. However, this option was undertaken by relatively few students, the majority choosing to complete their GCSEs and then either begin employment or continue their education.

Post-GCSE students have a choice of transferring to the state run Grammar School & Sixth Form Centre, or to the independent colleges for academic AS/A Levels/International Baccalureate Diploma Program. They also have the option to study vocational subjects at the island's Guernsey College of Further Education.

There are no universities in the island. Students who attend university in the United Kingdom receive state support towards both maintenance and tuition fees. In 2007, the Education Department received the approval of the States Assembly to introduce student contributions to the costs of higher education, in the form of student loans, as apply in the UK. However, immediately after the general election of 2008, the States Assembly voted in favour of a Requête which proposed abolishing the student loans scheme on the grounds that it was expensive to run and would potentially discourage students from going to, and then returning to the island from, university. In 2012, the Education Department reported to the States Assembly that it had no need to re-examine the basis of higher education funding at the present time.

Emergency services[edit]

As in the United Kingdom, both 112 and 999 serve as emergency telephone numbers.

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Guernsey population fall continues, BBC News. Retrieved 4 June 2016.
  2. ^ F. Le Maistre, The Language of Auregny, Jersey/Alderney 1982.
  3. ^ Darryl Mark Ogier (2005). The government and law of Guernsey. States of Guernsey. ISBN 978-0-9549775-0-4. 
  4. ^ "Old Norse Words in the Norman Dialect". Viking Network. 
  5. ^ "La Cotte Cave, St Brelade". Société Jersiaise. Retrieved 10 October 2007. 
  6. ^ "Guernsey, Channel Islands, UK". BBC. Retrieved 10 October 2007. 
  7. ^ a b c d Marr, J., The History of Guernsey – the Bailiwick's story, Guernsey Press (2001).
  8. ^ de Garis, Marie (1986). Folklore of Guernsey. OCLC 19840362. 
  9. ^ Darryl Mark Ogier, Reformation And Society In Guernsey, Boydell Press, 1997, p.62.
  10. ^ The Atlantic Monthly, Volume 65. p. 621. 
  11. ^ Guernsey's emigrant children. BBC – Legacies.
  12. ^ Parks, Edwin (1992). Diex Aix: God Help Us – The Guernseymen who marched away 1914–1918. Guernsey: States of Guernsey. ISBN 1-871560-85-3. 
  13. ^ "Evacuees from Guernsey recall life in Scotland". BBC News. 12 November 2010. Retrieved 12 November 2010. 
  14. ^ a b "Background briefing on the Crown Dependencies: Jersey, Guernsey and the Isle of Man" (PDF). Ministry of Justice. 
  15. ^ "Review of the Roles of the Jersey Crown officers" (PDF). 30 March 2010. Retrieved 31 May 2011. 
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  17. ^ "Met Observatory Weather and Climate Info". Guernsey Airport. Retrieved 16 September 2008. 
  18. ^ a b "2014 Weather Report" (PDF). Guernsey Met Office. Retrieved 8 January 2016. 
  19. ^ "Guernsey Gross Domestic Product First Release 2010". States of Guernsey. Retrieved 11 September 2012. 
  20. ^ "About Guernsey". Visitguernsey.com. Retrieved 31 May 2011. 
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  23. ^ "Channel Island Box, c.1853". postalheritage.org.uk. 
  24. ^ "Aurigny sale to Blue Islands 'no longer on table'". BBC News. 14 September 2010. 
  25. ^ Notes on the Railway taken from The Railway Magazine, September 1934 edition.
  26. ^ buses.gg home – buses.gg – the home of Guernsey's bus service. Hctgroup.org. Retrieved on 2013-09-19.
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  29. ^ "Where is the greenest, cleanest, prettiest place in Britain?". RHS. 
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  31. ^ "Herm aims for fourth gold medal in Britain in Bloom". BBC. 27 January 2013. Retrieved 31 December 2013. 
  32. ^ "Herm Garden Tour". Herm Island. Retrieved 1 January 2014. 
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  34. ^ "Guernsey Facts and Figures". States of Guernsey. Retrieved 11 September 2012. 
  35. ^ "Guernsey's Debt Draws Strong Demand". Wall Street Journal. 
  36. ^ "Guernsey's Population Nudges". Island FM. 
  37. ^ "LIFE EXPECTANCY AT BIRTH". CIA. 
  38. ^ "Guernsey's Two Tier Housing Market". States of Guernsey. 
  39. ^ "Where can licence holders live". States of Guernsey. 
  40. ^ "What is a Qualified Resident?". States of Guernsey. 
  41. ^ "What is Islander status?". States of Guernsey. 
  42. ^ Chaney, Edward, GB Edwards and Ebenezer Le Page, Review of the Guernsey Society, Parts 1–3, 1994–5.
  43. ^ "Peterlihou.com". Peterlihou.com. Retrieved 31 May 2011. 
  44. ^ "Rachel's Shoe". Rachelsshoe.com. 10 December 2008. Retrieved 31 May 2011. 
  45. ^ "HEALTH Milk protein blamed for heart disease". BBC News. 9 April 2001. Retrieved 31 May 2011. 
  46. ^ "Golden Guernsey", Rare Breeds Survival Trust. Retrieved 10 October 2007.
  47. ^ Dictiounnaire Angllais-Guernésiais
  48. ^ Good Food Guernsey – The Ormer, May 2011.
  49. ^ "Guernsey FC secure Combined Counties Division One title,". BBC Sport. 24 March 2012. Retrieved 25 March 2012. 
  50. ^ Guernsey Press (7 May 2012). "'Dom'-inating Green Lions finally get just rewards". www.thisisguernsey. Retrieved 7 May 2012. 
  51. ^ "Guernsey FC: Fourth Win in Four Days Earns Promotion,". BBC Sport. 6 May 2013. 
  52. ^ "Ryman here we come". Guernsey Press. 8 May 2013. 
  53. ^ "Guernsey FC lose FA Vase semi-final first leg to Spennymoor". BBC Sport. 23 March 2013. 
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  55. ^ Guernsey Softball Association
  56. ^ ICC.cricket.org Archived October 14, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.
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  58. ^ "Fire & Rescue Service". Gov.gg. Retrieved 31 May 2011. 
  59. ^ "Sea Safety". Guernsey Harbour Authority. Retrieved 31 May 2011. 

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 49°27′N 2°36′W / 49.450°N 2.600°W / 49.450; -2.600