Geography of Uganda

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Coordinates: 1°00′N 32°00′E / 1.000°N 32.000°E / 1.000; 32.000

A United Nations map of Uganda
Location of Uganda
Uganda map of Köppen climate classification.

Uganda is located in eastern Africa, west of Kenya, south of South Sudan, east of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and north of Rwanda and Tanzania. While much of its border is lakeshore, Uganda is landlocked with no access to the sea but it is a fertile and well-watered country that consists of many lakes and rivers including the largest, Lake Victoria. As the country sits in the heart of the Great Lakes region, and is surrounded by three of them, Lake Edward and Lake Albert.

The climate is tropical and is generally rainy with two dry seasons (December to February, June to August).[1] While the northeast of the country is semiarid.[1] The terrain of Uganda mostly consist of plateaus surrounded by a rim of mountains including the Rwenzori mountain range.[1] Notable national parks include Bwindi, Rwenzori Mountains, Kibale and Mgahinga National Park.

Inselbergs are common features in the geography of Uganda. The inselbergs are commonly made of granite, sometimes of gneiss and never of amphibolite or volcanic rock.[2] Protruding quartzite hills tend to form ridges rather than "true inselbergs".[2]

Statistics[edit]

A satellite map of Uganda.
A topographic map of Uganda.

Area:[3]
total: 241,551 square kilometres (93,263 sq mi)
land: 200,523 square kilometres (77,422 sq mi)
water: 41,028 square kilometres (15,841 sq mi)

Land boundaries:[1]
total: 2,729 kilometres (1,696 mi)
border countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo 877 kilometres (545 mi), Kenya 814 kilometres (506 mi), South Sudan 475 kilometres (295 mi), Tanzania 391 kilometres (243 mi), Rwanda 172 kilometres (107 mi)

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: 614 metres (2,014 ft) Albert Nile at border with South Sudan[1]
highest point: 5,111 metres (16,768 ft)[3] Margherita Peak on Mount Stanley[1]

Natural resources:
copper, cobalt, hydropower, limestone, salt, arable land, gold[1]

Land use: (2012)[4]
arable land: 69,000 square kilometres (27,000 square miles) 34.41%
permanent crops: 22,500 square kilometres (8,700 square miles) 11.22%
forest cover: 28,100 square kilometres (10,800 square miles) 14.01%
other: 80,931 square kilometres (31,248 sq mi) 40.36%

Irrigated land: (2012)[4]
140 square kilometres (54 square miles)

Total renewable water resources:
66 cubic kilometres (16 cu mi) (2011)[5] or 60 cubic kilometres (14 cu mi) (2012)[6]

Environment - current issues:
draining of wetlands for agricultural use, deforestation, overgrazing, soil erosion, water hyacinth infestation in Lake Victoria, widespread poaching[1]

Environment - international agreements:
party to:

signed, but not ratified:

Geography - note: Uganda is one of six African states that lies on the equator. Most part of Uganda is north of the equator.

Population geography[edit]

Uganda's population density is 229/km2 (590/sq mi).[7] Uganda's most populated cities are located in the Central and Eastern regions of the country.

Kampala is Uganda's most populated city, also its national and commercial capital. Its population is around 3,652,000 as of 2022 with an increase of 5.24% from 2021.[8]

 
 
Rank Name District Pop.
Kampala
Kampala
1 Kampala Kampala 1,507,114
2 Nansana Wakiso 365,857
3 Kira Wakiso 317,428
4 Makindye Ssabagabo Wakiso 282,664
5 Mbarara Mbarara 195,160
6 Mukono Mukono 162,744
7 Gulu Gulu 149,802
8 Lugazi Buikwe 114,163
9 Kasese Kasese 103,293
10 Masaka Masaka 101,557

Climate[edit]

Uganda has a warm tropical climate with temperatures falling in the 25–29°C (77–84°F) range on an average. The months from December to February are the hottest, but even during this season the evenings can be chilly with temperatures in the 17–18°C (63–64°F) range.[9]

Uganda receives an annual rainfall of 1,000mm to 1,500mm. The rainy seasons are from March to May and from September to November. During these months, heavy rains can make roads and terrains hard to traverse. The period from January to February and again from June to August are dry.[9]

Climate data for Kampala
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 33
(91)
36
(97)
33
(91)
33
(91)
29
(84)
29
(84)
29
(84)
29
(84)
31
(88)
32
(90)
32
(90)
32
(90)
36
(97)
Average high °C (°F) 28.6
(83.5)
29.3
(84.7)
28.7
(83.7)
27.7
(81.9)
27.3
(81.1)
27.1
(80.8)
26.9
(80.4)
27.2
(81.0)
27.9
(82.2)
27.7
(81.9)
27.4
(81.3)
27.9
(82.2)
27.8
(82.0)
Daily mean °C (°F) 23.2
(73.8)
23.7
(74.7)
23.4
(74.1)
22.9
(73.2)
22.6
(72.7)
22.4
(72.3)
22.0
(71.6)
22.2
(72.0)
22.6
(72.7)
22.6
(72.7)
22.5
(72.5)
22.7
(72.9)
22.7
(72.9)
Average low °C (°F) 17.7
(63.9)
18.0
(64.4)
18.1
(64.6)
18.0
(64.4)
17.9
(64.2)
17.6
(63.7)
17.1
(62.8)
17.1
(62.8)
17.2
(63.0)
17.4
(63.3)
17.5
(63.5)
17.5
(63.5)
17.6
(63.7)
Record low °C (°F) 12
(54)
14
(57)
13
(55)
14
(57)
15
(59)
12
(54)
12
(54)
12
(54)
13
(55)
13
(55)
14
(57)
12
(54)
12
(54)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 68.4
(2.69)
63.0
(2.48)
131.5
(5.18)
169.3
(6.67)
117.5
(4.63)
69.2
(2.72)
63.1
(2.48)
95.7
(3.77)
108.4
(4.27)
138.0
(5.43)
148.7
(5.85)
91.5
(3.60)
1,264.3
(49.77)
Average rainy days (≥ 1.0 mm) 4.8 5.1 9.5 12.2 10.9 6.3 4.7 6.7 8.6 9.1 8.4 7.4 93.7
Average relative humidity (%) 66 68.5 73 78.5 80.5 78.5 77.5 77.5 75.5 73.5 73 71.5 74.5
Mean monthly sunshine hours 155 170 155 120 124 180 186 155 150 155 150 124 1,824
Source 1: World Meteorological Organization,[10] Climate-Data.org for mean temperatures[11]
Source 2: BBC Weather[12]
Climate data for Gulu
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 32.1
(89.8)
32.3
(90.1)
31.2
(88.2)
29.3
(84.7)
28.2
(82.8)
27.7
(81.9)
26.7
(80.1)
26.9
(80.4)
28.1
(82.6)
28.7
(83.7)
29.7
(85.5)
30.4
(86.7)
29.3
(84.7)
Daily mean °C (°F) 24.2
(75.6)
24.6
(76.3)
24.3
(75.7)
23.4
(74.1)
22.8
(73.0)
22.3
(72.1)
21.6
(70.9)
21.7
(71.1)
22.3
(72.1)
22.5
(72.5)
23
(73)
23.2
(73.8)
23.0
(73.4)
Average low °C (°F) 16.4
(61.5)
17
(63)
17.5
(63.5)
17.6
(63.7)
17.4
(63.3)
16.9
(62.4)
16.5
(61.7)
16.5
(61.7)
16.5
(61.7)
16.4
(61.5)
16.4
(61.5)
16.1
(61.0)
16.8
(62.2)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 17
(0.7)
32
(1.3)
88
(3.5)
164
(6.5)
182
(7.2)
146
(5.7)
159
(6.3)
217
(8.5)
179
(7.0)
185
(7.3)
102
(4.0)
36
(1.4)
1,507
(59.4)
Source: Climate-Data.org, altitude: 1116m[11]
Climate data for Entebbe, Uganda (1961–1990)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 31.3
(88.3)
31.7
(89.1)
30.6
(87.1)
30.0
(86.0)
28.9
(84.0)
27.8
(82.0)
28.1
(82.6)
28.9
(84.0)
29.8
(85.6)
29.6
(85.3)
31.7
(89.1)
29.5
(85.1)
31.7
(89.1)
Average high °C (°F) 26.3
(79.3)
27.3
(81.1)
26.7
(80.1)
26.0
(78.8)
25.4
(77.7)
25.2
(77.4)
25.3
(77.5)
25.9
(78.6)
26.5
(79.7)
26.5
(79.7)
26.0
(78.8)
26.5
(79.7)
26.1
(79.0)
Average low °C (°F) 18.0
(64.4)
18.3
(64.9)
18.5
(65.3)
18.4
(65.1)
18.0
(64.4)
17.8
(64.0)
17.2
(63.0)
17.4
(63.3)
17.4
(63.3)
17.7
(63.9)
17.9
(64.2)
17.8
(64.0)
17.9
(64.2)
Record low °C (°F) 13.0
(55.4)
10.7
(51.3)
14.4
(57.9)
12.2
(54.0)
14.3
(57.7)
14.0
(57.2)
10.0
(50.0)
12.0
(53.6)
13.2
(55.8)
13.9
(57.0)
14.3
(57.7)
13.8
(56.8)
10.0
(50.0)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 86.7
(3.41)
84.4
(3.32)
184.5
(7.26)
264.4
(10.41)
253.8
(9.99)
116.2
(4.57)
72.1
(2.84)
77.8
(3.06)
79.0
(3.11)
127.6
(5.02)
171.7
(6.76)
120.6
(4.75)
1,638.8
(64.52)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 7.3 7.3 13.1 16.8 16.2 9.4 6.9 6.3 7.1 10.7 13.6 10.2 124.9
Average relative humidity (%) 76 76 77 79 79 78 77 78 76 75 76 76 77
Mean monthly sunshine hours 234 204 205 181 191 187 197 194 194 205 202 214 2,408
Source 1: World Meteorological Organization[13]
Source 2: Deutscher Wetterdienst (extremes and humidity),[14] Danish Meteorological Institute (sun, 1931–1960)[15]

Climate change[edit]

Glaciers on the Rwenzori Mountains, like these on Mount Speke, are melting due to climate change.
Tea plantation in Uganda
Women fighting food insecurity during harvests in dry season
The effects of climate change in Uganda are increasingly severe, affecting the lives of the country's citizens and its environment.[16] It has led to extreme weather events such as unpredictable, prolonged drought and rainfall.[16] Uganda's climate is mostly tropical with regular rainfall and sunshine patterns. Due to climate change the seasons have changed, with the rainy season becoming more variable in length and droughts more ubiquitous, especially in eastern and northeastern Uganda.[17] Climate trends have the potential to affect development of Uganda, due to the vulnerability of Uganda's diverse environment.[18]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h "Uganda". The World Factbook. CIA. Retrieved 2018-10-12.
  2. ^ a b Ollier, C.D. (1960). "The Inselbergs of Uganda". Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie. 4 (1): 43–52.
  3. ^ a b ""2014 Statistical Abstract", Uganda Bureau of Statistics, accessed 16 July 2015" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 November 2015. Retrieved 16 July 2015.
  4. ^ a b Uganda, Country Profile, FAO Stat, Food and Agriculture Organization, accessed 16 July 2015
  5. ^ TOTAL RENEWABLE WATER RESOURCES, "The World Factbook", United States Central Intelligence Agency, 2011, accessed 16 July 2015 Archived 12 June 2015 at the Wayback Machine
  6. ^ "Uganda - Total Renewable Water Resources - Water resources: total renewable (natural)", World Data Atlas, knoema, based on FAO Aquastat, 2014, accessed 16 July 2015
  7. ^ "Uganda Population (2022) - Worldometer". www.worldometers.info. Retrieved 2022-04-15.
  8. ^ "Kampala, Uganda Metro Area Population 1950-2022". www.macrotrends.net. Retrieved 2022-04-15.
  9. ^ a b "What is the weather, climate and geography like in Uganda". World Travel Guide. Retrieved 2021-05-08.
  10. ^ "World Weather Information Service: Kampala". World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved 2019-08-27.
  11. ^ a b "Climate: Gulu - Climate graph, Temperature graph, Climate table". Climate-Data.org. Retrieved 4 November 2013.
  12. ^ "Kampala". BBC Weather. Retrieved 2019-08-27.
  13. ^ "World Weather Information Service – Entebbe". World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved 1 September 2016.
  14. ^ "Klimatafel von Entebbe (Flugh.) / Uganda" (PDF). Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure. Retrieved 14 June 2016.
  15. ^ "STATIONSNUMMER 63705" (PDF). Ministry of Energy, Utilities and Climate. Archived from the original on January 16, 2013. Retrieved 14 June 2016.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  16. ^ a b "Climate Change Profile: Uganda – Uganda". ReliefWeb. Archived from the original on 17 April 2022. Retrieved 2022-04-17.
  17. ^ "The impacts of climate change in Uganda – Uganda". ReliefWeb. Archived from the original on 17 April 2022. Retrieved 2022-04-17.
  18. ^ Kibandama, Alexander (2019). "Climate Change Law in Uganda". Carbon & Climate Law Review. 13 (4): 246–256. doi:10.21552/cclr/2019/4/5. JSTOR 26895681. S2CID 213762198. Archived from the original on 12 May 2022. Retrieved 12 May 2022.