George Francis Atkinson

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This article is about the American mycologist and naturalist.. For others, see George Atkinson.
George Francis Atkinson
George F. Atkinson and camera.jpg
Atkinson photographing mushrooms at Cornell University
Born (1854-01-26)January 26, 1854
Raisinville, Michigan, United States
Died November 14, 1918(1918-11-14) (aged 64)
Tacoma, Washington, U.S.A.
Occupation Mycologist, botanist, entomologist, ornithologist, naturalist, photographer, writer
Spouse(s) Elizabeth ("Lizzie") S. Kerr
Children Francis Kerr Atkinson and Clara Packard Atkinson
Parent(s) Joseph Atkinson and Josephine Fish

George Francis Atkinson (26 January 1854 – 14 November 1918) was an American botanist and mycologist.[1]:6–8

He was born January 26, 1854 in Raisinville, Michigan and died on 14 November 1918. He was the son of Joseph and Josephine Atkinson (née Fish). He studied at Olivet College from 1878 to 1883 and obtained his Bachelor's degree from Cornell University in 1885. He is best known for his contributions to the fields of mycology and botany.


He was assistant professor of entomology and zoology from 1885 to 1886, and associate professor in 1886 to 1888 at the University of North Carolina. He was a professor of botany and zoology at the University of South Carolina from 1888 to 1889 and a botanist at the Experiment Station of the University. From 1889 to 1892 he taught biology at the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Alabama; from 1892 to 1893 he was assistant professor of cryptogamic botany at Cornell University, then associate professor (1893–1896), and from 1896, Chairman of the Botany Department. He was President of the Botanical Society of America in 1907, and was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in the Spring of 1918.[2][3] His herbarium of fungus specimens are stored at the Cornell Plant Pathology Herbarium (CUP).

Atkinson died from influenza and pneumonia on November 14, 1918.

Eponymous taxa[edit]



  • The Cigarette Beetle (Lasioderma serricorne Fab.). J. Elisha Mitchell Soc., 3:68-73.
  • Notes on the orchard Scolytus (Scolytus rugulosus Ratz.). J. Elisha Mitchell Soc., 3:74, 75.


  • A New Trap-Door Spider. Am. Nat., 22:583-594, pls. 23, 24, 1886; reprinted in J. Elisha Mitchell Soc., 4:16-26, pls. 23, 24.
  • A Family of Young Trap-Door Spiders. Entom. Am. 2:86-92, pl.4, 1886; reprinted in J. Elisha Mitchell Soc., 4:26-33, pl. 4.
  • Descriptions of Some New Trap-Door Spiders, Their Nests and Food Habits. Entom. Amer. 2:109-137, pl. 5, 1886; reprinted in J. Elisha Mitchell Soc., 4:33-52, with one plate.
  • A Sketch and Biography of Nicholas Marcellus Hentz. J. Elisha Mitchell Soc., 4:13-15.
  • Singular Adaptation in Nest-making by an Ant, Crematogaster lineolata Say. Am. Nat., 23:770, 771, pl. 26; reprinted in J. elisha Mitchell Soc., 4:88, 89, with one plate.
  • Observations on the Female Form of Phengodes laticollis Horn. Am. Nat. 23:853-856, 1 text fig.; reprinted in J. Elisha Mitchell Soc., 4:92-95, with one plate.
  • A Remarkable Case of Phosphorescence in an Earthworm. Am. Nat., 23:773-774; reprinted in J. Elisha Mitchell Soc., 4:89-91, with an additional note on the phosphorescence of earthworms.
  • Preliminary Catalogue of the Birds of North Carolina, with notes on some of the species. J. Elisha Mitchell Soc., 4:44-87.


  • New Instances of Protective Resemblance in Spiders. J. Elisha Mitchell Soc., 5:28-30.
  • Note on the Tube-inhabiting Spider, Lycosa fatifera Hentz. J. Elisha Mitchell Soc., 5:30, 31.
  • Soaring of the Turkey Vulture (Cathartes aura). J. Elisha Mitchell Soc., 5:59-66.


  • Preliminary Note on the Synonymy of Entothrix grande Wolle. Bot. Gaz., 14:292.
  • Club Root of Cabbage. Ala. Agr. Exp. sta. Bull., 9 (Sci. Contr. 1).
  • Club Root of Cabbage. S. C. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull., 4:42.


  • A Preliminary Report upon the Life History and Metamorphoses of a Root-Gall Nematode, heterodera radicicola (Greeff) Muell., and the Injuries Caused by It upon the Roots of Various Plants. Ala. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull., 9 (Sci. Contr. 1: 177-226, pls. 1-6); reprinted in J. Elisha Mitchell Soc., 6:81-130, pls. 1-6.
  • Monograph of the Lemaneaceae of the U. S. Ann. bot., 4:177-229, pls. 7-9.
  • Club Root of Cabbage. Am. Gard., 11:237.
  • A New Root-Rot Disease of Cotton. Ala. Agr. Exp. Sta. bull., n. ser., 21:3-11.
  • Dry Application of Paris Green and London Purple for the Cotton Worm. Ala. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull., 17:121-133.
  • A New Ramularia on Cotton. Bot. Gaz., 15:166-168, figs. 1-4.


  • Fig Rust. Agr. J. Montgomery, Ala., pp. 1–3.
  • Some Erysipheae from Carolina and Alabama. J. Elisha Mitchell Soc., 7:61-74, 1 plate and 2 wood cuts.
  • Fig Rust. Agr. J. Extras, pp. 1–3.
  • Black Rust of Cotton, a Preliminary Note. Bot. Gaz., 16:61-65.
  • Anthracnose of Cotton. J. Mycol., 6:173-178, pls. 17, 18.
  • Black Rust of Cotton. Ala. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull., 27:3-16, pls. 1, 2.
  • Sphaerella gossypina, n. sp., the Perfect Stage of Cercospora gossypina Cooke. bull. Torrey Bot. Club, 18:300, 301, pl. 122.
  • On the Structure and Dimorphism of Hypocrea tuberiformis. Bot. Gaz., 16:281-284, pl. 25.
  • A New Ravenelia from Alabama. Bot Gaz., 16:313, 314.


  • Botany at Experiment Stations. Science, n.s., 20: 328-330.
  • Some Cercosporae from Alabama. J. Elisha Mitchell Soc., 8:33-67.
  • The Genus Frankia in the United States. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, 19:171-177, pl. 128.
  • Some Diseases of Cotton. Ala. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull., 41:1-65, figs. 1-25.
  • Cryptogamic Botany and Plant Pathology. N.Y. Agr. Exp. Sta. (Cornell) Bull., 49:306-316, pl. 1 and 5 text figures.
  • A New Anthracnose of the Privet. N.Y. Agr. Exp. Sta. (Cornell) Bull., 49:306-314.
  • Note on the Cercospora of Celery Blight. N.Y. Agr. Exp. Sta. (Cornell) Bull., 49:314-316.
  • Some Leaf blights of Cotton: Yellow Leaf Blight. Red Leaf Blight. Ala. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull., 36:1-32.
  • On the Structure and Dimorphism of Hypocrea tuberiformis. Proc. Am. Assoc. Adv. Sci., 40:320.
  • An Automatic Device for Rolling culture Tubes of Nutrient Agar-Agar. Bot. Gaz., 17:154-156, pl. 11.


  • Method of Obtaining Pure Cultures of Pammel's Fungus of Texas Root Rot of cotton. Bot. Gaz., 18:17-20.
  • Carnation Diseases. Am. Florist, 8:720-728, figs. 1-33.
  • On the Fungus of Celery Blight. Am. Mo. Micr. J., 14:115, with figure.
  • A Study of New Fungus. Am. Mo. Micr. J., 14:121-126, 1 pl., 4 wood cuts.
  • Contribution to the Biology of the Organism Causing Leguminous Tubercles. Bot. Gaz., 18:157-166, 226-237, 257-266, pls. 12-15.
  • A New Disease of the Apple. Agr. Sci., 7:348-350, and Proc. Soc. Prom. Agr. Sci., 14th meeting.
  • Dropsical Diseases of Plants. Science, n. s., 22:323-324.
  • Oedema of Apple Trees. N.Y. Agr. Exp. Sta. (Cornell) Bull., 61:292-302.
  • Oedema of the Tomato. N.Y. Agr. Exp. Sta. (Cornell) Bull., 53:77-108, pls. 1-8.
  • Unequal Segmentation and Its Significance in the Primary Division of the Embryo of Ferns. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, 20:405-408.
  • Symbiosis in the Roots of the Ophioglossaceae. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, 20:356.
  • Cryptogamic Botany and Plant Pathology. N. Y. Agr. Exp. Sta. (Cornell) Bull., 61:299-306, figs. 1-4.
  • The Extent of the Annulus and the Function of the Different Parts of the Sporangium of Ferns in the Dispersion of Spores. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, 20:435-437.
  • Some Fungi of Blowing Roc, N. C. With H. von Schrenck. J. Elisha Mitchell Soc., 9:95-107.
  • Additional Note on Fungi of Blowing Rock, N. C. J. Elisha Mitchell Soc., 10:78.


  • Frost Freaks of Herbaceous Plants. Bot. Gaz., 19:40-42.
  • Germination of Cerebella Paspali. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, 21:127.
  • The Biology of Ferns. pp. 1–134. New York.
  • A Study of New Fungus. Am. Mo. Micr. J., 14:121-126.
  • Germination of the Spores of Cerebella Paspali. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, 21:127, 128, pl. 183.
  • Artificial Cultures of an Entomogenous Fungus. Bot. Gaz., 19:129-135, pls. 14-16.
  • Steps Toward a Revision of the Linosporus Species of North American Graminicolous Hypocreaceae. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, 21:222-225.
  • Olpitrichum, a New Genus of Mucedinous Fungi. Bot. Gaz., 19:244, 245, pl. 23.
  • Leaf Curl and Plum Pockets: Contribution to the Knowledge of the Prunicolous Exoasceae of the United States. N. Y. Agr. Exp. Sta. (Cornell) Bull., 73:319-351, pls. 1-20.
  • Preliminary Note on the Swarm Spores of Pythium and Ceratiomyxa. Bot. Gaz., 19:375-378.
  • Completoria complens Lohde. Bot. Gaz., 19:467, 468.
  • Notes on Some Exoasceae of the United States. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, 21:372-380.
  • The Exoascaceae of Stone Fruits. Gard. & For., 7:463, 464.
  • Microsphaera densissima (Schwein) Peck. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, 21:528, 529.
  • Intelligence Manifested by the Swarm-Spores of rhizophidium globosum (A. Br.) Schroeter. Bot. Gaz., 19:503, 504.
  • Additions to the Erysipheae of Alabama. J. Elisha Mitchell Soc., 10:74-76.
  • Some Septoriae from Alabama. J. Elisha Mitchell Soc., 10:76-78.


  • Damping Off. N. Y. Agr. Exp. Sta. (Cornell) Bull., 94:233-272, pls. 1-6, and one text figure.
  • Some Observations on the Development of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum in Artificial Cultures. Bot. Gaz., 20:305-311, pl. 22.
  • The Transformation of Sporophyllary to Vegetative Organs. Woods hole Biol. Lec.
  • On the Swarm-Spores of Pythium and Ceratiomyxa. Proc. Am. Assoc. Adv. Sci., 290, 291.
  • The Organisms Which Collect Nitrogen for Leguminous Plants. S. Agr. Dec. 15, p. 12.


  • Some Tendencies and Problems in the Evolution of Species among Parasitic Fungi. Trans. Mass. Hort. Soc., 94-118.
  • Albert N. Prentiss. Bot. Gaz., 21:283-289, pl. 19.
  • Albert N. Prentiss. Cornell Mag., 9:19-28.
  • The Probable Influence of Disturbed Nutrition on the Evolution of the Vegetative Phase of the Sporophyte. Am. Nat., 30:349-357.


  • The Preparation of Material for General Class Use. Bot. Gaz., 23:372-376.
  • Experimental Morphology. Proc. Am. Assoc., Adv., Sci., 46:3-23.
  • Nectria on Currant Canes. Gard. & For., 10:34.
  • Leaf-Spot of Pear. Gard. & For., 10:73, 74.
  • Some Fungi from Alabama Collected Chiefly during the Years 1889-1892. Bull. cornell Univ. (Sci.), 3:1-50.
  • Studies and Illustrations of Mushroom, I. N. Y. Agr. Exp. Sta. (Cornell) Bull., 138:337-366, figs. 87-112.
  • Review of Karl Freiherr von Tubuf. Diseases of Plants induced by Cryptogamic Parasites. (English edition by William G. Smith. Longmans, Green & Co., London, New York, Bombay, 1897.) Science n. s. 5:696-699.


  • Method of Teaching Botany in the Secondary Schools. Asa Gray Bull., 6:102-106.
  • A Provisional Key to the Genera of Hymenomycetes (Mushrooms, Toadstools, etc.). With Bertha Stoneman. pp. 1–16. Ithaca, N. Y.
  • Mushrooms. For. & Stream, 50:483-486.
  • Review of Roland Thaxter. Contribution towards a Monograph of the Laboulbeniaceae (Mem. Am. Acad., n. s., 12:189-429, 26 plates, 1896), Science, n. s., 7:752, 753.
  • Elementary Botany. New York.
  • Report upon Some Preliminary Experiments with the Roentgen Rays on Plants. Science, n. s., 7:7-13, pl. 1.
  • Studies on Some Mycelium and Fungi from a Coal Mine. Bot. Gaz., 25:107.


  • Studies and Illustrations of Mushrooms, 11. N. Y. Agr. Exp. Sta. (Cornell) Bull., 168:491-516, figs. 83-97.
  • Studies on reduction in Plants. Bot. Gaz., 28:1-26, pls. 1-6.


  • Some Wood-Destroying Fungi. Spec. Rep. Geol. Surv. La., No. 9 (September 1899), 331-338, pls. 56-62.
  • Stink Horn Fungi. The Young Idea, 13:3.
  • Lessons in Botany. New York.


  • Studies of American Fungi. Mushrooms, Edible, Poisonous, etc. (Ithaca, New York, Andrus & Church), pp. 1–275, 223 figs. in text. 76 pls., 4 colored, 1900; 2d ed., pp. 1–322.
  • Studies of Some Shade Tree and Timber-Destroying Fungi. N. Y. Agr. exp. Sta. (Cornell) Bull. 193:199-235, figs. 56-94.
  • President's Address to the Cornell Chapter of the Sigma Xi, June 8, 1901. Printed by the Chapter.
  • On the Homologies and Probable Origin of the Embryo-Sac. Science, n. s., 13:530-538.
  • Tree-Destroying Fungi (Polyporus). Am. Gard., 22:267, 268.


  • Frost Blisters, a Peculiar Injury to Fruit Trees—Apple, Pear, and Peach Affected. Am. Gard., 23.
  • Studies of Some Tree-Destroying Fungi. Trans. Mass. Hort. Soc., for the year 1901, pp. 109–130.
  • Three New Genera of the Higher Fungi. Bot. Gaz. 34:36-42, figs. 1-3.
  • Preliminary Note on Two New Genera of Basidiomycetes. J. Mycol., 8:106, 107.
  • Preliminary Notes on Some New Species of Fungi. J. Mycol., 8:110-119.


  • A New Species of Calostoma. J. Mycol., 9:14-17.
  • A New Species of Geaster. Bot. Gaz., 36:303-306, figs. 1, 2.
  • The Genus Harpochytrium in the United States. Ann. Mycol., 1:479-502.
  • Geaster leptospermus: a Correction. Bot. Gaz., 36:467.


  • Note on the Genus Harpochytrium. J. Mycol., 10:3-8, pl. 72 and text figs.
  • Anthracnose of the Grape. N. Y. Agr. Exp. Sta. (Cornell) Press Bull., 1.
  • Relation of Plants to Environment (or, Plant Ecology): Outlines of Course of Lectures. Ithaca, N. Y.
  • First Studies on Plant Life.
  • A New Lemanea from Newfoundland, Lemanea (Sacheria) borealis. Torreya, 4:26.


  • Mushroom-Growing for Amateurs. With Robert Shore. N. Y. Agr. Exp. Sta. (Cornell) Bull., 227:415-424, figs. 151-154.
  • Life History of Hypocrea alutaceae. Bot. Gaz., 40:401-417, pls. 14-16.
  • The Genera Balansia and Dothichloe in the United States, with a Consideration of Their Economic Importance. J. Mycol., 11:248-267, pls. 81-88.
  • Outlines for the Observation of Some of the More Common Fungi. PI. World, 8:215-222, 245-255.
  • College Text Book of Botany. New York.
  • Profits in Mushroom Culture. Am. Agr., p. 297, March 11.


  • Two New Species Belonging to Naucoria and Stropharia. J. Mycol. 12:193, 194. pl. 91.
  • Development of Agaricus campestris. Bot. Gaz., 42:241-264, pls. 7-12.
  • A New Entoloma from Central Ohio. J. Mycol., 12:236, 237, pl. 9.
  • The Influence of Mushrooms on the Growth of Some Plants. N. Y. Agr. Exp. Sta. (Cornell) Bull., 240:215-234.


  • A Mushroom Parasitic on Another Mushroom. Pl. World, 10:121-130, figs. 22-24.
  • Preliminary Note on a New Disease of the Cultivated Vetch. With C. W. Edgerton. Science, n. s., 26:385, 386.
  • Protocoronospora, a New Genus of Fungi (Preliminary Note). With C. W. Edgerton. J. Mycol., 13:185, 186.


  • A Parasitic Alga, Rhodochytrium spilanthidis Lagerheim, in North America. Bot. Gaz., 46:299-301.
  • Note on the Occurrence of Rhodochytrium spilanthidis Lagerheim in North America. Science, n. s., 28:691, 692.
  • Notes on Some New Species of Fungi from the United States. Ann. Mycol., 6:54-62.
  • On the Identity of Polyporus applanatus of Europe and North America. Ann. Mycol., 6:179-191, pls. 2-4.
  • Observations on Polyporus lucidus Leys. and Some of Its Allies from Europe and North America. Bot. Gaz., 46:321-338, pl. 19, text figs. 1-5.
  • A New Poisonous Mushroom. Bot. Gaz., 46:461-463.


  • Some Fungus Parasites of Algae. Bot. Gaz., 48:321-338, 8 text figs.
  • Some Problems in the Evolution of the Lower Fungi. Ann. Mycol., 7:441-472, text figs. 1-20.
  • Preliminary Notes on Some New species of Agaricaceae and Clavaria. Ann. Mycol., 7:365-376.
  • The Perfect Stage of Leaf-Spot of Pear and Quince. Science, n. s., 30:452.
  • A Remarkable Amanita. Bot. Gaz., 48:283-293, text figs. 1-8.
  • A New Edible Species of Amanita. Science, n. s., 29:944.
  • Subterranean Fungi (Review of Ed. Fischer, Zur Morphologie der Hypogaeen. Bot. Zeit., 66:141-168, pl. 6, 1908). Bot. Gaz., 47:76-79.


  • A New Genus of Chytrids (Review of R. F. Griggs, Monochytrium, a New Genus of Chytridiales, Its Life History and Cytology. Ohio Nat. 10:44-54, pls. 3, 4). Bot. Gaz., 49:311, 312.
  • Motions Relating to the Rules for Nomenclature of the Fungi Proposed for Action at the Third International Botanical Congress at Brussels, May 14–22, 1910. Ithaca, N. Y.
  • Review of A. H. Reginald Buller. Researches on Fungi (1901). Science, n. s., 31:420-424.
  • Development and Biology of Armillaria (Review of C. C. E. Fisher, On the Development of the Fructification of Armillaria mucida Schrad. Ann. Bot., 23:503-507, pl. 35, figs. 1-7. 1909). Bot. Gaz., 49:229.
  • Review of Frederic E. Clements. The Genera of Fungi (1909). Bot. Gaz., 49:149-151.
  • The Botanical Congress at Brussels. With W. G. Farlow. Science, n. s., 32:104-107, and Bot. Gaz., 50:220-225.


  • The Origin and Taxonomic Value of the Veil in Dictyophora and Ithyphallus. Bot. Gaz., 51 :1-20, pls. 1-7, and one text fig.
  • Review of Josephine Tilden. Minnesota Algae, I. Science, n. s., 34:82.[5]
  • Cystidia of Coprinus (Review of A. H. Reginald Buller. Researches on Fungi, 1909). Bot. Gaz., 51:306, 307.


  • Amanita (Review of Rene Ferry, Etude sur les Amanites; les Amanites mortelles: Amanita phalloides, A. Verna, et A. virosa. Rev. Mycol., suppl. 1, 1-96, pls. 1-8, 1911). Bot. Gaz., 53:522, 523.
  • The Perfect Stage of the Ascochyta on the Hairy Vetch. Bot. Gaz., 54: 537. 538.
  • Gautieria in the Eastern United States. Bot. Gaz., 54:538, 539.
  • The Morphology of Zygorhynchus and Its Relation to the Ascomycetes. Science, n. s., 35:151.
  • Botany for High Schools. New York.


  • Homology of the "Universal Veil" in Agaricus. Mycol. Centralbl., 5:13-18, pls. 1-3.
  • The Development of Armillaria mellea. Mycol. Centralbl., 4:113-121, pls. 1, 2.
  • The Development of Lepiota clypeolaria. Ann. Mycol., 12:346-356, pls. 13-16.
  • The Development of Amanitopsis vaginata. Ann. Mycol., 12:369-392, pls. 17-19.
  • The Development of Agaricus arvensis and A. comtulus. Am. J. Bot., 1:3-22, pls. 1, 2.


  • Morphology and Development of Agaricus Rodmani. Proc. Am. Phil. Soc., 54:309-343, pls. 7-13.
  • Phylogeny and Relationships in the Ascomycetes. Ann. Mo. Bot. Gard., 2:315-376, text figs. 1-9.
  • The Specific Identity of Phallus impudicus and Dictyophora duplicata. Science, n. s., 41:171.


  • Origin and Development of the Lamellae in Coprinus. Bot. Gaz., 61: 89-130, pls. 5-12.
  • The Development of Lepiota cristata and L. seminuda. Mem. N. Y. Bot. Gard., 6:209-228, pls. 21-26.


  • Quadruple Hybrids in the F1 Generation from Oenothera nutans and Oe. pycnocarpa with the F2 Generations, and the Back- and Inter- crosses. Genetics, 2:213-260, text figs. 1-14.
  • Six Misunderstood Species of Amanita. Mem. Torrey Bot. Club, 17:246-252.


  • Selected Cycles in Gymnoconia Peckiana. Am. J. Bot., 5:79-83.
  • Charles Horton Peck. Bot. Gaz., 65:103-108, with two portraits.
  • Some New Species of Inocybe. Am. J. Bot., 5:210-218.
  • Twin Hybrids from Crosses of Oenothera Lamarckiana and franciscana with Oe. pycnocarpa in the F1 and F2. Proc. Am. Phil. Soc., 57:130-143, pls. 1-4.
  • The Genus Endogone. Mem. Brooklyn Bot. Gard. 1 :1-17.
  • Preliminary Notes on Some New Species of Agarics. Proc. Am. Philos. Soc., 57:354-356.
  • The Genus Galerula in North America. Proc. Am. Phil. Soc., 57:357-374.


  • Relationships within the Rhodosporeae. Bot. Gaz., 67:266-267.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Makers of American Botany, Harry Baker Humphrey, Ronald Press Company, Library of Congress Card Number 61-18435
  2. ^ WG Farlow, LH Bailey, R Thaxter (1919). "George Francis Atkinson". American Journal of Botany 6 (7): 301–302. JSTOR 2434981. 
  3. ^ Thom, Charles (1956). "George Francis Atkinson 1854-1918" (PDF). National Academy of Sciences Biographical Memoir. 
  4. ^ "Author Query for 'G.F.Atk.'". International Plant Names Index. 
  5. ^ Atkinson, George Francis (1910). "Minnesota Algae by Josephine Tilden...Review". Science 34: 82. doi:10.1126/science.34.864.82. JSTOR 1636659. 

External links[edit]