Geometric modeling kernel

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A geometric modeling kernel is a solid modeling software component used in computer-aided design (CAD) packages.[1][2] Available modelling kernels include:

Kernel market[edit]

The kernel market currently is dominated by Parasolid and ACIS, which were introduced in the late 1980s. The latest kernel to enter the market is KCM. ShapeManager has no presence in the kernel licensing market and in 2001 Autodesk clearly stated they were not going into this business.[citation needed]

The world's newest geometric modeling kernel is Russian Geometric Kernel owned by the Russian government, and it is not clear if it is going to be commercially available, despite offering unique features over the other kernels on the market.[20][21][22][23]

Kernel developers[edit]

In the table below you can see a representative list of developers that belong to companies developing their own kernel or licensing the kernel from third-party.[24]

Platforms Domain Kernel Application Developed by Country
Windows CAD, AEC Open CASCADE 4MCAD IntelliCAD 4M S.A. Greece
Windows MCAD ACIS / KCM KeyCreator Kubotek Kosmos United States
Windows MCAD C3D KOMPAS-3D ASCON Group Russia
Windows AEC C3D KOMPAS-Builder ASCON Group Russia
Windows CAD C3D + K3 kernel K3-Furniture Center GeoS Russia
Windows AEC C3D Renga Architecture[25][26] ASCON Group Russia
iPad MCAD Parasolid Shapr3D Shapr3D zrt. Hungary
Android MCAD C3D KOMPAS:24 ASCON Group Russia
Windows CAD C3D Modeler for Teigha Platform / ACIS nanoCAD Plus NanoSoft Russia
Windows MCAD Parasolid T-FLEX Top Systems Russia
Windows MCAD APM Engine APM Studio APM Russia
Windows CAM C3D TECHTRAN NIP-Informatic Russia
Windows CAD C3D PASSAT NTP Truboprovod Russia
Windows, Mac CAD, CAM OpenNURBS Rhinoceros 3D Robert McNeel and Associates United States
Windows CAD C3D ESPRIT Extra CAD LO CNITI, Rubius Russia
Windows CAD C3D BAZIS System BAZIS Center Russia
Windows CAE Parasolid Adams MSC Software United States
Windows CAD, CAM, CAPP switch from ACIS to C3D[27] ADEM ADEM Group Russia
Windows CAE Parasolid ADINA Modeler ADINA R&D Inc. United States
Windows CAD, AEC, GIS ShapeManager AutoCAD Autodesk United States
Windows MCAD ShapeManager Inventor Autodesk United States
Windows, Mac Solid Modeler & Machiner ShapeManager Fusion360 Autodesk United States
Windows, Linux, Mac MCAD, AEC ACIS BricsCAD Bricsys Belgium
Windows, Mac CAD, CAM, CAE Parasolid Siemens NX Siemens Digital Industries Software United States, Germany
Windows MCAD Parasolid SolidFace SolidFace United States, Brazil
Windows MCAD Parasolid (previous versions used ACIS) Solid Edge Siemens Digital Industries Software United States, Germany
Windows MCAD Parasolid SolidWorks Dassault Systèmes United States, France
Windows AEC Parasolid (previous versions used ACIS) MicroStation Bentley Systems United States
Windows, Unix CAD, CAM, CAE, AEC Convergence Geometric Modeler CATIA Dassault Systèmes France
Windows Solid Modeler GRANITE[28] Creo Elements Parametric Technology Corporation United States
Windows CAD GRANITE[28] Creo Parametric Parametric Technology Corporation United States
SaaS Solid Modeler Parasolid,[29] FeatureScript Onshape Onshape United States
Windows, SaaS Solid Modeler Parasolid & ACIS IRONCAD IRONCAD United States
Windows CAD ACIS GstarCAD Suzhou Gstarsoft Co., Ltd China
Windows, Mac AEC, BIM Own Kernel ArchiCAD Graphisoft Hungary
Windows, Linux, Mac MCAD, AEC ACIS ZW3D ZWSoft China
Windows MCAD ACIS Cimatron 3D Systems (Cimatron Ltd.) Israel
Windows MCAD ACIS[30] SpaceClaim ANSYS Inc United States
Windows MCAD European Solid Modeller ESM[31] HiCAD ISD Group German
Mac, Windows MCAD ACIS[30] Cobalt, Xenon, Argon Ashlar United States
Windows, Linux CAD Optimization Own Kernel[32] CAESES Friendship Systems Germany
Windows, macOS, Linux, CAD Open Cascade, Coin3D, FreeCAD FreeCAD
Windows, macOS, Linux, iOS, Android CAD, AEC, BIM Geometry Kernel IFCEngine, STEPEngine RDF Bulgaria
Windows CAD, AEC Overdrive ZW3D, ZWCad ZWSoft China
Windows CAD, Reverse Engineering ACIS Zeiss Reverse Engineering ZEISS Industrial Metrology Germany


  1. ^ Tyrka, Katherine (2001-12-01). "Kernel strategies". Design News. Archived from the original on 2007-09-27. Retrieved 2006-12-28.
  2. ^ Shah, Jami (2004-06-27). Parametric and Feature-Based CAD/CAM. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. p. 449. ISBN 0-471-00214-3.
  3. ^ SMLib
  4. ^ Yares, Evan. "Spatial, ACIS, CGM, and the future of geometric modelers". 3D CAD World. Retrieved 18 May 2013.
  5. ^ "Autodesk - Produktivität, Performance und Präzision: Neue Version der Autodesk Inventor-Familie". Archived from the original on 15 March 2012. Retrieved 12 January 2022.
  6. ^ "GRANITE Interoperability Kernel FAQ". PTC Inc. Retrieved 18 May 2013.
  7. ^ Levin, David. "Geometric Kernels and Irremovability of Presidents from Office". LEDAS Ltd. Retrieved April 15, 2013.
  8. ^ Yares, Evan (April 2013). "Russian CAD". Design World. WTWH Media, LLC. 8 (4). ISSN 1941-7217. Archived from the original on 2015-01-30. Retrieved 2015-01-30.
  9. ^ "Geometros Solid Geometry Engine for C++, C#, Objective-C, Java - sgCore". Retrieved 2019-10-02.
  10. ^ "About the developer". Innovation and research center "GeoS". Retrieved 9 August 2016.
  11. ^ "SOLIDS++". IntegrityWare, Inc. Retrieved 17 August 2016.
  12. ^ "APM Studio". Research and Software Development Centre APM. Retrieved 18 August 2016.
  13. ^ "Геометрическое ядро APM Engine". sapr. Retrieved 18 August 2016.
  14. ^ "На ядре". isicad. Retrieved 18 August 2016.
  15. ^ "3D Software Development with Kubotek Kosmos". Kubotek Kosmos. Retrieved 26 May 2023.
  16. ^ "Kubotek Kosmos Announces the 5.0 Release of its 3D Framework Modeling Kernel". EIN Presswire. Retrieved 13 April 2023.
  17. ^ "The IRIT modeling environment - Home Page". Retrieved 2019-10-02.
  18. ^ "GTS - The GNU Triangulated Surface Library". Retrieved 2019-10-02.
  19. ^ "Geometry Kernel Library Packages". RDF.
  20. ^ "Russian 3D-kernel RGK: Functionality, Advantages, and Integration". 2013-05-24. Retrieved 2016-07-27.
  21. ^ "Does the CAD world need another geometry kernel?". 2013-06-06. Retrieved 2016-08-17.
  22. ^ "Features of RGK". RGK. Retrieved 15 August 2016.
  23. ^ "Вопрос распараллеливания в разработке ядра геометрического моделирования" (PDF). Singularis Lab. Retrieved 15 August 2016.
  24. ^ Ushakov, Dmitry. "Russian National 3D Kernel". LEDAS Ltd. Retrieved April 3, 2012.
  25. ^ "Renga Architecture". ASCON Group. 2015-03-17.
  26. ^ "Renga Architecture is brand-new AEC software by an MCAD vendor". WorldCAD Access. 2015-03-13.
  27. ^ "Геометрическое ядро C3D станет частью российской CAM-системы ADEM". December 20, 2021.
  28. ^ a b "Creo GRANITE Interoperability Kernel".
  29. ^ "How Does Onshape Really Work?".
  30. ^ a b "SpaceClaim General FAQ".
  31. ^ "Software für 2D-/3D-CAD und PDM | HiCAD und HELiOS".
  32. ^ "CAESES Software › CAESES".