Geography of Malta

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Satellite image of Malta
Map of Malta 2.png
Map of Malta

The geography of Malta is dominated by water. Malta is an archipelago of coralline limestone, located in the Mediterranean Sea, approximately 93 kilometres south of Sicily, Italy, and nearly 300 km north (Libya) and northeast (Tunisia) of Africa. Although Malta is situated in Europe, it is located farther south than African Tunis, capital of Tunisia, Algiers, capital of Algeria, Tangier in Morocco and also Aleppo in Syria, and Mosul in Iraq in the Middle East. Only the three largest islands – Malta, Gozo and Comino – are inhabited. Other (uninhabited) islands are: Cominotto, Filfla and the St.Paul's Islands. The country is approximately 316 km2 (122 sq mi) in area. Numerous bays along the indented coastline of the islands provide good harbours. The landscape of the islands is characterised by high hills with terraced fields. The highest point, at 253 metres, is the Ta' Zuta on mainland Malta. The capital is Valletta.

Geographic coordinates: 35°50′N 14°35′E / 35.833°N 14.583°E / 35.833; 14.583


Map references: Europe

total: 316 km2
land: 316 km2
water: 0 km2

Area - comparative: slightly less than twice the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 196.8 km (excludes the 56 km for the island of Gozo)

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nmi (22.2 km; 13.8 mi)
contiguous zone: 24 nmi (44.4 km; 27.6 mi)
continental shelf: 200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive fishing zone: 25 nmi (46.3 km; 28.8 mi) malta


Name Area Note/
Malta Island 246 km²[1] Malta ali 2009224 lrg.jpg
Gozo 67.1 km²[1] Sudika Ghawdex.jpg
Comino 2.8 km²[1] Sudika Kemmuna.jpg
Manoel Island 0.3 km² Malta - Gzira - Manoel Island (MSTHC) 01 ies.jpg
St Paul's Island 0.101 km²[1] Selmunett Island.jpg
Cominotto 0.099 km²[2] Malta - Ghajnsielem - Cominotto + Blue Lagoon (Comino) 03 ies.jpg
Filfla (and Filfoletta) 0.020 km²[1] Filfla 1.jpg
Fungus Rock 0.007 km²[1] Fungus rock.JPG
Halfa Rock
(Il-Gebla tal-Halfa)
Situated near Gozo. In the island there is 4 to 5 metres deep water rock pool just 2 metres above sea level, possibly man made due to its perfectly round shape. There is also an underground fresh water system which emerges from a small cave. Most of the plants occurs on the western part of the island. Crucianella rupestris, Anthrocnemum macrostachyum, Lygeum spartum, Convolvulus oleifolius, Thymbra capitata, Teucrium fruticans, Allium melitense, Anacamptis urvilleana, Bromus madritensis, Capparis spinosa, Echium parviflorum, Pallenis spinosa, Plantago lagopus, Trachynia distachya, Urginea pancration.[2]
Old Battery’s Rock
(Gebla ta`taht il –Batterija)
Situated on the southeast of Comino. Flora consisted of 22 individuals of Inula crithmoides (2010).[2]
Lantern Point Rock
(Gebla Tal-Ponta Rqiqa)
Situated near Comino.[2] Live here two species of plants: Limonium melitense and Inula crithmoides. It has a height of 7 meters.[3] Malta - Ghajnsielem - Lantern Point Rock (Comino) 01 ies.jpg
Large Blue Lagoon Rock In island, there is a cave. Species of plants: Hypericium aegypticum, Daucus carota, Convolvulus oleifolius, Darniella melitensis, Arthrocnemum macrostachyum, Senecio bicolor.[2] View-Gozo-DSC 0156.jpg
Small Blue Lagoon Rocks Situated between Large Blue Lagoon and Cominotto. Species of plants: Arthrocnemum macrostachyum, Daucus carota, Lygeum spartum, Lavatera arborea.[2] Malta - Ghajnsielem - Small Blue Lagoon Rock (Comino) 01 ies.jpg
Devil`s End Rock
(Il-Gebla tax-Xifer l-Infern)[2]
Situated near main island, Delimara point. Delimara Point Nov 2014 03.JPG
Għallis Rocks[2] Malta - Naxxar - Ghallis Rocks 01 ies.jpg
Tac-Cawl Rock
(Il-Gebla tac-Cawl)
Situated near Gozo. The flora consisted of Lygeum spartum, Asphodelus aestivus, Crithmum maritimum, Cichorium spinosum, Crucianella rupestrisis, Opuntia, Thymbra capitata, Euphorbia melitensis, Foeniculum vulgare, Allium commutatum, Allium lajoconoi, Bromus madritensis, Capparis spinosa, Gynandriris sisirynchium, Pistacia lentiscus, Phagnalon graceum, Sedum litoreum, Sonchus tenerrimus, Trachynia distachya, Valantia muralis.[2]
Cheirolophus Rock
(Hagra tas-Sajjetta)
Situated near main island. It has a height of 9 to 12 meters high at its highest point. Species of plants: Darniella melitensis, Crithmum maritimum, Cheirolophus crassifolius, Inula crithmoides, Limonium virgatum, Daucus carota, Cheirolophus crassifolius.[2]
Barbaganni Rock Situated near Gozo. No soil exists on the islet because island is inundated by water wave action during rough weather. The flora consisted of only 14 individuals of Inula crithmoides (2010).[2]
Crocodile Rock & Bear rocks
(Il-Gebla tal-Baqra u il-Gebel tal-


Near Gozo, three rocks in total.[2]
Qawra Point
(Ta’ Fra Ben islet, Il-Ponta jew Ras il- Qawra)
Situated near main island. The western part is littered with small boulders, while much of the vegetation occurs in the middle part of the islet. In island there is sea cave occurs as a big hole in the middle of the islet. Species of plants: Arthrocnemum macrostachyum, Anthemis urvilleana, Inula crithmoides, Lotus cystisoides, Limonium, Sporbolus pungens.[2]
Comino Cliff Face Rock
(Ta’ Taht il-Mazz Rock)
Situated near Comino. The island is very steep - cliffs. The majority of species of plants occur on its west side, while only one species of plant inhabits its east side. Species of plants: Matthiola incana, Inula crithmoides, Darniella melitensis, Daucus carota, Limonium melitensis, Anthyllis hermanniae, Pistacia lentiscus.[2]
Xrobb l-Ghagin Rock
Fessej Rock
(Il-Gebla tal-Fessej)[2]
Ghemieri Rocks
(L-iskolli tal-Ghemieri)[2]
Hnejja rocks
(Gebel tal- Hnejja)[2]
White Rock / Blue Islets (Rocks)
(Gebla tal-Ghar Qawqla)[2]


See also: Climate of Malta

Mediterranean with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers

Elevation extremes[edit]

lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m
highest point: Ta' Dmejrek 253 m

Land use[edit]

arable land: 28.12%
permanent crops: 4.06%
other: 67.81% (2011)

Irrigated land[edit]

32 km2 (2007)

Total renewable water resources[edit]

A fresh-water spring, Għajn Bierda, at Ras ir-Raħeb

0.05 km3 (2011)

Environment - current issues[edit]

limited natural fresh water resources; increasing reliance on desalination

Environment - international agreements[edit]

party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: