Milbradt was born in Eslohe. His family originally was from Wągrowiec (Wongrowitz) near Poznań (Posen) but ended up in Dortmund after World War II, and he passed his Abitur there in 1964. From 1964 to 1968, Milbradt studied economics, law, and mathematics at the University of Münster. He graduated with a degree in economics in 1968. From 1970 to 1980, he was scientific assistant at the institute for finance at the University of Münster, where he obtained his doctoral degree (Dr. rer. pol., summa cum laude) in 1973 and his habilitation in 1980. From 1980 to 1983, Milbradt worked as substitute professor of finance and political economics at the University of Mainz; since 1985 he holds the title of an (unsalaried) professor at the economics faculty in Münster.
Georg Milbradt is married to Angelika Meeth-Milbradt, a professor of economics, since 1975. They have two children.
Milbradt has been a member of the CDU since 1973. He was head of the finance department of the city of Münster from 1983 to 1990 and then Minister of Finance of Saxony from 1990 to January 2001, but was dismissed from office by Minister-President Kurt Biedenkopf because Milbradt had started a debate about Biedenkopf's succession. However, on 18 April 2002, he was elected as Minister-President of Saxony despite Biedenkopf's explicit opposition. Milbradt first governed with an absolute CDU majority, but is in a coalition with the SPD since the state elections of 19 September 2004, in which the CDU lost a large amount of votes.
Milbradt has been member of the state board of the CDU since 1991 and became deputy chairman of the state CDU in 1999 and chairman in 2001. Since 1994, he has been a member of the Saxony state parliament and since 2002 has been the Minister-President of Saxony. However, in April 2008 Milbradt announced that he would resign from the office by the end of May and that Stanislaw Tillich would succeed him. He had been under pressure for months because of his involvement in the liquidity crisis of the government's Sachsen LB bank. Milbradt has also been criticized for private loans from the bank during his time as Minister of Finance in Saxony.
- Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems, Member of the Board of Trustees
- Forum of Federations, Member of the Board (2010-2013), Chairman of the Board (from 2013)
Milbradt oversees the Schüler Helfen Leben initiative.
- Die demographische Herausforderung. Sachsens Zukunft gestalten, by Georg Milbradt and Johannes Meier, Bertelsmann Stiftung, 2004, ISBN 3-89204-793-6
- Kraft der Visionen, by Georg Milbradt and Thomas Rietzschel, Kiepenheuer, 2003, ISBN 3-378-01065-7
- Sächsischer Landtag hat 34 Mitglieder der 16. Bundesversammlung gewählt Landtag of the Free State of Saxony, press release of 13 December 2016.
- Mühlbradt, Max: Das Geschlecht Milbradt (Milbrandt, Mildebrath, Milbrath, Milbrod, Mühlbrecht, Mühlbradt). Nachfahrentafeln. Landsberg an der Warthe: Selbstverlag des Verfassers 1934.
- Ulrich Brümmer: Parteien und Wahlen in Sachsen, Wiesbaden 2006, ISBN 3-531-14835-4