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San Marino is located in Southern Europe, an enclave (landlocked) in central Italy, which it borders for 39 km. The smallest independent state by area in Europe after the Vatican City and Monaco, San Marino is dominated by the Apennines. Located at 43°56′N 12°28′E / 43.94°N 12.46°E, it covers an area of 61.2 km2 (23.6 sq mi). It has a Mediterranean climate with mild to cool winters and warm, sunny summers. Completely mountainous, only 17% of its territory is arable. Several rivers flow through the country, the largest being the Ausa, the Marano, and the San Marino River.
San Marino is divided into 9 castelli, or municipalities. They are: