Geometric modeling kernel
- Convergence Geometric Modeler by Dassault Systemes
- Romulus was released in 1982 and licensed by Siemens and HP
- Parasolid by ShapeData, now owned by Siemens
- ACIS by Spatial Corporation, part of Dassault Systemes, is used in many CAD applications.
- CGAL, open-source library of geometry algorithms
- ShapeManager, is a fork of ACIS developed by Autodesk since 2001.
- Granite by Parametric Technology Corporation
- Open CASCADE is a freely available modelling kernel
- C3D Modeler by C3D Labs, part of the ASCON Group.
- K3 kernel developed by Center GeoS
- SOLIDS++ developed by IntegrityWare, Inc.
- APM Engine developed by RSDC APM
- Kubotek Kosmos (KCM) developed by Kubotek3D subsidiary of Kubotek Corporation, released in 2016 and 2018
The kernel market is currently dominated by Parasolid and ACIS, which were introduced in late 1980s. The latest kernels to enter the market are C3D and Convergence Geometric Modeler, which were developed in 1995 and 1998 respectively; they were introduced as standalone products in 2013 and 2011 respectively. ShapeManager has no presence in this market and in 2001 Autodesk clearly stated they were not going into this business.
The world's newest geometric modeling kernel is Russian Geometric Kernel owned by the Russian government, and it is not clear if it is going to be commercially available. However, it has superior features over the other kernels on the market.
In the table below you can see a representative list of developers that belong to companies developing their own kernel or licensing the kernel from third-party .
- Tyrka, Katherine (2001-12-01). "Kernel strategies". Design News.
- Shah, Jami (2004-06-27). Parametric and Feature-Based CAD/CAM. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. p. 449. ISBN 0-471-00214-3.
- Yares, Evan. "Spatial, ACIS, CGM, and the future of geometric modelers". 3D CAD World. Retrieved 18 May 2013.
- "GRANITE Interoperability Kernel FAQ". PTC Inc. Retrieved 18 May 2013.
- Levin, David. "Geometric Kernels and Irremovability of Presidents from Office". LEDAS Ltd. Retrieved April 15, 2013.
- Yares, Evan (April 2013). "Russian CAD". Design World. WTWH Media, LLC. 8 (4). ISSN 1941-7217.
- "About the developer". Innovation and research center "GeoS". Retrieved 9 August 2016.
- "SOLIDS++". IntegrityWare, Inc. Retrieved 17 August 2016.
- "APM Studio". Research and Software Development Centre APM. Retrieved 18 August 2016.
- "Геометрическое ядро APM Engine". sapr. Retrieved 18 August 2016.
- "На ядре". isicad. Retrieved 18 August 2016.
- "3D Software Development with Kubotek Kosmos". Kubotek3D. Retrieved 8 August 2018.
- "Kubotek readies KCM next-generation 3D geometry kernel". Graphicspeak. Retrieved 7 April 2016.
- "Kubotek's Kosmos framework now available for licensing". Euroinvestor. Retrieved 8 August 2018.
- "Russian 3D-kernel RGK: Functionality, Advantages, and Integration". Isicad.net. 2013-05-24. Retrieved 2016-07-27.
- "Does the CAD world need another geometry kernel?". gfxspeak.com. 2013-06-06. Retrieved 2016-08-17.
- "Features of RGK". RGK. Retrieved 15 August 2016.
- "Вопрос распараллеливания в разработке ядра геометрического моделирования" (PDF). Singularis Lab. Retrieved 15 August 2016.
- Ushakov, Dmitry. "Russian National 3D Kernel". LEDAS Ltd. Retrieved April 3, 2012.
- "Renga Architecture". ASCON Group. 2015-03-17.
- "Renga Architecture is brand-new AEC software by an MCAD vendor". WorldCAD Access. 2015-03-13.