Georg Hartmann

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One of four extant brass astrolabes manufactured by Hartmann and his artisans in 1537

Georg Hartmann (sometimes spelled Hartman; February 9, 1489 – April 9, 1564) was a German engineer, instrument maker, author, printer, humanist, churchman, and astronomer.

Hartmann was born in Eggolsheim near Forchheim, present-day Bavaria. At the age of 17, he began studying theology and mathematics at the University of Cologne. After finishing his studies, he travelled through Italy and finally settled in Nuremberg in 1518. There he constructed astrolabes, globes, sundials, and quadrants. In addition to these traditional scientific instruments Hartmann also made gunner's levels and sights.[1] Hartmann was possibly the first to discover the inclination of Earth's magnetic field. He died in Nuremberg.

His two published works were Perspectiva Communis (Nuremberg, 1542), a reprint of John Peckham's 1292 book on optics and Directorium (Nuremberg, 1554), a book on astrology. He also left Collectanea mathematica praeprimis gnomonicam spectania, 151 f. MS Vienna, Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Quarto, Saec. 16 (1527–1528), an unpublished work on sundials and astrolabes that was translated by John Lamprey and published under the title of Hartmann's Practika in 2002.[2][3][4][5][6][7]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Ralf Kern, Wissenschaftliche Instrumente in ihrer Zeit. Vol. 1. Cologne, 2010. p. 377.
  2. ^ MG Kivelson, CT Russell (1995), Introduction to Space Physics, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-45714-9; p. 3-5
  3. ^ ART Jonkers (2004), Erdmagnetismus zur Zeit der Seefahrer, PHYSIK JOURNAL, 2004, p. 55-59; fulltext Archived 2005-09-09 at the Wayback Machine
  4. ^ John Lamprey (2002), Hartmann's Practika 'Making Sundials and Astrolabes by Compass and Rule', ISBN 1-931947-00-7
  5. ^ John P. Lamprey, An Examination of Two Groups of Georg Hartmann Sixteenth-century Astrolabes and the Tables Used in their Manufacture, ANNALS OF SCIENCE, 54, (1997), 111-142. 138.
  6. ^ H. G. Klemm, Georg Hartmann aus Eggolsheim (1489-1564): Leben und Werk eines fränkischen Mathematiker und Ingenieurs (Wissenschaftliche und künsterlische Beiträge, Ehrenbürg-Gymnasium Forchheim, Heft 8), (Forchheim, 1990).
  7. ^ Hans Gunther Klemm, Magnetismus-Beobachtungen Bei Den Humanistischen Mathematikern Georg Hartmann und Georg Joachim Rheticus, (Erlangen, 1994).
7. Constanze Lindner Haigis, Dieter Nievergelt: Der frühese Modellbaubogen. Ein Sonnenuhr-Kruzifix von Georg Hartmann (1489–1564) aus Nürnberg. In: Arbeitskreis Bild Druck Papier. Tagungsband Ravenna 2006. Münster 2007, S. 11-36.