George Daniels (watchmaker)

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George Daniels

Born(1926-08-19)19 August 1926
Died21 October 2011(2011-10-21) (aged 85)
NationalityEnglish
OccupationHorologist
Known forCoaxial escapement

Introduction[edit]

George Daniels, CBE, FBHI, FSA, AHCI (19 August 1926 – 21 October 2011) was an English horologist who was considered by some to be one of the best in the world in the field of luxury mechanical watches and timepieces during his lifetime.[1] He was a watchmaker who all but completely built 23 pocket watches and 2 wrist watches as well as a number of clocks all by hand (including the case and dial).[2] Daniels commented often that "a watch has historic, intellectual, technical, aesthetic, useful and amusing qualities" and he sought to make watches that did each of these things while consistently improving on the technical and horological aspects of each watch he made.[2] As at December 2022, George Daniels watches only sat behind Patek and Rolex watches by reference to value and number of watches sold,[3] with 6 watches achieving prices in excess of USD$1.5 million. This makes George Daniels watches the first independently made watches to achieve this result.

The Daniels Method and George Daniels the Artist[edit]

The "Daniels Method" refers to the conception, design and manufacture of a watch all by hand and this was the way George made all of his watches (excluding the crystal and hairspring).[4] Nearly all of these watches involved George expending over 2,500 man hours in the production of each watch with most watches each taking over a year to make.[5] Many commentators have referred to these as works of art and technological and horological master pieces.[6] In an industry where many parts of a watch are outsourced by the watchmaker to be manufactured or are now made using computers, George Daniels made watches that stand out as artistic and horological masterpieces.[5] George stated that "My first watch had to be accepted as a work of art in its own right, as an artificial object of original conception, constructed with integrity, that would intrigue, amuse and educate the human mind."[2] Daniels started making watches in 1967 because he was incensed by the hysterical adulations of the quartz watch by people who didn't really understand its failings.[4] But it was his creation of the co-axial escapement for which he is most remembered. The movement, which theoretically removed the need to add a lubricant, has been used by Omega in most of their collections since 1999 with the exception of the Speedmaster Moonwatch (until the release of the Speedmaster Moonwatch Caliber 3861 in 2021).[1]

Early career[edit]

Daniels was born in Sunderland in 1926. His mother was unmarried so she fled London and travelled north. After Daniels was born he and his mother returned to London, where she married Daniels' father.[6] In 1944, Daniels entered the British Army; he already had an interest in watches and did some repairs for army friends. On leaving the army in 1947 with a gratuity of £50, he bought some tools and got a job as a watch repairer. From studying horology at night classes, he became a Fellow of the British Horological Institute. After a decade of hard work, Daniels opened his first watch repair and cleaning shop in 1960 in London. Becoming interested in the works of the notable early 19th-century French watchmaker Abraham-Louis Breguet, Daniels soon became the 1960s' leading expert on Breguet and was often involved in advising on his work.[7][page needed]

Rise to prominence[edit]

His friend named Sam Clutton introduced Daniels to the upscale timepiece market and convinced him that he had a future in expensive handcrafted watches.[a] In 1969, Daniels constructed, for £2,000, his first pocket watch for Clutton. When his friend showed the piece to fellow collectors, it created great interest. Five years later, Daniels bought the watch back for £8,000. In 2012, it sold at auction in the United States for $285,000.[10]

Throughout his career, Daniels made signature timepieces for personally selected customers, stating "I never made watches for people if I didn't care for them."[11] The watches, which cost tens of thousands of pounds, took more than 2,500 hours to make. His signature was to give them clear and clean dials with subsidiary dials interwoven with the main chapter ring.[12]

Co-axial escapement[edit]

The co-axial escapement was created by George Daniels in 1974.

During the quartz crisis, George Daniels accepted a commission from American industrialist and watch collector Seth G. Atwood to create a timepiece that would fundamentally improve the performance of mechanical watches.[13] After much experimentation, Daniels had designed a new type of watch escapement by 1974. The mechanism, which was first unveiled in 1976 (see watch 10 below), the "Atwood") and known as the Daniels independent double wheeled escapement a further version which was patented in 1980, was later called the co-axial escapement[14] and the first named Daniels co-axial escapement watch was watch 17 below (the "Martin").

Its design avoided the need to add oil to the escapement because the mechanism operated with very low friction. Traditional escapements had to use lubricants but this eventually caused problems with accuracy as oil thickened over time. However, the co-axial escapement used radial friction instead of sliding friction, making lubricants theoretically unnecessary. In practice a small amount of lubrication is used on the impulse and locking surfaces of the pallet stones. Daniels' mechanism has since been described by some as the most important development in horology in the past 250 years.[15]

Although the horological industry was first introduced to the concept in 1976, Daniels' escapement was met with skepticism and lack of interest. It was not until the 1980s that Swatch Group chairman Nicolas Hayek adopted the concept, using it in his upmarket Omega brand. The company unveiled, to great acclaim, its first automatic watch using Daniels' coaxial escapement at the 1999 Basel Watch and Jewellery Fair.[16]

Later life and the Watches made by George Daniels[edit]

The Grand Complication watch of 1987

Daniels, who was a member of the Swiss Académie Horlogère des Créateurs Indépendants, continued to make watches well into later life. In total he created 25 handmade watches which were completely made by himself (23 pocket watches and 2 wristwatches) other than the crystal, the mainspring, the engraving of the dials and the hairspring. One pocket watch remains incomplete and is not included in this total number of pocket watches produced by George Daniels.[17]

2 wristwatches known as The White and The Blue which were private commissions by the same collector,[18][19] 56 wristwatches are believed to have been made as part of the Millenium series designed by and in collaboration with George Daniels (48 in yellow gold including one prototype and 8 white gold watches) [2] and 35 wristwatches (all under the name of and in collaboration with George Daniels but with brand new movements designed by Roger Smith) are believed to have been produced as part of the Anniversary series and were all made by independent watchmaker, Roger W. Smith.[20] None of the White or Blue wristwatches or the Millenium or Anniversary series wristwatches were actually made by George Daniels and indeed many of the Anniversary watches were made after George Daniels had died.[21]

George Daniels made Watches[edit]

This list below excludes other maker's watches (eg Patek, Rolex, Hamilton & Co, Urban Jurgensen, Omega) George adapted the mechanisms to enable the installation of a co-axial movement. Watches are listed in chronological order of their date of sale and delivery to the original purchaser or as otherwise stated where watches were originally retained by George Daniels. Purchasers of watches originally constructed and retained by George and subsequently sold in the 2012 Sotheby's auction of watches which were owned by George at the time of his death are not publicly known or recorded. Where there are inconsistencies in published information about the watches (eg case size) the below list relies on George's book "All in a Good Time Reflections of a Watchmaker" and the stated statistics and information in that book.[2] The order below is interesting in that the last watch designed and made by George was actually the Four Minute Tourbillon pocket watch (watch 25 below) in 1994 and not a wristwatch.[17]

1. Hallmarked, completed and sold in 1969 one minute two armed polished steel tourbillon carriage under a brass balance cock. 18K engine turned gold open face case with Daniels crescent pendant and bow. The Clutton is the only Daniels watch with a case of both gold and silver. A silver rib sits between two gold bands and the back of the case is also silver. Silver engine turned dial. Pivoted Earnshaw spring-detent chronometer escapement (specifically requested by Clutton). The smaller spiral spring to the left of the escape wheel is coiled around the detent arbor. Daniels considered the steel , two armed tourbillon carriage to be his least elegant. This component changed frequently on his watches. The screws with the unusual heads are called case screws and secure the plate to the case. Retrograde hour hand mechanism with quadrant for the retrograde hour hand together with polished minutes eccentric minute chapter ring, sector for hours with Roman chapters and large polished interlaced subsidiary ring for seconds. Short gold graduated, double link chain with gold and blued steel double ended key pocket watch which was key wound. Gilt brass construction with going barrels engaging a common, offset centre pinion. 36 hour duration. Mono metallic stainless steel four arm balance with gold eccentric adjusting weights. Overcoil temperature compensated balance spring with isochronal adjusting screw. Blued steel Daniels hands with arrow head hours hand. Originally sold to Cecil Clutton C.B.E. (c.c.) and known as "The Clutton". Signed Geo. Daniels London on the base plate with Daniels and London in two cartouches on either side at the bottom of the minutes chapter ring. Case maker's mark G.D. Diameter 62mm. Red leather, velvet lined fitted box and certificate.[17][2][6]

2. Hallmarked 1969, completed and sold in 1970 one minute two armed polished steel tourbillon carriage under a polished steel balance cock. 18k engine turned gold open face case with Daniels crescent pendant and bow. Silver engine turned dial. Earnshaw spring-detent chronometer escapement, retrograde hour hand mechanism with quadrant for the retrograde hour hand together with polished minutes eccentric minute chapter ring, sector for hours with Roman chapters and large polished interlaced subsidiary ring for seconds. Short gold graduated, double link chain with gold and blued steel double ended key pocket watch which was key wound. Gilt brass construction with going barrels engaging a common, offset centre pinion. 36 hour duration. Mono metallic stainless steel four arm balance with gold eccentric adjusting weights. Overcoil temperature compensated balance spring with isochronal adjusting screw. Blued steel Daniels hands with arrow head hours hand. Originally sold to Robert Marryat (r.a.m.) and known as "The Marryat". Signed Geo. Daniels London on the baseplate with Daniels and London in two cartouches on either side at the bottom of the minutes chapter ring. Case maker's mark G.D. Diameter 62mm. Red leather, velvet lined fitted box and certificate.[17][2][6]

3. A hallmarked 1969, completed and sold in 1970 one minute two armed polished steel tourbillon carriage under a polished steel bridge. 18k engine turned gold open face case with Daniels crescent pendant and bow. Silver engine turned dial. Earnshaw spring-detent chronometer escapement, retrograde hour hand mechanism with quadrant for the retrograde hour hand together with polished minutes eccentric minute chapter ring, sector for hours with Roman chapters and large polished interlaced subsidiary ring for seconds. Short gold graduated, double link chain with gold and blued steel double ended key pocket watch which was key wound. Gilt brass construction with going barrels engaging a common, offset centre pinion. 36 hour duration. Mono metallic stainless steel four arm balance with gold eccentric adjusting weights. Overcoil temperature compensated balance spring with isochronal adjusting screw. Blued steel Daniels hands with arrow head hours hand. Originally sold to Sam Bloomfield (s.b.) and known as "The Bloomfield". Signed Geo. Daniels London on the base plate with Daniels and London in two cartouches on either side at the bottom of the minutes chapter ring. Case maker's mark G.D. Diameter 62mm. Red leather, velvet lined fitted box and certificate.[17][2][6]

4. A hallmarked 1970, completed and sold in 1971 one minute two armed polished steel tourbillon carriage under a polished steel bridge. 18k engine turned gold open face case with Daniels crescent pendant and bow. Silver engine turned dial. Earnshaw spring-detent chronometer escapement, retrograde hour hand mechanism with quadrant for the retrograde hour hand together with polished minutes eccentric minute chapter ring, sector for hours with Roman chapters and large polished interlaced subsidiary ring for seconds. Short gold graduated, double link chain with gold and blued steel double ended key pocket watch which was key wound. Gilt brass construction with going barrels engaging a common, offset centre pinion. 36 hour duration. Mono metallic stainless steel four arm balance with gold eccentric adjusting weights. Overcoil temperature compensated balance spring with isochronal adjusting screw. Blued steel Daniels hands with arrow head hours hand. Originally sold to Edward Hornby (e.m.h.) and known as "The Hornby". Signed Geo. Daniels London on the base plate with Daniels and London in two cartouches on either side at the bottom of the minutes chapter ring. Case maker's mark G.D. Diameter 62mm. Red leather, velvet lined fitted box. Accompanied by a letter headed "George Daniels London Watch and Chronometer Maker" dated 1 January 1971 personally signed by George Daniels to Edward Hornby giving full construction details of the watch. Also noted the weight of 6.403 ozs. Had been on loan and displayed at the British Science Museum prior to 2021 sale and was part of the George Daniels Retrospective Exhibition, Sotheby's London, 18th-23rd July 2006, exhibit 4.[17][22][2][6]

5. A hallmarked, completed and sold in 1970 one minute two armed polished steel tourbillon carriage under a polished steel bridge. 18k engine turned gold open face case with Daniels crescent pendant and bow. Silver engine turned dial. Earnshaw spring-detent chronometer escapement, retrograde hour hand mechanism with quadrant for the retrograde hour hand together with polished minutes eccentric minute chapter ring, sector for hours with Roman chapters and large polished interlaced subsidiary ring for seconds. Short gold graduated, double link chain with gold and blued steel double ended key pocket watch which was key wound. Gilt brass construction with going barrels engaging a common, offset centre pinion. 36 hour duration. Mono metallic stainless steel four arm balance with gold eccentric adjusting weights. Overcoil Elinvar temperature compensated balance spring with isochronal adjusting screw and terminal curve. Blued steel Daniels hands with arrow head hours hand. Originally sold to Cecil Elsom C.B.E. (c.h.e.) and known as the "The Elsom I". Signed Geo. Daniels London on the base plate with Daniels and London in two cartouches on either side at the bottom of the minutes chapter ring Case maker's mark G.D. Diameter 62mm. Red leather, velvet lined fitted box and certificate. The box was specially constructed to hold all three Elsom watches. [17][2][6]

6. A hallmarked and completed in1970 one minute three arm steel polished tourbillon carriage under a polished steel bridge. 18k engine turned gold open face case with Daniels crescent pendant and bow. This as the first time Daniels used a three armed tourbillon carriage with a circular upper carriage pivot and a curved surface. Silver engine turned dial. Earnshaw spring-detent chronometer escapement, retrograde hour hand mechanism with quadrant for the retrograde hour hand together with polished minutes eccentric minute chapter ring, sector for hours with Roman chapters and large polished interlaced subsidiary ring for seconds. Short gold graduated, double link chain with gold and blued steel double ended key pocket watch which was key wound. Gilt brass construction with going barrels engaging a common, offset centre pinion. 36 hour duration. Mono metallic stainless steel four arm balance with gold eccentric adjusting weights. Overcoil temperature compensated balance spring with isochronal adjusting screw. Blued steel Daniels hands with arrow head hours hand. Made by George Daniels for his daughter Sarah Jane Daniels (although never actually given to her) (s.j.d.) and known as the "The Sarah Jane". Signed Geo. Daniels London on the base plate with Daniels and London in two cartouches on either side at the bottom of the minutes chapter ring. Case maker's mark G.D. Diameter 62mm. Red leather, velvet lined fitted box and certificate.[17][2][6]

7. A hallmarked and completed in 1973, sold in 1974, one minute steel two armed polished tourbillon carriage under a polished steel bridge. 18k engine turned gold open face case with Daniels crescent pendant and bow. Silver engine turned dial. Earnshaw spring-detent chronometer escapement, retrograde hour hand mechanism with quadrant for the retrograde hour hand together with polished minutes eccentric minute chapter ring, sector for hours with Roman chapters and large polished interlaced subsidiary ring for seconds. Quadrant at the top left hand side of the dial for reserve of winding indication. Short gold graduated, double link chain with gold and blued steel double ended key pocket watch which was key wound. Gilt brass construction with going barrels engaging a common, offset centre pinion. 36 hour duration. Mono metallic stainless steel four arm balance with gold eccentric adjusting weights. Overcoil temperature compensated balance spring with isochronal adjusting screw. Differential screw winding indication. Blued steel Daniels hands with arrow head hours hand. Originally sold to Professor Thomas Engel (t.e.) and known as "The Engel". Signed Geo. Daniels London on the base plate with Daniels and London in two cartouches on either side at the bottom of the minutes chapter ring. Case maker's mark G.D. Diameter 62mm. Red leather, velvet lined fitted box and certificate.[17][2][6]

8. A hallmarked, completed and sold in 1973 one minute two armed steel polished tourbillon carriage under a polished steel bridge. 18k engine turned gold open face case with Daniels crescent pendant and bow. Silver engine turned dial. Earnshaw spring-detent chronometer escapement, retrograde hour hand mechanism with quadrant for the retrograde hour hand together with polished minutes eccentric minute chapter ring, sector for hours with Roman chapters and large polished interlaced subsidiary ring for seconds. Short gold graduated, double link chain with gold and blued steel double ended key pocket watch which was key wound. Gilt brass construction with going barrels engaging a common, offset centre pinion. 36 hour duration. Mono metallic stainless steel four arm balance with gold eccentric adjusting weights. Overcoil temperature compensated balance spring with isochronal adjusting screw. On the Saunders, Daniels used a long, thin polished steel balance bridge. Blued steel Daniels hands with arrow head hours hand. Seconds hand on the counterpoise at the end has the letter "S". Originally sold to Gerald Saunders, 1973 (g.s.s.) and known as "The Saunders". Signed Geo. Daniels London on the baseplate with Daniels and London in two cartouches on either side at the bottom of the minutes chapter ring. Case maker's mark G.D. Diameter 62mm. Red leather, velvet lined fitted box and certificate.[17][2][6]

9. Completed in 1974, a hallmarked and sold in 1975 one minute two arned steel polished tourbillon carriage under a polished steel cock. 18k engine turned gold open face case with Daniels crescent pendant and bow. Silver engine turned dial. Earnshaw spring-detent chronometer escapement, retrograde hour hand mechanism with quadrant for the retrograde hour hand together with polished minutes eccentric minute chapter ring, sector for hours with Roman chapters and large polished interlaced subsidiary ring for seconds. Quadrant at the top left hand side of the dial for reserve of winding indication and a quadrant at the top right hand side of the dial for equation of time. Short gold graduated, double link chain with gold and blued steel double ended key pocket watch which was key wound. Gilt brass construction with going barrels engaging a common, offset centre pinion. 36 hour duration. Mono metallic stainless steel three arm balance with gold eccentric adjusting weights. Overcoil Elinvar temperature compensated balance spring, terminal curve and with isochronal adjusting screw. Fifteen second rementoire train released by four pins on the tourbillon carriage. Differential screw for the reserve of winding and balance arresting device. The annual calendar disc with equation cam mounted above the going barrel and advanced by a lever engaging the cone of the differential screw. Gold Daniels hands with arrow head hours hand. Originally sold to Cecil Elsom (no initials) and known as "The Elsom II". Signed Daniels on the base plate with Daniels and London in two cartouches on either side at the bottom of the minutes chapter ring. Case maker's mark G.D. Diameter 62mm. Blue leather, velvet lined fitted box for the three Elsom watches.[17][2][6]

10. A hallmarked in 1975, completed and sold in 1976 18k engine turned gold open face case with Daniels crescent pendant and bow. Silver engine turned dial with the chapter ring below a large seconds ring. Quadrant for the reserve of winding at the top right hand side of the dial. Short gold graduated, double link chain with gold and blued steel double ended key pocket watch which was key wound. Lepine calibre construction with two going barrels with two contra rotating identical trains driving the two escape wheels of the Daniels double wheeled escapement incorporating a T-shaped central locking detent with three pallets. This was the first Daniels escapement watch. 32 hour duration. Mono metallic stainless steel four arm balance with gold eccentric adjusting weights and Elinvar free sprung temperature compensated overcoil balance spring with terminal curve. Differential winding indication with balance arresting device. Gold Daniels hands with arrow head hours hand. Originally sold to Seth G. Atwood (s.g.a.) and known as "The Atwood". Signed Especially Made for Seth G. Atwood with Daniels London on the bridge plate with Daniels London in one cartouche on the upper left hand side of the dial. Case maker's mark G.D. Diameter 62mm. Blue leather, velvet lined and fitted box. This was thefirst Daniels watch without a tourbillon and the first to feature his double wheel escapement.[17][2][6]

11. A hallmarked 1976, completed and sold in 1977 18k engine turned gold open face case with Daniels crescent pendant and bow. Silver engine turned dial with the chapter ring below a large seconds ring. Short gold graduated, double link chain with gold and blued steel double ended key pocket watch which was key wound. Lepine calibre construction with two going barrels with two contra rotating identical trains driving the two escape wheels of the Daniels double wheeled escapement incorporating a T-shaped central locking detent with three pallets. 32 hour duration. Mono metallic stainless steel four arm balance with gold eccentric adjusting weights and free sprung temperature compensated overcoil balance spring. Mechanism for setting the seconds hand to zero. Gold Daniels hands with arrow head hours hand. Originally sold to Cecil Clutton (no initials) and known as "The Clutton II". Signed Daniels London on the bridge plate with Daniels London in two cartouches on either side of the upper end of the dial. Case maker's mark G.D. Diameter 62mm. Blue leather, velvet lined and fitted box. Now held by the British Museum.[17][2][6]

12. A hallmarked 1976, completed and sold in 1977 18k engine turned gold open face case with Daniels crescent pendant and bow. Silver engine turned dial with the chapter ring below a large seconds ring. Quadrants for the temperature at the top left hand side and reserve of winding at the top right hand side of the dial. Short gold graduated, double link chain with gold and blued steel double ended key pocket watch which was key wound. Lepine calibre construction with two going barrels with two contra rotating identical trains driving the two escape wheels of the Daniels double wheeled escapement incorporating a T-shaped central locking detent with three pallets. 32 hour duration. Mechanism for setting the seconds hand to zero. Mono metallic stainless steel four arm balance with gold eccentric adjusting weights and free sprung temperature compensated overcoil balance spring. Differential winding indication with balance arresting device. Bi-metallic thermometer below the dial. Gold Daniels hands with arrow head hours hand. Originally sold to Cecil Elsom C.B.E. (no initials) and known as "The Elsom III". Signed Daniels London on the bridge plate with Daniels London in one cartouche inside the top end of the hours chapter ring. Case maker's mark G.D. Diameter 62mm. Blue leather, velvet lined and fitted box to hold all three Elsom watches.[17][2][6]

13. A hallmarked, completed and sold in 1977. 18k engine turned gold open face case with Daniels crescent pendant and bow. Silver engine turned dial with the chapter ring below a large seconds ring. Quadrants for the temperature at the top left hand side and reserve of winding at the top right hand side of the dial. Short gold graduated, double link chain with gold and blued steel double ended key pocket watch which was key wound. Lepine calibre construction with two going barrels with two contra rotating identical trains driving the two escape wheels of the Daniels double wheeled escapement incorporating a T-shaped central locking detent with three pallets. 32 hour duration. Mechanism for setting the seconds hand to zero. Mono metallic stainless steel four arm balance with gold eccentric adjusting weights. Daniels auxiliary compensation and free sprung overcoil balance spring. Differential screw winding indication. Bi-metallic thermometer below the dial. Gold Daniels hands with arrow head hours hand. Originally sold to Edward Hornby (no initials) and known as "The Hornby II". Signed Daniels London on the bridge plate with Daniels London in one cartouche inside the top end of the hours chapter ring. Case maker's mark G.D. Blue leather box, velvet lined, fitted box. Diameter 62mm.[17][2][6]

14. A hallmarked, completed and sold 1978 18k engine turned gold open face case with Daniels crescent pendant and bow. Silver engine turned dial with the chapter ring below a large seconds ring. Quadrants for the temperature at the top left hand side and reserve of winding at the top right hand side of the dial. Short gold graduated, double link chain with gold and blued steel double ended key pocket watch which was key wound. Lepine calibre construction with two going barrels with two contra rotating identical trains driving the two escape wheels of the Daniels double wheeled escapement incorporating a T-shaped central locking detent with three pallets. 32 hour duration. Mechanism for setting the seconds hand to zero. Mono metallic stainless steel three arm recessed balance with gold eccentric adjusting weights. Daniels auxiliary compensation and Elinvar balance spring with terminal curve. Differential screw winding indication. Bi-metallic thermometer below the dial. Gold Daniels hands with arrow head hours hand. Originally sold to Theodor Bayer (no initials) and known as "The Beyer" and now retained in the Chronometre Beyer Museum Zurich, Switzerland . Signed Daniels London on the bridge plate with Daniels London in one cartouche inside the top end of the hours chapter ring. Case maker's mark G.D. Blue leather, velvet lined fitted box. Diameter 62mm.[17][2][6]

15. Completed and sold in 1982, 18k engine turned gold open face case with Daniels crescent pendant and bow. Silver engine turned dial with twenty four hour chapter ring to the left for sidereal time and twelve hour chapter ring to the right for mean solar time, each with seconds below. A silver star above the sidereal time chapter ring and a gold sun above the mean solar chapter ring. Aperture in the mean solar chapter ring for the annual calendar and apertures in the sidereal dial for the age and phase of the moon. Quadrant above for the equation of time. Short gold graduated, double link chain with gold and blued steel double ended key pocket watch which was key wound. Of gilt brass, Lepine calibre construction with two going barrels with two contra rotating identical trains driving the two escape wheels of the Daniels double wheeled escapement incorporating a Y-shaped central locking detent with three pallets. 32 hour duration. Mechanism for setting the seconds hand to zero. Mono metallic stainless steel four arm balance with gold eccentric adjusting screws and Daniels auxiliary compensation. Free sprung overcoil balance spring. The two trains calculated for mean solar and sidereal time including seconds. Annual calendar ring with kidney-cam and equation of time indication. Accurate lunar dial driven from the sidereal train with indications of the age and phase of the moon. Centre seconds chronograph mechanism engaging either train, selected by a lever on the movement. Gold Daniels hands for the mean solar time dials with arrow head on the hours hand and blued steel Daniels hands with arrow head to the hour hand to the sidereal dials and chronograph. Originally sold to Bobinet Limited Jay Lennon (no initials) and known as "The Space Traveller I". Signed Daniels London on the main movement bridge plate with Daniels London in one cartouche at the bottom of the dial. Case maker's mark G.D. Blue leather, velvet lined, fitted box. Diameter 63mm.[17][2][6]

16. Completed in 1983 18k engine turned gold open face case with plain band and engine turned bezels. Glazed back with two push pieces in the band for the chronograph stop/start and return to zero. Daniels crescent pendant and bow. Silver engine turned dial with twenty four hour chapter ring to the left for sidereal time and twelve hour chapter ring to the right for mean solar time, each with seconds below. A silver star above the sidereal time chapter ring and a gold sun above the mean solar chapter ring. Outer seconds ring for the chronograph. Aperture in the mean solar chapter ring for the annual calendar and apertures in the sidereal dial for the age and phase of the moon. Quadrant above for the equation of time. Short gold graduated, double link chain with gold and blued steel double ended key pocket watch which was key wound. Of gilt brass, Lepine calibre construction with two going barrels with two contra rotating identical trains driving the two escape wheels of the Daniels double wheeled escapement incorporating a Y-shaped central locking detent with three pallets. 32 hour duration. Mechanism for setting the seconds hand to zero. Mono metallic stainless steel four arm balance with gold eccentric adjusting screws and Daniels auxiliary compensation. Free sprung overcoil balance spring. The two trains calculated for mean solar and sidereal time including seconds. Annual calendar ring with kidney-cam and equation of time indication. Accurate lunar dial driven from the sidereal train with indications of the age and phase of the moon. Gold Daniels hands for the mean solar time dials with arrow head on the hours hand and blued steel Daniels hands with arrow head to the hour hand to the sidereal dials. Retained by George Daniels (no initials) and known as "The Space Traveller II". Signed Daniels on the base plate and Daniels in one cartouche at the bottom centre of the dial. Diameter 63mm. [17][2][6]

17. A hallmarked and completed in 1979 and sold in 1983 18k engine turned gold open face case with Daniels crescent pendant and bow. Silver engine turned dial with eccentric polished chapter ring, large interlaced seconds ring and quadrant at the top left hind side of the dial for reserve of winding. Short gold graduated, double link chain with gold and blued steel double ended key pocket watch which was key wound. Of gilt brass construction with two going barrels engaging a common offset centre pinion. 32 hour duration. Daniels co-axial escapement mounted in a polished steel one minute tourbillon carriage under a polished steel balance cock. Mono metallic stainless steel four arm recessed balance with gold eccentric adjusting weights and Daniels auxiliary compensation. Free sprung overcoil Elinvar balance spring with terminal curve. Differential screw mechanism for reserve of winding. Gold Daniels hands with arrow head hours hand. Originally sold to Esmond Bradley Martin (no initials) and known as "The Martin". Signed Daniels on the base plate and Daniels and London in two cartouches below the hours and minutes chapter ring. Case maker's mark G.D. Blue leather, velvet lined, fitted box. Diameter 62mm.[17][2]

18. A hallmarked and completed in 1984 18k engine turned gold open face case with Daniels crescent pendant and bow. Silver engine turned dial with eccentric polished gold chapter rings with large interlaced gold seconds ring. Short gold graduated, double link chain with gold and blued steel double ended key pocket watch which was key wound. Of gilt brass construction with single going barrel. 32 hour duration. Daniels co-axial escapement mounted in a polished steel one minute edge driven tourbillon carriage under a polished steel and brass balance cock. Mono metallic stainless steel three arm balance with gold eccentric adjusting weights. Free sprung overcoil balance spring. Daniels three position keyless winding system. Gold Daniels hands with arrow head hours hand. Held in a Private Collection (no initials) and known as "The Signature". Signed Daniels on a bridge plate with Daniels and London in two cartouches below the hours and minutes chapter ring and with a facsimile signature George Daniels inside the rear cover. Case maker's mark G.D. Diameter 63mm. Blue leather, velvet lined fitted box. This was the first Daniels watch to use the combination of the silver engine turned dial and gold chapter rings and the new Daniels three position keyless winding system. [17][2][6]

19. A hallmarked, completed and sold in 1986 18k engine turned gold open face case with Daniels crescent pendant and bow. Silver engine turned dial with eccentric polished gold chapter rings with gold large interlaced seconds ring. Short gold graduated, double link chain with gold and blued steel double ended key pocket watch which was key wound. Of gilt brass construction with single going barrel. 32 hour duration. Daniels co-axial escapement mounted in a polished steel one minute edge driven tourbillon carriage under a polished steel and brass balance cock. Mono metallic stainless steel three arm balance with gold eccentric adjusting weights. Free sprung overcoil balance spring. Daniels three position keyless winding system. Second position for winding and third position for hand setting. Gold Daniels hands with arrow head hours hand. Originally sold to Theodor Bayer (no initials) and known as "The Beyer II" and now retained in the Chronometre Beyer Museum Zurich, Switzerland. Signed Daniels on a bridge plate and Daniels and London in two cartouches below the hours and minutes chapter ring. Case maker's mark G.D. Diameter 63mm. Blue leather, velvet lined and fitted box. This is the second watch to use gold chapter rings. [17][2][6]

20. A hallmarked 1983, completed and sold in 1986 18k engine turned gold open face case with Daniels keyless pendant and bow. Silver engine turned dial with eccentric polished gold chapter ring with large interlaced gold seconds ring and gold quadrants in the top left hand side of the dial for reserve of winding and the top right hand of the dial for a thermometer. Short gold graduated, double link chain with gold and blued steel double ended key pocket watch which was key wound. Of gilt brass Lepine calibre construction with single going barrel. 48 hour duration. Daniels slim co-axial escapement with eight tooth escape wheels. Mono metallic stainless steel four arm balance with gold eccentric adjusting weights. Invar free sprung overcoil balance spring with terminal curve. Independent dead seconds mechanism consisting of an eight tooth star wheel mounted on the fifth wheel arbour advancing a sixty tooth ratchet wheel on an arbour carrying the seconds hand. Bi-metallic thermometer below the dial. Daniels three position keyless winding. Gold Daniels hands with arrow head hours hand. Originally sold to David Niall-Cain (no initials) and known as "The Niall-Cain". Signed Daniels 1986 DLR N-C on the base plate with Daniels and London in two cartouches below the hours and minutes chapter ring. Case maker's mark G.D. Diameter 63mm. Blue leather, velvet lined and fitted box. This is the third Daniels watch to use the gold chapter rings.[17][2][6]

21. A hallmarked 1983 and sold and completed in 1986 18k engine turned gold open face case with Daniels three position keyless winding system and bow. Silver engine turned dial with eccentric polished chapter ring with large interlaced seconds ring and quadrants in the top left hand side of the dial for reserve of winding. Short gold graduated, double link chain with gold and blued steel double ended key pocket watch which was key wound. Of gilt brass Lepine calibre construction with single going barrel. 48 hour duration. Daniels slim co-axial escapement with eight tooth escape wheels. Mono metallic stainless steel four arm balance with gold eccentric adjusting weights. Invar balance spring with terminal curve free sprung. Independent dead seconds mechanism consisting of an eight tooth star wheel mounted on the fifth wheel arbour advancing a sixty tooth ratchet wheel on an arbour carrying the seconds hand. Gold Daniels hands with arrow head hours hand. Originally sold to Bobinet Limited (no initials) and known as "The Bobinet". Not signed on any plates with Daniels and London in two cartouches below the hours and minutes chapter ring. Case maker's mark G.D. Diameter 63mm. Blue leather, velvet lined and fitted box. [17][2]

22. Completed in 1987 18k engine turned gold open face case with Daniels keyless pendant and bow. Repeating slide and calendar setting in the band of the case. Glazed aperture in the back revealing quadrants for the equation of time, year calendar and reserve of winding. Silver engine turned dial with eccentric polished chapter and seconds rings. Polished silver quadrants for the concentric date indication and, within the seconds ring, for the centrigrade thermometer . Subsidiary silver dials for the day of the week and month with concentric leap year cycle indication. Aperture at 12.00 for the phase of the moon disc. Short gold graduated, double link chain with gold and blued steel double ended key pocket watch which was key wound. Of gilt brass construction with single going barrel. 36 hour duration. Daniels slim co-axial escapement mounted in a polished steel, one minute tourbillon carriage under a polished steel balance cock. Mono metallic stainless steel three arm balance with gold adjusting weights. Differential screw mechanism for the reserve of winding. Instantaneous perpetual calendar mechanism to Daniel's design with retrograde date and indication of leap year cycle. Annual calendar ring with kidney cam and equation of time indication. Minute repeating mechanism striking on two gongs. Bi-metallic thermometer. Gold Daniels hands for the hours, minutes and seconds, blued steel calendar hands. Retained by George Daniels and known as "The Grande Complication". Signed Daniels on the base plate with Daniels London in one cartouche within the seconds chapter ring. Case maker's mark G.D. Diameter 61mm. Red leather, velvet lined and fitted box.[17][2][6]

23. Hallmarked and completed in 1991 an 18k gold case with glazed back and rope twist bezel. Chronograph buttons in the band for stop/start and return to zero. Silver engine turned dial with eccentric chapter ring and two large interlaced seconds rings to the right for continuous seconds and to the left for chronograph seconds with concentric minute recording hand. Quadrant below 12.00 for reserve of winding indication. Gold Daniels hands with an arrow head at the end of the hours hand. Of gilt brass construction with two going barrels engaging a common, offset centre pinion. 60 hour duration with Daniels slim co-axial escapement mounted in a steel four minute four armed edge driven tourbillon carriage under a polished steel bridge. Mono metallic, beryllium copper, two armed balance with gold adjusting weights. Free sprung Invar overcoil balance spring with terminal curve. Differential screw mechanism for reserve of winding indication. Daniels compact chronograph mechanism (set into the plate to avoid increased height) with minute recording. Retained by George Daniels and known as "The Four Minute Tourbillon wrist watch". Not signed on any plates but a Daniels cartouche appears below the hours chapter ring. Case maker's mark G.D. Diameter 42mm. Red leather, velvet lined and fitted box.[17][2][6]

24. Completed in1992, an18k gold case consisting of an outer band with sprung, hinged inner case containing the movement, wrist watch. When released by a push piece in the band, the case springs open to display the calendar dials with a smaller version of the Daniels hour hand and tourbillon on the rear dial of the movement. Front dial engine turned silver with eccentric gold chapter ring and large interlaced gold seconds ring. Small gold chapter ring below 12.00 for the reserve of winding. Rear dial engine turned silver with two gold subsidiary chapter rings for the day and date together with a glazed aperture revealing the tourbillon carriage. Of gilt brass construction with two going barrels engaging a common, offset centre pinion. 48 hour duration. Daniels slim co-axial escapement mounted in a polished steel one minute four armed tourbillon carriage under a polished steel bridge. Mono metallic beryllium copper four arm balance with gold adjusting weights. Free sprung Invar overcoil balance spring with terminal curve. Differential screw winding indication and subsidiary dials for the day of the week and the day of the month. Gold Daniels hands with the hour, day and day hands having an arrow head at the end of the hand. Retained by George Daniels and known as "The Spring Case Tourbillon". This was the last wrist watch ever personally made and completed by George Daniels and the second last watch ever personally made and completed by him prior to his death in 2011. This watch was made for exhibition in Switzerland as an example of a watch with a simple, easy to read time dial and on the reverse very easy to read calendar functions together with the one minute tourbillon visible through a glazed aperture. The Spring Case design drew attention to the visible motion of the escapement. Not signed on any plates but Daniels and London appear in two cartouches on either side of the front dial below the hours chapter ring. Diameter 42mm.[17]

25. A hallmarked and completed in 1994 18k gold open face case with Daniels keyless pendant and bow. Twin chronograph buttons in the band of the case for stop/start and return to zero. Silver engine turned dial with eccentric polished chapter rings and quadrant for the reserve of winding below twelve. Interlaced continuous seconds to the right and chronograph seconds with concentric minute recording to the left. Short gold graduated, double link chain with gold and blued steel double ended key pocket watch which was key wound. Of gilt brass construction with two going barrels with Daniels three position keyless winding and differential screw. 48 hour duration. Daniels co-axial escapement mounted in a polished steel four minute four armed edge driven tourbillon carriage under a polished steel bridge. Mono metallic stainless steel four arm balance with gold adjusting weights. Free sprung overcoil balance spring. Daniels compact chronograph to the right of the tourbillon carriage. Gold Daniels hands with arrow head hours hand. Retained by George Daniels and known as "The Four Minute Tourbillon pocket watch". This was the last watch ever personally made and completed by George Daniels. Not signed on any plate but with Daniels London in one cartouche below the hours and minutes chapter ring. Case maker's mark G.D. Diameter 68mm. Red leather, velvet lined and fitted box.[17][2]

Unfinished gold pocket watch with a one minute tourbillon and a 15 second rementoire with a Daniels co-axial escapement with Daniels keyless winding. Twin barrels and a cone and screw power reserve indicator. To be completed by Roger Smith and known as "The Unfinished Movement"[17][22]

Wristwatches made under George Daniels' name by Roger Smith[edit]

The White and Blue Wristwatches

A 2005 18k white gold rectangular case with curved ends on top and bottom wristwatch. Closed caseback. Engine turned silver dial with blued steel hands and batons. Daniels co-axial escapement. One minute Tourbillon visible through an open aperture at the top of the dial with hour and minutes hands centrally placed on dial with silver polished chapter ring for days of the month. Arrow head at the end of the hours hand. The tourbillon carriage is suspended by a central bridge, with the overall thickness of the case lending depth to the exposed section of the movement. The calendar sub-dial is placed further down, the numerals engraved on silver rings and filled with black ink. Self winding movement finished with gilded plated and blued screws. 18k gold guilloche winding weight contained within a highly decoratively engraved outer plate. Free spring balance with adjustable timing screws. Daniels cartouche inside top and London inside bottom of the calendar chapter ring. Designed by George Daniels. Commissioned and sold to a private buyer (who also commissioned "The White"). Known as "The Blue". White gold buckle. Accompanied by a letter from George Daniels with construction details dated April 2005. Accompanied by a box with original drawings of the watch by Daniels. Case maker's mark G.D. Diameter 37mm x 25mm x 12mm.[19][2]

A 2005 18k white gold rectangular case with curved ends on top and bottom wristwatch. Closed caseback. Engine turned silver dial with blued steel hands and white gold batons. Daniels co-axial escapement. One minute Tourbillon visible through an open aperture at the top of the dial with hour and minutes hands centrally placed on dial with silver polished chapter ring for days of the month. Arrow head at the end of the hours hand. The tourbillon carriage is suspended by a central bridge, with the overall thickness of the case lending depth to the exposed section of the movement. The calendar sub-dial is placed further down, the numerals engraved on silver rings and filled with black ink. Self winding movement finished with gilded plated and blued screws. 18k gold guilloche winding weight contained within a highly decoratively engraved outer plate. Free spring balance with adjustable timing screws. Daniels cartouche inside top and London inside bottom of the calendar chapter ring. Designed by George Daniels. Commissioned and sold to a private buyer (who also commissioned "The Blue"). Known as "The White". White gold buckle. Accompanied by a letter from George Daniels with construction details dated April 2005. Accompanied by a box with original drawings of the watch by Daniels. Case maker's mark G.D. Diameter 37mm x 25mm x 12mm.[19][23][2]

Millenium Series 1998-2001

48 gold wrist watches including prototype

8 white gold wrist watches[7][page needed]

The Millenium series used a basic Omega movement which was modified by Roger Smith.[24] The last white gold watch was signed both Daniels and Smith.

Anniversary Series 2008-2023

35 yellow gold wrist watches [20]

Other George Daniels clocks and chronometer

One chronometer based on a Thomas Mercer chronometer

Two Bregeut three-wheel skeleton clocks

Five Daniels grasshopper escapements fitted to long case regulator clocks[2]

George Daniels the Master Watch and Clock Maker Awards and Acknowledgements[edit]

By the time of his death he is said to have "completed 24 [editor's note this number seems inaccurate and should be 25 watches] of the most extraordinary and technically advanced watches ever made".[25] His mechanical watches were more accurate than quartz watches, with some losing less than a second per month.[10]

Daniels, who was a Liveryman and Master of the Worshipful Company of Clockmaker's of London, was given their Gold Medal, a rare honour.[26] He also received the Gold Medal of the British Horological Institute, the Gold Medal of the City of London and the Kullberg Medal from the Stockholm Watchmakers' Guild.[15]

In 2006, to celebrate his work and his 80th birthday, Sotheby's and Bobinet (the antique watch dealer) held a retrospective exhibition of his work, featuring every watch Daniels had made, except one which is held by the British Museum. He was given an honorary doctorate by City University London in 2007.[17]

In 2010 Daniels, who was already an MBE, was appointed Commander of the Order of the British Empire (CBE) in the 2010 New Year Honours.[27][28]

Other Honors[17]

Doctor of Science (Honary) City University London

Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries, London

Fellow of the City and Guilds Institute (Hons)

Fellow and Past President of the British Horological Institute

Honorary Fellow of the American Watchmaker's Institute

Honorary Life Member of the Swedish Watch Maker's Guild

Awards[17]

Tompion Gold Medal of the Worshipful Company of Clockmakers

BHI Gold Medal

Gold Medal (Craftsmanship) of the City & Guilds Institute

Kullberg Medal for Horological Science

City of London Arts, Sciences and Learning Award

City & Guilds Insignia Award, London

The Gaia Prize (Musee International d'Horlogerie

Personal life[edit]

He married, in 1964, Juliet Marryat, with whom he had a daughter, Sarah Jane Daniels. The marriage was later dissolved. He was the uncle of philosopher Stephen Neale. Daniels died on 21 October 2011.[15]

Daniels's ex-Sir Henry "Tim" Birkin red Bentley Motors monoposto racer, known as "Bentley Blower No.1" or the "Brooklands Battleship", shown at the 2009 Pebble Beach Concours d'Elegance

Daniels was an avid collector of classic cars and motorcycles. His collection included:[29][30]

  • 1924 3 litre Bentley Landaulette
  • 1962 Triumph TR3A
  • 1908 Single Cylinder De Dion engined Jackson
  • 1932 MG J2
  • 1908 Itala 12 litre four cyclinder 100 hp Grand Prix Car: won the 1908 French Grand Prix and 1910 Brooklands All-comers Plate (fastest lap at 101.8 mph). Chassis no 871 Engine no 871
  • 1954 Bentley R-Type Continental Fastback by H.J. Mulliner: ex-Frank Taylor of Taylor Woodrow Construction Chassis no BC 28C Engine no BCC 27
  • 1929 3/4½-litre Bentley Four Seat Tourer by Vanden Plas: ex-Maharaja of Bhavnagar. Chassis no NX 3452 Engine no 3454
  • 1907 Daimler Type 45 10.6litre Registration AC 1904 45 hp Roi-de-Belges Four seat tourer Tourer: built for the Earl of Craven
  • 1929–32 Bentley 4½-Litre Supercharged Single-Seater: known as Bentley Blower No.1, developed and driven by Birkin, it set the Brooklands Outer Circuit Lap Record at more than 137 mph in 1931. Chassis no HB 3402 Engine no SM 3901
  • 1932 Alfa Romeo 8C-2300 Spyder Lungo: Formerly Birkin Le Mans Works car and owned by Italo Balbo. Chassis no 2211065 Engine no 2211065
  • 1974 V12 Jaguar E type Series III Roadster. Chassis no IS 2345 Engine no 7S 13121 SA
  • 1934 Phantom II Rolls Royce
  • 1989 Bentley Turbo R
  • MV Augusta 750cc motorcycle
  • 1952 Sunbeam 487cc S7 Frame no S7 6221 Engine no S8 7058
  • 1949 Norton Clubmans TT

Legacy[edit]

Watchmaking, written by Daniels and first published in 1981, remains one of the most definitive books on horology.[31] It was the first of another six books, some of which have been translated and published in French, Italian and German, that remain in print. Watchmaking, now in its third edition, was revised and reprinted in 1999.[31]

Auction Results[edit]

On 6 November 2012 part of Daniels' collection, including some pieces he made, was sold by Sotheby's in a 134-lot sale. The auction raised over £8 million for the George Daniels Educational Trust, which helps students seeking higher education in the fields of horology, engineering, medicine, building or construction.[25] The most expensive item was his 1982 "Space Traveller's Watch 2" which was sold for £1,329,250[32] and then for £3,196,250 when it was resold in 2017.[33] At the same auction the 1994 Four Minute Tourbillon chronograph pocket watch sold for £550,000; the 1970 Sarah Jane Daniels One Minute Tourbillon pocket watch sold for £290,000 and the 1991 Four Minute Tourbillon wristwatch sold for £385,250.[34]

George Daniels 1982 Space Traveller 1 was sold in July 2019 at a Sotheby's London auction for £3,620,000 [35] having sold for CHF220,000 in 1988 also at a Sotheby's auction.[36]

In May 2019 at a Geneva Phillips auction the 1987 George Daniels Grande Complication pocket watch sold for CHF2,420,000.[37] This watch previously sold in 2012 for £780,000.[34]

In December 2021 at the Phillips New York auction the 1971 Hornby One Minute Tourbillon pocket watch (the fourth of 8 pocket watches originally made by George Daniels) sold for USD$1.66m.[21] This watch previously sold for £464,750 at Sotheby's 6 July 2017 London auction.[38] Numerous commentators have remarked on the beauty and simplicity of the first 8 George Daniels pocket watches and one commentator, Michael Clerizo, who himself has written a book on George Daniels' watches,[6] nominated the Hornby pocket watch the number 1 watch in his all time Top 10 watches.[39]

In November 2022 the 1992 Spring Case Tourbillion watch (the last of the two wrist watches made by George Daniels and the second last watch ever made and completed by George (the last being the 1994 four minute tourbillion pocket watch) sold for CHF4,083,500.[40] This watch was worn by George Daniels for over 10 years and was his daily wearer.[21] It is arguably one of the most important watches ever made by George Daniels being the last wrist watch he ever made and completed and by also having the unique "jumping" Spring Case design and the reverse dial with day date functions; a one minute tourbillon and the co-axial escapement developed by Daniels.[21] Numerous commentators have remarked on the absolute uniqueness of this watch.[41][42] The sale of this watch was reported globally with much interest since at the time of sale it was the highest price achieved at auction for a George Daniels watch and a UK made watch.[43][44]

Other notable sales include a 2001 Millenium white gold wrist watch signed George Daniels and Roger Smith for USD$2.4 million in the fall of 2023. This watch was the last one produced as part of the Millenium series.[45]

Published works[edit]

  • Watches, Cecil Clutton and George Daniels, B. T. Batsford, Ltd., London, 1965
  • English and American Watches, George Daniels, 1966
  • The Art of Breguet, George Daniels, Sotheby Parke Bernet, London, 1974 ISBN 0-85667-004-9
  • Clocks & Watches in the Collection of the Worshipful Company of Clockmakers, Cecil Clutton and George Daniels, Sotheby Parke Bernet, London, 1975 ISBN 0-85667-019-7
  • Watches & Clocks in the David Solomons Collection, George Daniels and Ohannes Markarian, Sotheby Parke Bernet Publications London and New York 1980 ISBN 085667074X
  • Watchmaking, George Daniels, Sotheby's, London, 1981 ISBN 0-85667-150-9 (2011 edition ISBN 0-85667-704-3)
  • Registrar of Freeman of Clockmaker's, 1984
  • The Practical Watch Escapement, George Daniels, Isle of Man, Philip Wilson Publishers Ltd, 2010. ISBN 978-0-85667-687-1
  • All in Good Time: Reflections of a Watchmaker, George Daniels, Isle of Man (UK), 2000

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Cecil "Sam" Clutton (1909–1991) was senior partner in his family's firm of Chartered Surveyors, a Master of the Worshipful Company of Clockmakers, a founder member of the Vintage Sports-Car Club and a published cartoonist.[8] Daniels met Clutton in the early 1960s through their shared interest in vintage sports cars. They found they also had a shared an interest in horology and shortly after their first meeting Clutton invited Daniels to inspect his collection of antique watches.[9]
  1. ^ a b Youde, Kate (5 September 2010). "Father time: Why George Daniels is the world's best horologist". The Independent. Retrieved 26 March 2015.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af Daniels, George (26 October 2000). "All in Good Time Reflections of a Watchmaker" (3rd ed.). London: Philip Wilson Publishers (published 2013). pp. 221–222. ISBN 978-0-85667-680-2.
  3. ^ List of most expensive watches sold at auction - Wikipedia
  4. ^ a b Daniels, George (2012). "Dr George Daniels CBE". Daniels London. Retrieved 22 November 2012.
  5. ^ a b Debrebant, Serge (September 2011). "The Final Interview with George Daniels". Swiss Watches Magazine.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x George Daniels: A Master Watchmaker and His Art by Michael Clerizo 2013 Thames & Hudson Ltd, London ISBN 978 0 500 51636 2
  7. ^ a b Daniels 2000.
  8. ^ Grannell, Adam (21 December 2007). "Motoring Artist Information -Cecil (Sam) Clutton". Motor Racing Art. Retrieved 9 September 2015.
  9. ^ Daniels 2000, p. 60.
  10. ^ a b "George Daniels". The Economist. 26 November 2011. Retrieved 30 August 2012.
  11. ^ "George Daniels". Obit of the Day. Retrieved 27 March 2014.
  12. ^ Baker, Logan (18 August 2022). "Three Insane Yellow-Gold George Daniels Wristwatches Are Coming Up At Phillips Geneva This November – And HODINKEE Is The First To Bring You The News". Hodinkee. Retrieved 18 August 2022.
  13. ^ Ramsay, Rachel (8 March 2012). "Sale of a Master's Collection". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 17 February 2019.
  14. ^ Manousos, Nicholas (21 June 2018). "Historical Perspectives: Rarely Seen Documentary Video Featuring George Daniels And Seth Atwood". Hodinkee. Retrieved 18 February 2019.
  15. ^ a b c "George Daniels". Telegraph. London. 24 October 2011. Retrieved 30 October 2011.
  16. ^ Andrew Crisford (January 2015). "Daniels, George (1926–2011)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/104233. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae Sothebys (18 July 2006). George Daniels Retrospective Exhibition Catalogue 18-23 July 2006, Sothebys, London (First ed.). London: Sothebys (published 2006). pp. 22–83.
  18. ^ Pulvirent, Stephen (19 December 2019). "A Unique Tourbillon Wristwatch Made By George Daniels". Hodinkee. Retrieved 19 December 2019.
  19. ^ a b c Walton, Silas (19 December 2019). "George Daniels The Blue, Tourbillon, White Gold". A Collected Man. Retrieved 19 December 2019.
  20. ^ a b Smith, Roger (2010). ""Roger W Smith"". Roger W Smith.
  21. ^ a b c d Baker, Logan (18 August 2022). "Will the Spring Case Tourbillon Become the most expensive George Daniels watch of all time?". Hodinkee.
  22. ^ a b Jx, Su (24 February 2020). "In-Depth: The Unfinished George Daniels Watch". SJX. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
  23. ^ Pulvirent, Stephen (19 December 2019). "A Unique Tourbillon Wristwatch Made By George Daniels". Hodinkee. Retrieved 19 December 2019.
  24. ^ Thomson, Curtis D. (14 October 2002) Roger W. Smith: Isle of Man - The Millennium Watch Archived 23 July 2012 at the Wayback Machine. www.tp178.com. Retrieved 26 March 2015
  25. ^ a b Edwards, Mark (2 November 2012). "Dr George Daniels: 'Watchmaking god's' collection auctioned". BBC. Retrieved 2 November 2012.
  26. ^ Master watchmaker Dr. George Daniels, 1926 – 2011 Archived 26 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine Omegawatches.com. 24 October 2011, Retrieved 26 March 2015
  27. ^ "No. 59282". The London Gazette (Supplement). 31 December 2009. p. 7.
  28. ^ Isle of Man watchmaker Dr George Daniels is awarded CBE BBC. 3 February 2010. Retrieve 26 March 2015
  29. ^ "Watchmaker George Daniels's world-class classic car collection". PaulFraserCollectibles.com. Archived from the original on 14 January 2012. Retrieved 29 February 2012.
  30. ^ Bonhams (29 June 2012). "Collector's Motor Cars and Automobilia at Goddwood". Bonhams Cars. Retrieved 29 June 2012.
  31. ^ a b "Books published by George Daniels". www.danielslondon.com. Retrieved 27 March 2014.
  32. ^ "Standing Room Only at Sotheby's London As the George Daniels Horological Collection Totals £8,285,139" (PDF). Sotheby's. 6 November 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 September 2013. Retrieved 7 November 2012.
  33. ^ "Dr George Daniels' Space Travellers' watch sells for £3.2m". BBC News. 27 September 2017. Retrieved 27 September 2017.
  34. ^ a b Pulvirent, Stephen (6 November 2012). "Inside The George Daniels Horological Collection At Sotheby's London (Live Pics and Hammer Prices)". Hodinkee. Retrieved 6 November 2012.
  35. ^ Sothebys (July 2019). "George Daniels Lot 143". Sothebys.
  36. ^ Su, JX (6 July 2019). "A detailed look the George Daniels Space Traveller 1". SJX. Retrieved 7 July 2019.
  37. ^ Doerr, Elizabeth (12 May 2019). "Two George Daniels timepieces sell for $3 million at Phillips May 2019 Auction". Forbes. Retrieved 12 May 2019.
  38. ^ Sothebys (6 July 2017). "The Celebration of the English Watch Part IV, George Daniels 20th Century Innovator Lot 78". Sothebys. Retrieved 6 July 2017.
  39. ^ Clerizo, Michael (13 September 2023). "My top 10 watches of all time by author and journalist Michael Clerizo". Watchpro. Retrieved 13 September 2023.
  40. ^ Barrons (7 November 2022). "A George Daniels Yellow Gold Watch Sells for $4.1 million at Debut auction". Barrons. Retrieved 2 January 2024.
  41. ^ Eio, Philologus (19 November 2022). "George Daniels Spring Case Tourbillon". Scottish Watches. Retrieved 19 November 2022.
  42. ^ Su, Jx (18 June 2018). "Hands-On with the Epic George Daniels "Spring Case" Tourbillon Wristwatch". SJX. Retrieved 18 June 2018.
  43. ^ Chauhan, Alind (7 November 2022). "GEORGE DANIELS WRISTWATCH AUCTIONED FOR AN ASTOUNDING $4 MILLION". Watch Time India. Retrieved 7 November 2022.
  44. ^ Corder, Rob (7 November 2022). "George Daniels Tourbillon sells for over $4 million". Watchpro USA. Retrieved 7 November 2022.
  45. ^ Hoffman, Andy (6 November 2023). "Rare Smith and Daniels UK Watch Fetches Record $2.4 Million". Bloomberg. Retrieved 6 November 2023.

External links[edit]