Geology of Pakistan

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Rawat Fault line near Islamabad

The geology of Pakistan encompasses the varied landscapes that make up the land constituting modern-day Pakistan, which are a blend of its geological history, and its climate over the past few million years.

The Geological Survey of Pakistan is the premier agency responsible for studying the country's geology.[1]

Tectonic zone[edit]

Earthquake hazard zones of Pakistan

Pakistan geologically overlaps both with the Indian and the Eurasian tectonic plates where its Sindh and Punjab provinces lie on the north-western corner of the Indian plate while Balochistan and most of the Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa lie within the Eurasian plate which mainly comprises the Iranian plateau, some parts of the Middle East and Central Asia. The Northern Areas and Azad Kashmir lie mainly in Central Asia along the edge of the Indian plate and hence are prone to violent earthquakes where the two tectonic plates collide.


Since it lies in the centre of tectonic plates, Pakistan has been vulnerable to a number of deadly earthquakes.


Main article: Mining in Pakistan