|State of India|
Location of Haryana in India
Map of Haryana
|Coordinates (Chandigarh): Coordinates:|
|Formation||1 November 1966†|
|• Governor||Kaptan Singh Solanki|
|• Chief Minister||Manohar Lal Khattar (BJP)|
|• Legislature||Unicameral (90 seats)|
|• Parliamentary constituency||Rajya Sabha 5
Lok Sabha 10
|• High Court||Punjab and Haryana High Court|
|• Total||44,212 km2 (17,070 sq mi)|
|• Area under forest||1,684 km2 (650 sq mi)|
|• Net sown area||3,550 km2 (1,370 sq mi)|
|• Density||573/km2 (1,480/sq mi)|
|• Density rank||11|
|• Urban||8,842,103 [34.88%]|
|• Rural||16,510,978 [65.12%]|
|• Official language(s)||Hindi, Punjabi|
|• Regional language(s)||Haryanvi|
|• Bird||Black francolin|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+05:30)|
|ISO 3166 code||IN-HR|
|HDI rank||17th (2011)|
|GDP||₹3,093.26 billion (2011–12)|
|GDP per capita||₹109,227 (2011–12)|
|Growth rate||19 %|
|†It was carved out from the State of Punjab by the Punjab (Reorganisation) Act, 1966^†† Joint Capital with Punjab, India|
Haryana is a state in North India with its capital as Chandigarh. It was carved out of the former state of East Punjab on 1 November 1966 on the basis of language distribution. It has been a part of the Kuru region in North India. The name Haryana is found mentioned in the 12th century AD by the Apabhramsha writer Vibudh Shridhar (VS 1189–1230). It is bordered by Punjab and Himachal Pradesh to the north, and by Rajasthan to the west and south. The river Yamuna defines its eastern border with Uttar Pradesh. Haryana surrounds the country's capital Delhi on three sides, forming the northern, western and southern borders of Delhi. Consequently, a large area of south Haryana is included in the National Capital Region for purposes of planning for development.
The state was home to prominent sites of the Indus Valley and Vedic Civilizations. Several decisive battles were also fought in the area, which shaped much of the history of India. These include the epic battle of Mahabharata at Kurukshetra mentioned in Hindu mythology (including the recital of the Bhagavad Gita by Krishna), and the three battles of Panipat. Haryana was administered as part of the Punjab province of British India, and was carved out on linguistic lines as India's 17th state in 1966. Haryana is now a leading contributor to the country's production of food grains and milk. Agriculture is the leading occupation for residents of the state with the flat arable land irrigated by submersible pumps and an extensive canal system. Haryana contributed heavily to the Green Revolution that made India self-sufficient in food production in the 1960s.
Haryana is one of the wealthier states of India and had the second highest per capita income in the country at ₹ 119,158 in the year 2012–13 (See List of Indian states by GDP) and ₹ 132,089 in the year 2013–14 including the largest number of rural crorepatis in India. Haryana is also one of the most economically developed regions in South Asia and its agricultural and manufacturing industry has experienced sustained growth since the 1970s.
Since 2000, the state has emerged as the largest recipient of investment per capita in India. The city of Gurgaon has rapidly emerged as a major hub for the information technology and automobile industries. Gurgaon is home to Maruti Suzuki, India's largest automobile manufacturer, and Hero MotoCorp, the world's largest manufacturer of two-wheelers. Faridabad, Panchkula, Dharuhera, Bawal, Sonipat, Panipat, Bahadurgarh, Yamuna Nagar and Rewari are industrial hubs, with the Panipat Refinery being the second largest refinery in South Asia. There are long-established steel, plywood, paper and textile industries in the state.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Protected Wildlife Areas of Haryana
- 4 Demographics
- 5 Government and politics
- 6 Education
- 7 Main cities
- 8 Culture
- 9 Economy
- 10 Roads, aviation and infrastructure
- 11 Communication and media
- 12 Administrative divisions
- 13 Sports
- 14 Health
- 15 See also
- 16 References
- 17 Further reading
- 18 External links
The name Haryana may be derived from the Sanskrit words Hari (the Hindu god Vishnu) and ayana (home), meaning "the Abode of God". However, scholars such as Muni Lal, Murli Chand Sharma, HA Phadke and Sukhdev Singh Chib believe that the name comes from a compound of the words Hari (Sanskrit Harit, "green") and Aranya (forest). Dr. Budh Prakash opines that the name may be a corruption of "Abhirayana", as its ancient inhabitants were called "Ahirs" and ruled Haryana under the Moguls.
Rakhigarhi village in the Hisar district is home to the largest and one of the oldest ancient Indus Valley Civilization sites and dated as over 5,000 years old. Evidence of paved roads, a drainage system, a large-scale rainwater collection storage system, terracotta brick and statue production, and skilled metal working (in both bronze and precious metals) have been uncovered. According to archeologists, Rakhigarhi may be the origin of Harappan civilisation, which took place in the Ghaggar basin in Haryana and gradually and slowly moved to the Indus valley. Other notable Indus Valley Civilization sites in the state are Mitathal and Banawali.
The Vedic Civilization flourished on the banks of the now lost Sarasvati River. Several decisive battles were fought in the area, which shaped much of the history of India. These include the epic Battle of Kurukshetra described in the epic Mahabharata (including the recital of the Bhagavad Gita by Krishna) and the three battles of Panipat for Uma Singh of Sarmathla. Before she was born, her parents, King Niranjan Singh and Queen Prakash Rani, annexed Delhi and started ruling from there. Ever since the name "Delhi" was coined, it was praise for Princess Uma Singh.
Raja Har Rai Dev of Neemrana conquered the region of King Harshavardhana and established his capital with Uma Singh's blessings at Thanesar near Kurukshetra in the 7th century. After his death, the kingdom of his clansmen continued to rule over a vast region for some time from Harsha's adopted capital of Kannauj and founded the Gaharwar Kingdom. The region remained strategically important for the rulers of North India even though Thanesar was no more central than Kannauj. Prithviraj Chauhan established forts at Tarori and Hansi in the 12th century. Muhammad Ghori conquered this area in the Second Battle of Tarain. Following his death, the Delhi Sultanate was established that ruled much of north India for several centuries.
The three battles of Panipat took place near the modern town of Panipat in Haryana. The first battle took place in 1526, where Babur, the ruler of Kabul, defeated Ibrahim Lodi of the Delhi Sultanate, through the use of field artillery.
Rise of Hemu as a Vikramaditya queen
Hemu is known to be have born in Rewari in south Haryana. He started his career as a supplier of merchandise especially, cannons and gunpowder to Sher Shah Suri's army, during the 1540s. Gradually, Hemu progressed and held positions in the Suri administration during Sher Shah's son, Islam Shah's regime (1546–1553), and rose to become Prime Minister and General of the Suri army under Adil Shah. During 1553–56, ruling as de facto king of northern India, Hemu won 22 battles continuously against Afghan rebels and Mughal forces from Punjab to Bengal without losing any to consolidate his empire. After defeating Akbar's army at Agra and Delhi in Battle for Delhi (1556), Hemu acceded to the throne of Delhi on 7 October 1556, declaring 'Hindu Raj' in north India and himself as a Vikramaditya king on the pattern of earlier Hindu kings in India. Hemu lost his life in the Second Battle of Panipat against Akbar's forces on November the 5th, 1556.
The decline of the Mughal Empire in the early 18th century led to rapid territorial gains for the Maratha Empire, including Haryana. In 1737, Maratha forces under Baji Rao I sacked Delhi, following their victory against the Mughals in the First Battle of Delhi. A treaty signed in 1752 made the Marathas the protector of the Mughal throne at Delhi. Baji Rao's son, Balaji Baji Rao (popularly known as Nana Saheb), further increased the territory under Maratha control by invading Punjab and Peshawar in 1758. This brought the Marathas into direct confrontation with the Durrani empire of Ahmad Shah Abdali, who was based in Kabul. After the Third Battle of Panipat in 1761 between the Maratha Empire and the Afghan warlord Ahmad Shah Abdali, Marathas lost Punjab, Delhi and Haryana to Ahmad Shah Durrani. Within 10 years, Mahadji Shinde re-established Maratha rule over North India, Haryana region remained under the rule of the Scindhia clan of the Maratha Empire, until in 1803, the British East India Company took control of Gurgaon through the Treaty of Surji-Anjangaon after the Second Anglo-Maratha War.
Rao Tularam and the Indian rebellion of 1857
Rao Tula Ram, a Yadav, was one of the key leaders of the Indian rebellion of 1857, in Haryana, where he is considered a state hero. He is credited with temporarily driving all of the British rule from the region that today is southwest Haryana during the Rebellion and helping rebel forces fighting in the historic city of Delhi with men, money and material. Noted as a good administrator and military commander, after the 1857 uprising ended, he left India, met rulers of Iran and Afghanistan and established contacts with the Tsar of Russia, to seek their help to fight a war to free India from the British. His plans were cut short by his death in Kabul.
Formation of Haryana
Haryana state was formed on 1 November 1966. The Indian government set up the Shah Commission under the chairmanship of Justice JC Shah on 23 April 1966 to divide the existing Punjab, India and determine the boundaries of the new state of Haryana after consideration of the languages spoken by the people. The commission delivered its report on 31 May 1966 whereby the then districts of Hisar, Mahendragarh, Gurgaon, Rohtak and Karnal were to be a part of the new state of Haryana. Further, the tehsils of Jind and Narwana in the Sangrur district along with Naraingarh, Ambala and Jagadhri were to be included.
The commission recommended that the tehsil of Kharad, which includes Chandigarh, the state capital of Punjab, should be a part of Haryana. However, only a small portion of Kharad was given to Haryana. The city of Chandigarh was made a union territory, serving as the capital of both Punjab and Haryana.
Haryana is a landlocked state in northern India. It is between 27°39' to 30°35' N latitude and between 74°28' and 77°36' E longitude. The altitude of Haryana varies between 700 to 3600 ft (200 metres to 1200 metres) above sea level. An area of 1,553 km2 is covered by forest. Haryana has four main geographical features.
- The Yamuna-Ghaggar plain forming the largest part of the state
- The Shivalik Hills to the northeast
- Semi-desert sandy plain to the southwest
- The Aravalli Range in the south
Rivers of Haryana
Haryana's main seasonal river, the Ghaggar rises in the outer Himalayas, between the Yamuna and the Sutlej and enters the state near Pinjore in the Panchkula district. Passing through Ambala and Hissar, it reaches Bikaner in Rajasthan and runs for 460 km (290 mi) before disappearing into the deserts of Rajasthan. Important tributaries include the Chautang and Tangri.
The seasonal Markanda River is a stream, which in ancient times was known as the Aruna. It originates from the lower Sivalik Hills and enters Haryana west of Ambala. During monsoons, this stream swells into a raging torrent notorious for its devastating power. The surplus water is carried on to the Sanisa Lake where the Markanda joins the Saraswati and later the Ghaggar. Shahbad Markanda town is situated on its bank.
Mentioned in the epic Shatapatha Brahmana as the Drishadwati, the Sahibi River originates in the Jaipur district in Rajasthan. However, before seismic activities some 7,500 years ago in the Aravalli Hills, the river brought water from as far as the Ajmer district. Gathering volume from about a hundred tributaries in Rajasthan and the Mewat areas, it reaches voluminous proportions, forming a broad stream around Alwar and Patan. Further flowing via Rewari District and Dharuhera, it reaches Jhajjar then splits into two smaller streams, finally reaching the outskirts of Delhi and flowing into the Najafgarh Lake that flows into the Yamuna through the Najafgarh drain. Recently,[when?] hardly any water flows in Sahibi as most of the water is impounded in small check dams upstream in the Alwar district of Rajasthan and the Masani barrage in Rewari district, built on this river on NH 8 (Delhi-Jaipur highway).
Haryana is extremely hot in summer at around 45 °C (113 °F) and mild in winter. The hottest months are May and June and the coldest December and January.
Flora and fauna
|Formation day||1 November (Day of
separation from Punjab)
|State mammal||Blue bull|
|State bird||Black francolin|
Thorny, dry, deciduous forest and thorny shrubs can be found all over the state. During the monsoon, a carpet of grass covers the hills. Mulberry, eucalyptus, pine, kikar, shisham and babul are some of the trees found here. The species of fauna found in the state of Haryana include black buck, nilgai, panther, fox, mongoose, jackal and wild dog. More than 300 species of birds are found here.
Protected Wildlife Areas of Haryana
Haryana has two national parks, eight wildlife sanctuaries, two wildlife conservation areas, four animal and bird breeding centers, one deer park and three zoos, all of which are managed by the Haryana Forest Department of the Government of Haryana.
Hindus form the majority at about 88.23% of the population with Sikhs 5.54%, Muslims 5.78% (mainly Meos) and others 0.45%. In 2001 Hindus made up 18,655,925 of the population, Muslims 1,222,196, Sikhs 1,170,662, Jains 57,167, Christians 27,185, and Buddhists 7,140. Hindu Jats form nearly 25% of the total population and state politics is largely dominated by Hindu Jats followed by the Ahir (Yadav) who dominate the southern part of the state with 18% of the total population. Brahmins have a sizable population in Haryana making up 11% of the total population with a significant number of Rajputs who represent 5% of the total population. The Gurjars represent 2.5% of the total population.
Muslims are mainly found in the Mewat and Yamuna Nagar districts, while Sikhs live mostly in the districts adjoining Punjab, Hisar, Sirsa, Jind, Fatehabad, Kaithal, Kurukshetra, Ambala, Narnaul and Panchkula. Haryana has the second largest Sikh population in India after the state of Punjab. In May 2014, the Haryana Government published the Haryana Anand Marriages Registration Rules, 2014, allowing Sikhs to register their marriages under these rules. Although the Anand marriage law was enacted in 1909, there was no provision for registration of marriages. The Indian parliament passed a law allowing Sikhs to register their marriages under the Anand Marriage Act in 2012, but Haryana did not issue the notification until 2014 under the Haryana Anand Marriages Registration Rules, 2014.
Agriculture and related industries have been the backbone of the local economy. Since 2001, the state has witnessed a massive influx of immigrants from across the nation, primarily from Bihar, Bengal, Uttrakhand, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh and Nepal.[needs update]Scheduled Castes form 19.3% of the population.
Government and politics
As all other states of India, Haryana is governed through a governor, a largely ceremonial position who is appointed by the President of India. The Chief Minister is the head of the Haryana state government and is vested with most of the executive and legislative powers.
Haryana’s legislature is unicameral; its one house, the Haryana Legislative Assembly, consists of 90 members.
Haryana has five seats in the Rajya Sabha, the upper house of India's national parliament, and ten in the Lok Sabha, the lower house. The largest political parties in Haryana are the Indian National Lok Dal, All India Forward Bloc, Communist Party of India (Marxist), Haryana Janhit Congress, Bhartiya Janata Party, Bahujan Samaj Party and Indian National Congress.
Manohar Lal Khattar, a leader of the Bharatiya Janata Party, has been the Chief Minister of the state since October 2014. Jagannath Pahadia, also a leader of the Indian National Congress, was the state's governor from 2009 until July 26, 2014. Sri Kaptan Singh Solanki, a BJP veteran leader was sworn in as the new new governor on 27 July 2014.
As of 2013[update] Gurgaon city had the highest literacy rate in Haryana at 86.30% followed by Panchkula at 81.9 per cent and Ambala at 81.7 percent. In terms of districts, as of 2012[update] Rewari had the highest literacy rate in Haryana at 74%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy was 79%, and female 67%.
Sonipat has the 5,000 acres (2,000 ha) Rajiv Gandhi Education City with a still-growing list of more than 30 educational institutes including several universities, medical colleges, engineering colleges and other institutes. Hisar has three universities Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University - Asia's largest agricultural university, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology, Lala Lajpat Rai University of Veterinary & Animal Sciences); several national agricultural and veterinary research centres (National Research Centre on Equines), Central Sheep Breeding Farm, National Institute on Pig Breeding and Research Northern Region Farm Machinery Training and Testing Institute and Central Institute for Research on Buffaloes (CIRB); and more than 20 colleges including Maharaja Agrasen Medical College, Agroha.
Rohtak has almost 22 colleges within the city. There are four engineering colleges and two polytechnic institutes, 32 primary schools, 69 middle schools and 101 high schools were upgraded to middle, high and senior secondary respectively during the 2004–05 school year.
In 2001–02, there were 11,013 primary schools, 1,918 middle schools, 3,023 high schools and 1,301 senior secondary schools in the state. Haryana Board of School Education, established in September 1969 and shifted to Bhiwani in 1981, conducts public examinations at middle, matriculation, and senior secondary levels twice a year. Over seven lac candidates attend annual examinations in February and March; 150,000 attend supplementary examinations each November. The Board also conducts examinations for Haryana Open School at senior and senior secondary levels twice a year. The Haryana government provides free education to women up to the bachelor's degree level.
Haryana boasts of some of the finest colleges in research, technology and management in the country such as National Brain Research Centre, NIT Kurukshetra, Management Development Institute and IIM Rohtak.
The National Brain Research Centre is the only institute in India dedicated to neuroscience research and education. Scientists and students of NBRC come from diverse academic backgrounds, including biology, computing, mathematics, physics, engineering and medical sciences, and use multidisciplinary approaches to understand the brain. In the foothills of the Aravali range in Manesar, Haryana, NBRC is an autonomous institute funded by the Department of Biotechnology, Government of India, and is a Deemed University.
Two sister campuses of IIT Delhi are approved for Haryana, one in Jhajjar District and other in Sonepat. The government of India is establishing an Atomic Research Centre and AIIMS-II in villages Kheri Jasaur and Badhsa respectively in Jhajjar District. Shri Shiv Chaitanya college of education is in Bhora Kalan in Gurgaon.
Haryana has a rich cultural heritage that goes back to the Indus Valley Civilization era. Dhosi Hill, the ashram of the mythical Rishi Chyawan is an important site where Chyawanprash was purportedly formulated for the first time. The last Hindu emperor of India who belonged to Rewari in Haryana, Hemu declared himself a 'Vikramaditya' king after defeating Akbar's forces in Delhi in 1556. It amounted to establishing a vedic 'Hindu Raj' in North India during medieval period after a gap of more than 350 years. The age-old customs of meditation, Yoga and chanting of Vedic mantras are still observed by the masses. Famous yoga guru Swami Ramdev is from Mahendragarh in Haryana. Seasonal and religious festivals glorify the culture of this region. Haryana has a variety of folk dances.
The people of Haryana have preserved their old religious and social traditions. The 21st century pop-culture in Indian media has portrayed Haryanvi culture as masculine, arrogant and the language as rude/heavy. However, the land and language has its own mellifluous aspect in the folk culture, songs and dance-dramas . Nowadays Haryanavi is spoken in Bollywood movies because of the impression. The culture of Haryana and the humour is very much similar to that of Punjab (as Haryana was a part of Punjab state). They celebrate festivals with great enthusiasm and traditional fervor. Their culture and popular art are saangs, dramas, ballads and songs in which they take great delight. Regarding eating habits, there is an idiom that says, Hara-Bhara Haryana, Jit Doodh-Dahi ka Khana (meaning a lush-green state where milk and curd are the food). Food and cuisines of Haryana are almost same as the ones in Punjab (Greater Punjab); popular Haryanavi dishes include makke ki roti (grounded dry corn) and sarso ka saag, lassi (sweet yogurt), rajma, cholay-bhature, etc. Home made kheer and halwa are the sweet-dishes that people here prefer anytime, apart from the special occasions. Ghee-bura is another supplement to the regular food.
Haryanavi has traditionally been the dominant mother tongue in Haryana, with Standard Hindi being spoken as a second language. Haryanvi has no official status, as it is seen as a dialect of Hindi thus Hindi is the official language and the most commonly spoken language in the state. Since it was the Punjabi Suba movement that had led to formation of Haryana, Bansi Lal thought, "Let any language other than Punjabi be the second language of the state". Hence, Tamil became the second state language even though there might not have been even a single Tamil native family in the state. Since 1947, Punjabi has been spoken by many people in Haryana especially by those Hindus and Sikhs who migrated from West Punjab, following the Partition of India. As such, Punjabi edged out Tamil as the secondary official language of the state, other than Hindi and English, in 2010.
The most striking feature of Haryana is its language itself or, rather, the manner in which it is spoken. Popularly known as Haryanavi it is the language of the Jat peoples of Haryana. With Bangaru, spoken in the Heart of Haryana, being the most widely spoken dialect. Bagri is the second largest dialect of Hindi spoken in Haryana largely in Sirsa, Fatehabad and Hissar. The language in main Gurgaon and surrounding villages has a slight Rajasthani touch towards the end of the sentence due to the proximity to the Rajasthan state and the dialect spoken in this district is regarded as the most polite and civilised of all in Haryana. And Ahirwati spoken in Ahirwal belt. With rapid urbanization, and due to Haryana's close proximity to Delhi, the cultural aspects are now taking a more modern hue.
The economy of Haryana relies on manufacturing, business process outsourcing, agriculture and retail.
- Gurgaon is called as City of the Millennium. It has been developed in last two decades and is one of the most expensive area to live in. It is a hub of call centers. It is a land of opportunities as it is the center of business in Haryana and northern India in general.
- Faridabad is a biggest industrial city of Haryana as well as North India. It is home to hundreds of large-scale companies like Orient Paper & Industries, JCB India Limited, Nirigemes, Agri Machinery Group (Escorts Limited), India Yamaha Motor Pvt. Ltd., Whirlpool, ABB Group, Goodyear Tyres and Knorr Bremse India Pvt. Ltd.
- Yamuna Nagar is the largest industrial town wholly within Haryana. It has Asia's largest paper mill, BILT, and Asia's largest sugar mill. Yamuna Nagar has Asia's largest timber industry, an HPGCL thermal power plant, a hydro power plant and India's largest railway workshop. It is famous for its old steel and brass industries.
- Bahadurgarh is an important developing industrial town with glass, steel, tiles manufacturing and biscuits production.
- Karnal City was named after Maharaja Karna of Mahabharat, one of the oldest districts of Punjab and Haryana and one of the most fertile lands of Haryana and Punjab. It is also an important industrial areas of Haryana well known for Footwear, Medical and Agricultural Machinery industry. Karnal is also known after the Space Queen and great Indian Astronaut of India "Kalpana Chawla". Karnal is also called Rice Bowl of India as the district has huge production of Rice. Some agricultural departments of India include National Dairy Research Institute (N.D.R.I.), CSSRI, ARAI etc. Other Industries include Liberty Footwears, Best Foods, Dunar Basmati, RP Pharmaceuticals etc.
- Panipat is a city of textiles and carpets. It is the biggest centre for cheap blankets and carpets in India and has a handloom weaving industry. The pickle "Pachranga International" is well known. Panipat has heavy industry, including a refinery operated by the Indian Oil Corporation and a National Thermal Power Corporation power plant.
- Hissar is another developing city and home town of Navin Jindal and Subhash Chandra of Zee TV fame. Savitri Jindal, Navin Jindal's mother, has been listed by Forbes as a 3rd richest woman in world.
- Ambala is the largest manufacturer of scientific apparatuses. It is named 'Science City' of Haryana. Ambala is one of the biggest exporters of education instruments in the country.
- Rohtak- largest wholesale cloth market of Asia known as shori market. It is emerging as a major industrial hub with the presence of many renowned organizations e.g. Research and development plant of Maruti Suzuki (only one of its kind out of Japan), Suzuki Motorcycles Ltd etc. Minsk Motors state-owned company of Belarus is planning to start an engine manufacturing plant here. An international cargo airport is being set up
- Kurukshetra (Ladwa) has the second largest grain market in the Asian continent.
Faridabad and Gurgaon, the two leading financial and industrial cities of Haryana, have seen the emergence of an active information technology industry in recent years. A large number of international companies such as Samsung, DB Schenker,Damco Solutions, Abacus Softech, Nokia Networks, Mitsubishi Electric, IBM, Huawei, General Electric, Tata Consultancy Services and Amdocs have their branch offices and contact centres in Faridabad and Gurgaon.
Roads, aviation and infrastructure
The Haryana and Delhi governments have constructed the 4.5-kilometre (2.8 mi) international standard DF Skyway, the first of its kind in North India, to connect Delhi and Faridabad. The Delhi-Agra Expressway (NH-2) that passes through Faridabad is under construction.[when?]
Delhi Metro Rail Corporation connects Faridabad and Gurgaon with Delhi. Faridabad has the longest metro network in the NCR Region.
Haryana has a total road length of 23,684 kilometres (14,717 mi). There are 29 national highways with a total length of 1,461 kilometres (908 mi) and many state highways, which have a total length of 2,494 kilometres (1,550 mi). The most remote parts of the state are linked with metaled roads. Its modern bus fleet of 3,864 buses covers a distance of 1.15 million km per day and it was the first state in the country to introduce luxury video coaches.
The Grand Trunk Road, commonly abbreviated to GT Road, is one of South Asia's oldest and longest major roads. It passes through the districts of Sonipat, Panipat, Karnal, Kurukshetra and Ambala in north Haryana where it enters Delhi and subsequently the industrial town of Faridabad on its way. The state government proposes to construct Express highways and freeways for speedier vehicular traffic. The 135.6 kilometres (84.3 mi) Kundli-Manesar-Palwal Expressway(KMP) will provide a high-speed link to northern Haryana with its southern districts such as Sonepat, Gurgaon, Jhajjar and Faridabad. The work on the project has already started and is scheduled to be completed by July 2013. Haryana is in close contact with the cosmopolitan world, being right next to Delhi. As a result, international and domestic airports, diplomatic and commercial complexes are close to the state. There is a proposal to connect Chandigarh to Haryana without entering Punjab through a four-lane highway via Yamuna Nagar and Panchkula.
Haryana State has always given high priority to the expansion of electricity infrastructure, as it is one of the most important inputs for the development of the state. Haryana was the first state in the country to achieve 100% rural electrification in 1970 as well as the first in the country to link all villages with all-weather roads and provide safe drinking water facilities throughout the state. Haryana is well connected on the railway network.
Communication and media
Haryana has a statewide network of telecommunication facilities. Haryana Government has its own statewide area network by which all government offices of 21 districts and 127 blocks across the state are connected with each other thus making it the first SWAN of the country. Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (BSNL) and most of the leading private sector players (such as Reliance Infocom, Tata Teleservices, Bharti Telecom, Idea Vodafone Essar, Aircel, Uninor and Videocon) have operations in the state. Important areas around Delhi are an integral part of the local Delhi Mobile Telecommunication System. This network system would easily cover major towns like Faridabad and Gurgaon.
The state is divided into four divisions for administrative purposes: Ambala, Rohtak, Gurgaon and Hisar. Within these there are 21 districts, 58 sub-divisions, 80 tehsils, 50 sub-tehsils and 125 blocks. Haryana has a total of 154 cities and towns and 6,841 villages. Haryana Police force has a modern cybercrime investigation cell, in Gurgaon`s Sector 51. Gurgaon has been referred to as one of "India`s Silicon-Valley".
|Ambala||Ambala, Kaithal, Kurukshetra, Panchkula, Yamuna Nagar|
|Gurgaon||Faridabad, Palwal, Gurgaon, Mahendragarh, Mewat, Rewari|
|Hisar||Bhiwani, Fatehabad, Jind, Hisar, Sirsa|
|Rohtak||Jhajjar, Karnal, Panipat, Rohtak, Sonipat|
Haryana has produced some of the best Indian players in a variety of sports. In the 2010 Commonwealth Games at Delhi, 22 out of 38 gold medals that India won came from Haryana. During the 33rd National Games held in Assam in 2007, Haryana stood first in the nation with a medal tally of 80, including 30 gold, 22 silver and 28 bronze medals. In team sports, Haryana has been the national champion in men's volleyball and women's hockey. Haryana is a traditional powerhouse in games like kabbadi, kho-kho, judo, boxing, volleyball and wrestling. Sports in the state are managed by the Department of Sports & Youth Affairs, Haryana.
Indian wrestler Sushil Kumar won bronze medal in 2008 Beijing Olympics and silver in 2012 London Olympics and made a world record at the 2010 Commonwealth Games by winning a game in just 11 seconds. At the 2012 Olympics, another wrestler named Yogeshwar Dutt won bronze medal. At the 2008 Olympics, boxer Vijender Singh Beniwal won a bronze medal in the middleweight category. Vikas Krishan Yadav, a boxer from Bhiwani district, won the gold medal in the 2010 Asian Games in the lightweight category. Manoj Kumar of Rajound village, Kaithal district won athe gold medal in light welterweight category at the 2010 Commonwealth Games. Former Indian volleyball player Maratha Balwant Sagwal also hails from Haryana.
Cricket is very popular in Haryana. Former India World Cup winning captain Kapil Dev is from Haryana. Other notable players from Haryana cricket team include Chetan Sharma, Ajay Jadeja, Amit Mishra and Mohit Sharma. Nahar Singh Stadium was built in Faridabad in the year 1981 for international cricket. This ground has the capacity to hold around 25,000 people as spectators. Tejli Sports Complex is an Ultra-Modern sports complex in Yamuna Nagar. Tau Devi Lal Stadium in Panchkula is a multi-sport complex. It came into prominence because of the Indian Cricket League's inaugural Twenty20 tournament. There are Astro-turf hockey grounds in Nehru Stadium, Gurgaon and Shahbad, Kurukshetra. Haryana even has a dedicated sports school MNSS at Rai, Sonipat which is affiliated to Sports Authority of India.
Department of Sports & Youth Affairs, Government of Haryana has started the Sports & Physical Aptitude Test (SPAT) for award of scholarships and kits to budding sportsperson of Haryana. The Haryana SPAT is for the all students (boys and girls) between 8 years to 19 years. This event conducted every year to aims at popularizing sports and channeling resources to high potential athletes. About 5000 scholarships are on offer in SPAT 2014 for aspiring athletes for year 2014-15.
- Government of Haryana
- List of Monuments of National Importance in Haryana
- List of State Protected Monuments in Haryana
- List of Indus Valley Civilization sites
- Haryana Tourism
- List of districts of Haryana
- Outline of Haryana
- Outline of India
- Index of India-related articles
- Bibliography of India
- India – Wikipedia book
- "Haryana grants second language status to Punjabi".
- "Punjabi gets second language status in Haryana".
- Kautilya describes them as martial and most heroic, while Panini includes among them the Kauravyas, the ancient warrior community of Haryana. It would thus appear that the main force of Chandragupta's liberation army was recruited Punjab. As "Haryana or the ancient Kuru janapada," Page 33, "Haryana, ancient and medieval" by H. A. Phadke, Publisher Harman Pub. House, 1990, ISBN 81-85151-34-2, ISBN 978-81-85151-34-2
- Chapter Kuru Janapad (Pages 2, 3 & 7) of the book "Buddhist remains from Haryana", by Devendra Handa, Edition illustrated, Publisher Sundeep Prakashan, 2004 Original from the University of Michigan, Digitized 3 September 2008
- If the Buddhist texts are to be relied upon, it may be said that Buddhism reached Haryana through the Buddha himself. (Page 3)
- Dipavamsa refers to Buddha's visit to a city in the Kuru country where he received alms on the banks of the Anotatta lake which he crossed. The city may have been Kurukshetra... (Page 3)
- We shall see subsequently that Agroha was an important Buddhist centre of Haryana...Buddhaghosha's candid confession that even a single monastery could not be set up in the Kuru country during the lifetime of Tathagata who was obliged to stay in the hermitage of a Brahmana.... (Page 7)
- The ancient Kuru janapada is said to have comprised Kurukshetra, Thanesar, Karnal, Panipat, Sonipat..., Page 115, "Buddhist sites and shrines in India: history, art and architecture", Volume 231 of Bibliotheca Indo-Buddhica by D. C. Ahir, Publisher Sri Satguru Publications, 2003, ISBN 81-7030-774-0, ISBN 978-81-7030-774-7
- An Early Attestation of the Toponym Ḍhillī, by Richard J. Cohen, Journal of the American Oriental Society, 1989, pp. 513–519
- हरियाणए देसे असंखगाम, गामियण जणि अणवरथ काम|
- परचक्क विहट्टणु सिरिसंघट्टणु, जो सुरव इणा परिगणियं|
- रिउ रुहिरावट्टणु बिउलु पवट्टणु, ढिल्ली नामेण जि भणियं|
- Translation: There are countless villages in Haryana country. The villagers there work hard. They don't accept domination of others, and are experts in making the blood of their enemies flow. Indra himself praises this country. The capital of this country is Dhilli.
- Poor rural India? It's a richer place - International Herald Tribune[dead link]
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- Association of Population Geographers of India (1 January 1988). Population geography: a journal of the Association of Population Geographers of India. The Association. p. 2. Retrieved 28 March 2011.
- Gordon, Stewart. The Marathas 1600–1818, Volume 2. Cambridge University Press, 1993. ISBN 978-0-521-26883-7.
- History of Haryana - Haryana Day: A new state is born!
- Geography of Haryana - Map, Shivaliks, Ghaggar, Yamuna, Saraswati, Morni - India
- "State animals, birds, trees and flowers" (PDF). Wildlife Institute of India. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2009. Retrieved 5 March 2012.
- Census of India, Population by Religious Communities
- "Haryana government announced the formation of rules to register Anand Karaj, the Sikh marriage ceremony".
- Govt. of India, Census (2001). "Census India 2001" (PDF). Retrieved March 28, 2013.
- Reverse Take[dead link]
- "About HAU". Haryana Agricultural University. Retrieved 27 May 2012.
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- Education in Haryana - Universities - Colleges - Schools - Institutions - Engineering - Medical
- The Tribune, Chandigarh, India - Delhi and neighbourhood
- "Savitri Jindal and family". Forbes. Retrieved 13 July 2012.
- Why Haryana? - Economic Infrastructure
- IndianExpress.com :: KMP Expressways to be completed by 2009
- : Investment Promotion Center : Govt. of HARYANA
- "The Tribune India". The Tribune. Retrieved 2008-02-06.
- Official site for the 33rd National Games 2007, Guwahati
- Vikas Krishan Yadav
- Cricinfo - Grounds - Nahar Singh Stadium, Faridabad
- Cricinfo - Grounds - Tau Devi Lal Cricket Stadium, Panchkula, Chandigarh
- Sharma, Suresh K (2006). Haryana: Past and Present. New Delhi: Mittal Publications. p. 763. ISBN 8183240461. Retrieved July 11, 2012.
- Khanna, C. L. (2008). Haryana General Knowledge. Agra: Upkar Prakashan. p. 75. ISBN 8174823832. Retrieved July 11, 2012.
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- Singh, Mandeep; Kaur, Harvinder (2004). Economic Development Of Haryana. New Delhi: Deep and Deep Publications. p. 234. ISBN 8176295582. Retrieved July 11, 2012.
- Gandhi, Mahatma (1977). Gandhiji and Haryana: A collection of his speeches and writings pertaining to Haryana. Usha Publications. p. 158. Retrieved July 11, 2012.
- Phadke, H. A. (1990). Haryana, ancient and medieval. Harman Publishing House. p. 256. ISBN 8185151342. Retrieved July 11, 2012.
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- Yadav, Kripal Chandra (2002). Modern Haryana: History and culture, 1803-1966. Manohar Publishers & Distributors. p. 320. ISBN 817304371X. Retrieved July 11, 2012.
- Rai, Gulshan (1987). Formation of Haryana. B.R. Publishing Corporation. p. 223. ISBN 8170184126. Retrieved July 11, 2012.
- Handa, Devendra (2004). Buddhist remains from Haryana. Sundeep Prakashan. p. 97. ISBN 8175741538. Retrieved July 11, 2012.
- Haryana at a glance: Statistical overview & development indicators. Jagran Research Centre. 2007. p. 157. Retrieved July 11, 2012.
- Singh, Chander Pal (2003). Early medieval art of Haryana. Koshal Book Depot. p. 168. ISBN 818604907X. Retrieved July 11, 2012.
- Handa, Devendra (2006). Sculptures from Haryana: Iconography and style. Indian Institute of Advanced Study. p. 286. ISBN 8173053073. Retrieved July 11, 2012.
- Journal of Haryana Studies. Kurukshetra: Kurukshetra University. 2008. Retrieved July 11, 2012.
- Harvey, Bill; Harvey, William; Devasar, Nikhil; Grewal, Bikram; Oriental Bird Club (2006). Atlas of the birds of Delhi and Haryana. Rupa & Co. p. 352. ISBN 8129109549. Retrieved July 11, 2012.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Haryana.|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Haryana.|
- Official website of Government of Haryana
- List of websites of all departments, boards, corporations, institutes, officials, universities and districts of Haryana
- Haryana related information on official portal of Government of India