Georg Matthias Monn
Georg Matthias Monn (born Johann Georg Mann 9 April 1717, Vienna – 3 October 1750, Vienna) was an Austrian composer, organist and music teacher whose works were fashioned in the transition from the Baroque to Classical period in music.
Together with Georg Christoph Wagenseil and Josef Starzer, Monn formed the Viennese Pre-Classical movement (Wiener Vorklassik), whose composers are nowadays mostly known only by their names. However, his successful introduction of the secondary theme in the symphony was an important element for the First Viennese School that would come some fifty years later.
Much less is known about Monn's life than about his musical ideas. Only his appointments as an organist are known, at first in Klosterneuburg near Vienna. Afterwards, he was appointed in the same position at Melk in Lower Austria and at the Karlskirche in Vienna's Wieden district. He died of tuberculosis aged 33.
His brother, Johann Christoph Mann (never Monn, 1726?-82), was also a composer whose works have sometimes been confused with Monn's. The reason for this is that most of Monn's compositions only survive in copies from the 1780s and could therefore also be the works of his younger brother. There is no absolute proof that the Johann Georg Mann is the same person as the Georg Matthias Monn who died in 1750. His role as pioneer of the symphony is a scholarly image, coined in the early 20th century, and could need some basic musicological reevaluation.
From Baroque to Classical
Together with Georg Christoph Wagenseil and other contemporaries such as Leopold Mozart and Josef Starzer, Monn could be said to represent a school of Austrian composers who had thoroughly studied the principles of counterpoint as practised by Johann Sebastian Bach and Johann Joseph Fux, but also effected a change from the formalistic, imposing and ornate Baroque style to the simpler, more graceful Galante music. Moreover, they renewed the sonata form by expanding the concepts of secondary theme and development. Later on, Michael and Joseph Haydn would develop these concepts to a much greater extent.
The catalog of works written by Matthias Monn contains sixteen symphonies, a score of quartets, sonatas, masses and compositions for violin and keyboard. A harpsichord concerto by Monn was "freely" arranged by Arnold Schoenberg as a cello concerto for Pablo Casals. The Monn/Schoenberg cello concerto in D major has been recorded by Yo-Yo Ma and many other cellists. Schoenberg also wrote "continuo realizations" for several works by Monn, including a cello concerto in G minor which was recorded by Jacqueline du Pré.
List of works
- Sixteen symphonies including
- Symphony in G major (also called Sinfonia in G major)
- Symphony in B major
- Symphony in F major
- Six Quartets including a Quartet in B major
- Concerto for Violin, Strings & Continuo In B Flat Major 
- Keyboard concerto in D major
- Cello concerto in D major (freely transcribed from Monn's harpsichord concerto by Arnold Schoenberg)
- Concerto for Cello (or Double Bass) in G Minor 
- Concerto for Harpsichord, Strings & Continuo In G Minor (after Cello Concerto)
- Concerto for Harpsichord in G Minor
- Concerto for Harpsichord, Strings & Continuo in D Major 
- Concerto in A for Fortepiano and Strings 
- Sonata in G minor
- Partitas, including
- James Reel. "Georg Matthias Monn". allmusic.com. Retrieved 27 November 2013.
- "Article on Georg Monn". Grove Powered by Gramophone. Archived from the original on 2007-09-27. Retrieved 2007-11-20.
- Kaiser-Kaplaner, Mag. Johannes. "Matthias Georg Monn (Komponist)". Komponisten (ABC). Retrieved 2007-11-20.
- Pippa Drummond (1977). "Violinkonzert, B Flat,". Music & Letters. 58 (1): 115–116. doi:10.1093/ml/58.1.115. JSTOR 733408.
- Schubert, Ingrid (editor): Monn, Georg Matthias, Violinkonzert, 'Musik alter Meister', Heft 39/40. Akademische Druck- und Verlagsanstalt, Graz, 1975
- "Pandora Entry on Georg Monn Concerti". Retrieved 2008-03-31.
- "Griesbach-Puccini, p.66" (PDF). Retrieved 2008-03-31.
- "Music for Piano and Orchestra: The Recorded Repertory, compiled by Dr. Allan B. Ho, Southern Illinois University Edwardsville" (PDF). Retrieved 2008-03-31.
- "Doblinger Selections" (PDF). Retrieved 2008-03-31.
- Kenneth Emanuel Rudolf (1982). "The Symphonies of Georg Mathias Monn: 1717-1750". University of Michigan at Ann Arbor.
- James Reel. "Georg Matthias Monn".
- Matthias Georg Monn at Encyclopædia Britannica
- Matthias Georg Monn in the Grove Concise Dictionary of Music, published in 1994 by Oxford University Press.
- Free scores by Georg Matthias Monn at the International Music Score Library Project (IMSLP)
All the following links are in German.