George Chapline, Jr.
|George Frederick Chapline, Jr.|
Chapline with Richard Feynman, 1963
May 6, 1942 |
Teaneck, New Jersey, U.S.
|Institutions||Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory|
|Known for||Quantum mechanics|
|Notable awards||E. O. Lawrence Award, 1982|
George Frederick Chapline, Jr. (born May 6, 1942) is an American theoretical physicist, based at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. His most recent interests have mainly been in quantum information theory, condensed matter, and quantum gravity. In 2003 he received the Computing Anticipatory Systems award for a new interpretation of quantum mechanics based on the similarity of quantum mechanics and Helmholtz machines. He was awarded the E. O. Lawrence Award in 1982 by the United States Department of Energy for leading the team that first demonstrated a working X-ray laser (see photo). In the field of condensed matter physics Chapline is best known as the originator of the concept of a gossamer metal; i.e. a metal where the density of states at the Fermi surface is depressed because of pairing correlations. Both the actinides and high Tc superconductors are examples of gossamer metals.[clarification needed]
Chapline is known for his work with Nick S. Manton on finding the classical equations which unify supergravity and Yang–Mills gauge theories. These equations play an important role in superstring theory. Chapline was also the first person to point out that the anomaly cancellation condition for superstrings in 10 dimensions could be satisfied by E8 x E8, and the first person to suggest that the 24-dimensional Leech lattice might play a central role in a theory unifying gravity and elementary particle physics.
Chapline is perhaps best known for his research on black holes, proposing that they "do not exist." Drawing upon quantum mechanical insights of himself and Pawel Mazur from the early 1900s, he proposed that objects currently thought to be black holes are actually dark-energy stars.
This idea incorporates the 1980 proposal by Robert B. Laughlin and Chapline that the surface of a dark energy star actually represents a quantum critical transition of a superfluid vacuum. The Chapline–Laughlin theory predicts that space-times with a large vacuum energy are unstable to the formation of dark energy stars; in the context of the early universe, this provides a natural explanation for both dark matter and the metric fluctuations which led to the formation of galaxies. A remarkable astrophysical prediction of the Chapline–Laughlin theory is that dark energy stars should be prolific sources of positrons because nucleons decay when they encounter the surface of a dark energy star, which may explain the strong positron annihilation radiation observed coming from the central region of our galaxy.
Chapline's interest in quantum gravity dates from the time when as a teenager he wrote Richard Feynman a letter about the problem of quantum propagation in a gravitational field. Because quantum mechanics is intrinsically non-local while the equivalence principle is local there is a tension between quantum mechanics and general relativity that has not yet been resolved. As a result of his letter Feynman invited the 15-year-old Chapline to have lunch at Caltech. Chapline and Feynman talked often about physics in the following years, particularly when he was a graduate student at Caltech (see photo). Feynman reportedly helped Chapline get his first job, as an assistant professor at UC Santa Cruz.
- "1980s Laureates: George F. Chapline, Jr., 1982". The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Award. 1982. Retrieved 2008-07-03.
- G. F. Chapline and N. S. Manton, "Unification of Yang-Mills theory and supergravity in ten dimensions", Phys. Lett. 1208:105 (1983) 105.
- G. Chapline, "Unification of Gravity and Elementary Particle Interactions in 26 Dimensions", Phys. Lett. 158B (1985) 393.
- Ball, Philip (2005). "Black holes 'do not exist'". Nature. doi:10.1038/news050328-8. Archived from the original on September 6, 2007. Retrieved 2008-07-03.
- Chapline, G. (December 2004). "Dark Energy Stars". Proceedings of the Texas Conference on Relativistic Astrophysics: 101. arXiv:. Bibcode:2005tsra.conf..101C.
- Zeeya, Merali (March 2006). "Three cosmic enigmas, one audacious answer". New Scientist (2542): 8.
- Barbieri, J.; Chapline, G. (2004). "Have Nucleon decays been seen?". Physics Letters B. 590: 12. Bibcode:2004PhLB..590....8B. doi:10.1016/j.physletb.2004.03.054.
- See YouTube video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Sw-og52UUVg .
- George Frederick Chapline, Jr., Marquis Who's Who TM. Marquis Who's Who, 2009. Reproduced in Biography Resource Center. Farmington Hills, Michigan: Gale, 2009 Document Number: K2016377061 (fee required); accessed 2009-10-22 via Fairfax County Public Library.
- Three cosmic enigmas, one audacious answer, a New Scientist item about Chapline's proposals
- The Blackhole of Chapline, from the blog of Jacques Distler, a physicist who sometimes discusses fringe physics
- Chapline: black holes don't exist, from the blog of Lubos Motl, another physicist who sometimes discusses fringe physics
- What Lies Beneath, popular commentary about the fringe speculations of Laughlin and Chapline