Geophony

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Geophony, from the Greek prefix, geo, meaning earth-related, and phon, meaning sound, is one of three sonic components of a soundscape that relates to the naturally occurring non-biological sounds coming from different types of habitats, whether marine or terrestrial.[1] Typically, geophony refers to the sounds of natural forces, such as water, wind, and thunder, occurring in wild, relatively undisturbed habitats.[2] But geophony is not limited to that narrow definition since these audio sources can be experienced nearly everywhere the effects of wind and water are expressed. The term was first used by Drs. Stuart Gage and Bernie Krause to describe certain soundscape phenomena recorded as part of a bioacoustic study in 2001–2002 commissioned by the National Park Service, and done in Sequoia/King's Canyon National Park. Geophony is one of three terms used to define the general sources of sound that occur within a soundscape. The other two are biophony, and anthropophony.[3][4][5][6]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Studying Nature's Rhythms: Soundscape Scientists Spawn New Field". National Science Foundation. Retrieved 7 March 2019.
  2. ^ Dybas, Cheryl. "Soundscape Ecology: Studying Nature's Rhythms". Ecology. Retrieved 7 March 2019.
  3. ^ "The Great Animal Orchestra: Finding the Origins of Music in the World's Wild Places," Krause 2012, Little Brown
  4. ^ Bernie Krause, "Anatomy of the Soundscape," Journal of the Audio Engineering Society, Vol. 56, No. 1/2, 2008 January/February
  5. ^ * Bernie Krause, Stuart H. Gage, Wooyeong Joo, Measuring and interpreting the temporal variability in the soundscape at four places in Sequoia National Park, Landscape Ecology, DOI 10.1007/s10980-011-9639-6, Aug. 2011
  6. ^ Joe Ferguson, Collaboration: Biophony, an Evolutionary Collaboration, SciArt in America, p. 3–42, June, 2015
  • Krause B (2008). "Anatomy of the Soundscape". Journal of the Audio Engineering Society. 56 (1/2).
  • Bryan C. Pijanowski, Luis J. Villanueva-Rivera, Sarah L. Dumyahn, Almo Farina, Bernie L. Krause, Brian M. Napoletano, Stuart H. Gage, and Nadia Pieretti,Soundscape Ecology: The Science of Sound in the Landscape, BioScience, March, 2011, Vol. 61 No. 3, 203–216
  • Bernie Krause, Stuart H. Gage, Wooyeong Joo, Measuring and interpreting the temporal variability in the soundscape at four places in Sequoia National Park, Landscape Ecology, DOI 10.1007/s10980-011-9639-6, Aug. 2011,
  • Krause, Bernie (2012). The Great Animal Orchestra: Finding the Origins of Music in the World's Wild Places. New York, New York: Little Brown.
  • Krause, Bernie (2015). Voices of the Wild, Animal Songs, Human Din, and the Call to Save Natural Soundscapes. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

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