George Dixon (MP)
George Dixon (1820 – 24 January 1898) was an English Liberal politician who was active in local government in Birmingham and sat in the House of Commons in two periods between 1867 and 1898. He was a major proponent of education for all children.
Born in 1820 in Gomersal, Yorkshire, he was educated at Leeds Grammar School and learned French in France. He moved to Birmingham in 1838 with his brother and joined Rabone Brothers, a firm of merchants. He became a partner in 1844 and rose to become head of the firm in which he remained all his life. In 1855 he married the sister of politician James Stansfeld, daughter of James Stansfeld, a judge in Halifax. Their son was the architect Arthur Stansfield Dixon.
He was elected to the School Board in 1870, and chairman in 1876, after retiring from parliament when his wife became ill. He resigned from the board in 1896. In 1885 he became MP for Edgbaston and continued in Parliament until his death in 1898.
Education for all
One of his first achievements as Mayor in early 1867 was a private conference he held in his house for the leading men of the town to discuss a possible remedy for the lack of education for children. In March a public meeting was held in the Town Hall where the Birmingham Education Society was formed along the lines of one created in Manchester and Salford in 1864. The society raised money to pay the school fees of some children, and raised awareness of the need.
The Education Societies paved the way for the bolder and more political National Education League which started in Birmingham in 1869, chaired by Dixon, with support from Joseph Chamberlain (vice-chairman, later chairman of the executive committee), R. W. Dale, Jesse Collings (honorary secretary of the League, and of the Education Aid Society), and William Harris. The League resolved that a bill should be prepared for the next session of Parliament to give non-sectarian education to all children. After some political promises and compromise the Elementary Education Act 1870 (Forster's Act) was passed, meeting some of the requirements of the League, and the first School boards were elected. The League continued to campaign for a further seven years and elementary education (to age 12) eventually became free and compulsory in England and Wales. In 1867 Dixon introduced a bill to establish school boards in areas where there were already sufficient schools. This bill was rejected.
One of Dixon's experiments was the creation in 1884 of Bridge Street Technical School in the old Cadbury's premises, bought by him, converted to a school at his own expense, and leased to the board at a nominal rent. It taught science and mechanics to 400 of the brighter boys for two years beyond normal school leaving age. This was a great success and was repeated in large towns across the country, and led to the Technical Instruction Act, which formalised the finance of this type of school. In 1888 the technical school moved to occupy the Oozells Street Board School as the George Dixon Higher Grade School and included girls. Waverley Road Higher Grade School was created in Small Heath in 1892 for 555 children.
Dixon was made an honorary freeman of Birmingham in 1898, the year he died.
The 1906 George Dixon Schools (now George Dixon Primary School and George Dixon Academy) in Edgbaston are named after him. Indirectly, through the school, he gave his name to the television character PC George Dixon, who first appeared in a film, The Blue Lamp, produced by a former pupil there, Sir Michael Balcon, and subsequently in the TV series Dixon of Dock Green.
- Nine Famous Birmingham Men, edited J. H. Muirhead, Cornish Brothers Ltd., Birmingham, 1909, Article by George H. Kenrick.
- George Dixon Academy
- British History Online, from: '"Public Education: Introduction", A History of the County of Warwick: Volume 7: The City of Birmingham (1964), pp. 486-500.
- "Out of Birmingham: George Dixon (1820-98), 'Father of Free Education'", by James Dixon, with Introduction by Asa Briggs. Published by Brewin Books (Studley, 2013).
- Turner, Joe (2014-02-04). "Arts & Crafts Architecture in Birmingham II: AS Dixon & the Birmingham Guild of Handicraft « Birmingham Conservation Trust". Birmingham Conservation Trust. Retrieved 12 February 2014.
- Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by George Dixon
|Parliament of the United Kingdom|
John Bright and
|Member of Parliament for Birmingham
With: John Bright
Philip Henry Muntz, from 1868
Philip Henry Muntz
|New constituency||Member of Parliament for Birmingham Edgbaston