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Geophagus brasiliensis.jpg
Pearl cichlid, Geophagus brasiliensis
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Perciformes
Family: Cichlidae
Subfamily: Geophaginae
Genus: Geophagus
Heckel, 1840
Type species
Geophagus altifrons
Heckel, 1840

Geophagus is a genus of cichlids that mainly live in South America as far south as Uruguay, but a single species, G. crassilabris is from Panama. The genus is currently polyphyletic and in need of further taxonomic revision. Some geophagine cichlids previously included in this genus have been reallocated to Gymnogeophagus or Satanoperca. Sensu stricto species include the true geophagines of very peaceful disposition usually with long fin extensions like the type species Geophagus altifrons. Sensu lato geophagines include the much more robust and aggressive species of the Geophagus brasiliensis complex.


There are currently 28 recognized species in this genus:[1]


  1. ^ Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2015). Species of Geophagus in FishBase. December 2015 version.
  2. ^ Hauser, F.E. & López-Fernández, H. (2013): Geophagus crocatus, a new species of geophagine cichlid from the Berbice River, Guyana, South America (Teleostei: Cichlidae). Zootaxa, 3731 (2): 279–286.
  3. ^ Mattos, J.L.O., Costa, W.J.E.M. & Santos, A.C.A. (2015): Geophagus diamantinensis, a new species of the G. brasiliensis species group from Chapada Diamantina, north-eastern Brazil (Cichlidae: Geophagini). Ichthyological Explorations of Freshwaters, 26 (3): 209-220.
  4. ^ Schindler, I. & Staeck, W. (2006): Geophagus gottwaldi sp. n. - a new species of cichlid fish (Teleostei: Perciformes: Cichlidae) from the drainage of the upper rio Orinoco in Venezuela. Zoologische Abhandlungen (Dresden), 56: 91-97.
  5. ^ Deprá, G.C., Kullander, S.O., Pavanelli, C.S. & da Graça, W.J. (2014). "A new colorful species of Geophagus (Teleostei: Cichlidae), endemic to the rio Aripuanã in the Amazon basin of Brazil" (PDF). Neotropical Ichthyology,. 12 (4): 737–746. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-12-29. 
  6. ^ Staeck, W. & Schindler, I. (2006): Geophagus parnaibae sp. n. - a new species of cichlid fish (Teleostei: Perciformes: Cichlidae) from the rio Parnaiba basin, Brazil. Zoologische Abhandlungen (Dresden), 55: 69-75.