George Elliott Clarke

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George Elliott Clarke
George Elliot Clarke reciting poetry.
George Elliot Clarke reciting poetry.
Born (1960-02-12) February 12, 1960 (age 58)
Windsor, Nova Scotia, Canada
OccupationWriter, poet, academic

George Elliott Clarke, OC ONS (born February 12, 1960) is a Canadian poet and playwright and served as the Canadian Parliamentary Poet Laureate.[1] His work largely explores and chronicles the experience and history of the Black Canadian communities of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, creating a cultural geography that Clarke refers to as "Africadia".


Born to William and Geraldine Clarke in Windsor, Nova Scotia,[2] Clarke has spent much of his career writing about the black communities of Nova Scotia. Clarke worked as a parliamentary assistant to Howard McCurdy, MP in Ottawa.[3] He also taught for a time in the African-American Studies department at Duke University.[2]

Clarke earned a BA honours degree in English from the University of Waterloo (1984), an MA degree in English from Dalhousie University (1989) and a PhD degree in English from Queen's University (1993). He has received honorary degrees from Dalhousie University (LL.D.), the University of New Brunswick (Litt.D.), the University of Alberta (Litt.D.), the University of Waterloo (Litt.D.), and most recently, Saint Mary's University (Litt.D).

Clarke is a sought-after conference speaker and is active in poetry circles. He is currently promoting his latest book, I & I (January 2009). It delves into layers of spiritual meanings involving a couple traveling from Halifax to Texas and encountering tragedies of racism and sexism.[4]

Clarke is currently an English professor at the University of Toronto and E.J. Pratt Professor of Canadian Literature.

Writing career[edit]

Clarke was recognized for collecting and promoting stories of African writers and poets. Clarke lives in Toronto and began teaching Canadian and African diasporic literature in 1999 at University of Toronto, where he is currently completing a second volume of essays on African-Canadian literature.

Clarke views "Africadian" literature as "literal and liberal—I canonize songs and sonnets, histories and homilies."[5] Clarke has stated that he found further writing inspiration in the 1970s and his "individualist poetic scored with implicit social commentary" came from the "Gang of Seven" intellectuals, "poet-politicos: jazz trumpeter Miles Davis, troubadour-bard Bob Dylan, libertine lyricist Irving Layton, guerrilla leader and poet Mao Zedong, reactionary modernist Ezra Pound, Black Power orator Malcolm X and the Right Honourable Pierre Elliott Trudeau."[6] Clarke found "as a whole, the group’s blunt talk, suave styles, acerbic independence, raunchy macho, feisty lyricism, singing heroic and a scarf-and-beret chivalry quite, well, liberating."[6]

Clarke’s literary emphasis is on the perspectives of the African descendants in Canada and Nova Scotia, focusing on the African-American slaves’ descendants who settled on the East coast of Nova Scotia, whom he calls "Africadian." He writes that it is a word that he "minted from 'Africa' and 'Acadia' (the old name for Nova Scotia and New Brunswick), to denote the Black populations of the Maritimes and especially of Nova Scotia".[5]

Clarke maintains that Africadians originated in 1783 and 1815, when Black Loyalists and refugees arrived in Nova Scotia.[3]

Clarke continues to address and challenge the historic encounters with racism, segregated areas, discrimination, hatred, forced relocation and a loss of a sense of identity and a sense of belonging experienced by the Black descendants though they had settled in Canada for hundreds of years. Black immigrations to and within Canada have been compared to a biblical journey beginning with Lamentations and ending with Exodus.[7]

Similarly, Clarke explores specific beliefs, longings and experience of oppression and resistance, the desire for safety, freedom, equality and other basic human rights, shared among the immigrants, historically and contemporaneously. In his anthology Fire On The Water, Clarke uses the biblical timeline, Genesis, Psalms and Proverbs and Revelation to present Black writings and authors born within a specific period. These names reflect the Africadians’ and other Black peoples’ forebears and the first singers' own preferences for singing "the Lord’s song in this strange land."[5]

Clarke is known for his lyrical style, and his other intellectual contributions involve both his ability to combine literary criticism and theatrical forte and his continuance of the themes of cultural inclusiveness and Canadian iconic symbolism. In his 2007 play Trudeau: Long March, Shining Path, Clarke features his Liberal hero Trudeau (1919–2000) describing him as "the Shakespearean character: ...He’s a figure about whom it is almost impossible to say anything definitive because he is encompassed by so many contradictions but that’s what makes him interesting." In presenting a multicultural Trudeau on the international stage, Clarke seeks to capture the human dimensions, the personality of Trudeau rather than his politics so as to emphasize the dialogues among key characters to "show the people as people not just exponents of ideas".[8] In 2012 Clarke was given substantial critical recognition in a volume devoted to the body of his writing, Africadian Atlantic: Essays on George Elliott Clarke, edited by Joseph Pivato.


Clarke is a great-nephew of the late Canadian opera singer Portia White, politician Bill White and labour union leader Jack White. Clarke is a seventh-generation African Canadian and is descended from African-American refugees from the War of 1812 who escaped to the British and were relocated to Nova Scotia. Clarke is the great grandson of William Andrew White, an American-born Baptist preacher and missionary, army chaplain, and radio pioneer, who was one of the very few black officers in the British army worldwide during World War I.

Awards and merits[edit]

Clarke has received several awards. The most recent (2009) was as co-recipient of the William P. Hubbard Award for Race Relations from the City of Toronto for his outstanding achievements and commitment in making a distinct difference in racial relations in Toronto. Clarke was cited for "his local and national leadership role in creating an understanding and awareness of African and black culture and excellence in his contribution to redefining culture." He was a featured writer/instructor at the 2007 Maritime Writers' Workshop & Literary Festival in Fredericton, New Brunswick, and has been a featured poet in the University of Toronto's Hart House Review.

On January 16, 2008 Clarke was made an honorary Fellow of the Haliburton Literary Society, the oldest literary society in North America, at the University of King's College, Halifax. He was also inducted as an Officer of the Order of Canada in 2008.

In 2001 Clarke won the Governor General's Award for poetry for his book Execution Poems.

Clarke's Whylah Falls was selected for the 2002 edition of Canada Reads, where it was championed by Nalo Hopkinson.

In November 2012, Clarke became Toronto's fourth Poet Laureate.[9][10]

In January 2016, Clarke became Canada's seventh Parliamentary Poet Laureate.[11]


  • "To Paris, Burning," In Constance Rooke (ed.), Writing Away: the PEN Canada Travel Anthology, McClelland & Stewart Inc., 1994.
  • Kamboureli, Smaro (1996), Making a Difference: Canadian Multicultural Literature. Toronto: Oxford University Press, pp. 491
  • Tracey, Lindalee (1999), A Scattering of Seeds: The Creation of Canada. Toronto: McArthur & Company
  • Africadian Atlantic: Essays on George Elliott Clarke. ed. Joseph Pivato. Toronto: Guernica Editions, 2012. ISBN 978-1-55071-627-6




Anthologies edited[edit]

  • 1991: Fire on the Water: An Anthology of Black Nova Scotian Writing, Volume One. Lawrencetown Beach, Nova Scotia: Pottersfield, ISBN 0-919001-67-X
  • 1992: Fire on the Water: An Anthology of Black Nova Scotian Writing, Volume Two. Lawrencetown Beach, Nova Scotia: Pottersfield, ISBN 0-919001-71-8
  • 1997: Eyeing the North Star: Directions in African-Canadian Literature. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 1997 ISBN 0-7710-2125-9


  • 2002: Odysseys Home: Mapping African-Canadian Literature. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, ISBN 0-8020-8191-6
  • 2011: Directions Home: Approaches to African-Canadian Literature. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, ISBN 978-0-8020-9425-4


See also[edit]


  1. ^ "George Elliott Clarke, Nova Scotia Writer, Named Parliamentary Poet Laureate". The Canadian Press via The Huffington Post, January 5, 2016.
  2. ^ a b Compton, Anne (1998). "Standing Your Ground: George Elliott Clarke in Conversation". Studies in Canadian Literature. 23 (2). Retrieved 6 June 2013.
  3. ^ a b Kamboureli, Smaro (1996). Making a Difference: Canadian Multicultural Literature. Toronto, Oxford University Press
  4. ^ (; "Archived copy". Archived from the original on September 29, 2011. Retrieved 27 March 2009..
  5. ^ a b c Clarke, George Elliott, Fire on the Water: Anthology of Black Nova Scotian Writing, Volume One (1991), Porters Lake, Nova Scotia: Pottersfield Press.
  6. ^ a b "Gaspereau Press - Home Page". Retrieved November 5, 2018.
  7. ^ Tracey, Lindalee (1999). A Scattering of Seeds: The Creation of Canada. Toronto: McArthur & Company
  8. ^ (
  9. ^ "Council appoints George Elliott Clarke Toronto's new Poet Laureate". City of Toronto. November 28, 2012. Retrieved September 4, 2013.
  10. ^ "The bizzaro history of the poet laureate" Archived November 5, 2016, at the Wayback Machine.. Toronto Star, July 7, 2016. Bruce Demara.
  11. ^ "The Parliament Poet Laureate". Parliament of Canada. January 5, 2016. Retrieved January 5, 2016.
  12. ^ "Governor General Announces New Appointments to the Order of Canada". Archived from the original on September 8, 2009.

Further reading[edit]

  • Nora Tunkel: Tracing the Lyrics of the Unvoiced: G. E. Clarke, in Tunkel, Transcultural imaginaries. History and globalization in contemporary Canadian literature. Winter, Heidelberg 2012, S. 169 – 178. = Doct. thesis, Universität Wien 2009

External links[edit]