G. Frederick Reinhardt

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from George Frederick Reinhardt)
Jump to: navigation, search
Portrait of G. Frederick Reinhardt

George Frederick "Fred" Reinhardt (1911–1971) was an American foreign service officer and diplomat from 1937 until 1968[1]. He was consider by his peers to be among the finest diplomats of his era.[2] Reinhardt was the U.S. ambassador to South Vietnam (1955–1957), to the United Arab Republic and North Yemen (1960–1961) and to Italy (1961–1968). In Vietnam, he worked to improve relations between the United States and South Vietnamese Prime Minister Ngo Dinh Diem.

Childhood and education[edit]

Ambassador Reinhardt was born in Berkeley, California on October 21, 1911,[3] the eldest of two boys born to Dr. George F. Reinhardt, Sr. and Aurelia Henry Reinhardt (later to become president of Mills College).[4][5] Reinhardt's father, George, was a well known physician who sat on the Medical Board of California (originally the Board of Examiners of the Medical Society of California), serving as the organization's Vice President in 1908 and its President in 1909.[6] Dr. George Reinhardt was also the first University Physician and Professor of Hygiene at the University of California, Berkeley, where he founded the country's first, comprehensive, prepaid, student health program and hospital, in 1906.[7][8] George died in Berkeley on June 7, 1914, when Reinhardt was not yet three years old.[9]

Reinhardt attended Deep Springs School, in Deep Springs, CA. Reinhardt matriculated at the University of California, Berkeley, where he was admitted to the Zeta Psi fraternity, graduating in 1933 with a Bachelor of Arts degree in classics and modern languages. He would win the Alumnus of the Year award from the Cal Alumni Association in 1962.[10] He earned an M.A. from Cornell University in 1935 in the field of European history and international law, his dissertations were entitled, "German interest in the Russo-Japanese war"[11] "International Control of Rivers for Non-Navigational Purposes."[12] Reinhardt also earned a Diploma from Cesare Alfieri Institute, Florence, Italy in 1937.[13] Reinhardt would also earn honorary doctorates from Universities of California, Gonzaga and Mills College.

Foreign service career[edit]

Reinhardt began his professional career serving on the United States and Mexico International Boundary Commission.[14] In 1937 Reinhardt began his foreign service as the vice-consul in Vienna, Austria.[15] There, in March 1938, he witnessed the Austrian Anschuss.[16] By the end of the year he had been recalled and begun training in Russian at Harvard University.[17] In October 1939, he was designated third secretary of the legation and American vice consul in Tallinn, Estonia.[18] By June 1940, Reinhardt was assigned for the first time to the Moscow embassy.[19] Reinhardt assisted in the removal and liquidation of U.S. assets in the Baltic states following the Soviet annexation,[20] he provided consular service to US nationals, and served as a Russian language interpreter. Reinhardt served as an interpreter during meetings between Joseph Stalin and President Roosevelt's personal representative, Harry Hopkins,[21] and was considered only second, to Charles E. Bohlen, to interpret for Roosevelt at the Tehran Conference.[22] In October 1941, as Moscow came under threat from the German army as a result of Operation Barbarossa, Reinhardt remained in the city under Llewellyn Thompson (the then Second Secretary at the U.S. Embassy to the Soviet Union),[23] while Ambassador Laurence A. Steinhardt and other diplomatic personnel and news correspondents were evacuated to Kuibyshev.[24][25][26]

When on 19 November 1951, the NATO Defense College opened its doors to Course 1 in Paris, Reinhardt was the only civilian senior instructor assigned to the course.[27]

During the spring of 1953 President Eisenhower asked Reinhardt to participate as a Russian expert as part of a top-secret program, named Project Solarium, examining the advantages and disadvantages of a series of military and political strategies seeking to "roll back" existing areas of Soviet influence and restore the prestige of the west.[28][29] Reinhardt participated as a member of "Task Force C" delivering their recommendation to Eisenhower, John F. Dulles and other cabinet members on July 16, 1953.[30] Project Solarium's findings produced NSC 162/2, a national strategy directive commonly assessed to have guided U.S. strategy from its publication to the end of the Cold War.

Throughout the course of his Foreign Service career, Reinhardt held the following postings with the U.S. Department of State: [31][32]

  • U.S. Vice Consul, Vienna, Austria (1937-38)
  • U.S. Third Secretary-Vice Consul, Tallinn, Estonia (1939-40)
  • U.S. Third Secretary-Vice Consul, Moscow, USSR (1940-42)
  • Political Advisor, Allied Control Commission for Italy (1943-44)
  • Foreign Service Officer, Staff of Supreme Allied Commander (1944-45)
  • Staff of U.S. Political Adviser on German Affairs, AEF (1945)
  • U.S. Consul, Moscow, USSR (1945-48)
  • Director, Division of Eastern European Affairs (1948-51)
  • Deputy for Civil Affairs, NATO Defense College, Paris, France (1951-55)
  • U.S. Ambassador to South Vietnam (1955-57)
  • Counselor of the Department of State (1957-60)
  • U.S. Ambassador to Yemen (1960-61)
  • U.S. Ambassador to Egypt (United Arab Republic, 1960-61)
  • U.S. Ambassador to Italy (1961-68)

In December 1968, Reinhardt resigned from the Foreign Service shortly after a visit to Rome by President Johnson.[33]

Career in the private sector[edit]

Following his departure from the State Department, Reinhardt accepted a position with the Stanford Research Institute to run its office in Zurich, Switzerland.[34] The Stanford Research Institute, operating today as SRI International, is a non-profit research center with offices around the world. The organization serves clients in the private and public sector to develop real-world implementation of varied R&D projects.[35] Reinhardt retained this position until his death in 1971.[36]

Personal life[edit]

On September 10, 1949, Reinhardt married Lillian Larke "Solie" Tootle of Bethany, West Virginia at a ceremony in Weston, Connecticut.[37][38] The two first met in Vienna prior to World War II and then became reacquainted in Paris when Solie was working for the Marshall Plan.[39] They had four children: George Frederick ("Fred"), Anna Aurelia ("Aura"), Charles Henry ("Harry"), and Catherine Jane ("Cathy").[40]

Reinhardt served on numerous boards and as a leader to a variety of organizations including the Telluride Association (member)[41], and the American Foreign Service Association (President)[42], as well as a member off the American Society of International Law[43], the Academy of Political Science, American Academy of Political and Social Science, American Association for the Advancement of Slavic Studies, American Society of International Law, the Council on Foreign Relations, and the US Naval Institute.

Reinhardt died of a heart attack on February 22, 1971, in Birmensdorf, Switzerland.[44][45] He was buried at the Protestant Cemetery in Rome (Il Cimitero Acattolico di Roma), for which he had served as Administrator from 1961 until 1968, by virtue of his post as U.S. Ambassador.[46] Following her death, the remains of Reinhardt's widow, Solie, were interred beside him in 2009.[47]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "George Frederick Reinhardt". State Department. Office of the Historian. March 24, 2018. Retrieved March 28, 2018. 
  2. ^ Times, Bernard Gwertzman and Special To the New York. "DIPLOMAT'S FONDEST MEMORY: CHINA BREAKTHROUGH". Retrieved 2018-03-30. 
  3. ^ NNDB http://www.nndb.com/people/198/000130805/
  4. ^ NNDB http://www.nndb.com/people/198/000130805/
  5. ^ "Guide to the Aurelia Henry Reinhardt Papers, Mills College". Retrieved 2013-08-15.
  6. ^ "Officers of the Medical Board of California," the Medical Board of California (http://www.mbc.ca.gov/About_Us/History/history_officers.pdf)
  7. ^ "Berkeley Student Services," University of California History, Digital Archives. (http://www.lib.berkeley.edu/uchistory/general_history/campuses/ucb/studentsvcs_print.html)
  8. ^ Annual Report of the President of the University on Behalf of the Regents, to His Excellency the Governor of the State of California: 1913-1914. University of California Press, Berkeley, 1914. (p. 144)
  9. ^ Annual Report of the President of the University on Behalf of the Regents, to His Excellency the Governor of the State of California: 1913-1914. University of California Press, Berkeley, 1914. (p. 144)
  10. ^ "Alumnus/a of the Year Recipients". Cal Alumni Association. 2010-01-27. Retrieved 2018-04-15. 
  11. ^ "German interest in the Russo-Japanese war - Cornell University Library Catalog". newcatalog.library.cornell.edu. Retrieved 2018-04-19. 
  12. ^ "Doctoral Dissertations in Political Science". The American Political Science Review. 33 (4): 732–747. 1939. 
  13. ^ "WINS FELLOWSHIP IN ITALY; Californian to Study World Problems at Florence". New York Times. January 10, 1937. Archived from the original on |archive-url= requires |archive-date= (help). Retrieved March 25, 2018. 
  14. ^ Reinhardt, G. Frederick (1937). "Rectification of the Rio Grande in the El Paso-Juarez Valley". The American Journal of International Law. 31 (1): 44–54. doi:10.2307/2190713. 
  15. ^ "The Foreign Service". The New York Times. 18 July 1937. Retrieved 14 March 2018. 
  16. ^ Wilson, Hugh (April 7, 1938). "U. S. Notes Recognizing Anschluss; Note on Austrian Status Note on Indebtedness". New York Times. 
  17. ^ "News From the Department". Foreign Service Journal. 16: 568. October 1939. 
  18. ^ "The Foreign Service". The New York Times. October 1, 1939. Archived from the original on |archive-url= requires |archive-date= (help). Retrieved March 24, 2018. 
  19. ^ "Foreign Service Updates". Foreign Service Journal. 17 no. 7: 394. July 1940. 
  20. ^ "Foreign Relations of the United States Diplomatic Papers, 1940, General, Volume I - Office of the Historian". history.state.gov. Retrieved 2018-03-27. 
  21. ^ "Foreign Relations of the United States Diplomatic Papers, 1941, General, The Soviet Union, Volume I - Office of the Historian". history.state.gov. Retrieved 2018-03-27. 
  22. ^ "Foreign Relations of the United States: Diplomatic Papers, The Conferences at Cairo and Tehran, 1943 - Office of the Historian". history.state.gov. Retrieved 2018-04-15. 
  23. ^ "U.S. Ministers and Ambassadors to Russia". United States Embassy, Moscow. Archived from the original on 18 December 2005.
  24. ^ "Foreign Relations of the United States Diplomatic Papers, 1941, General, The Soviet Union, Volume I - Office of the Historian". history.state.gov. Retrieved 2018-03-27. 
  25. ^ "SECRET CAPITAL SET UP BY SOVIET; Steinhardt and Other Envoys Move to Undisclosed Center -- Aides Left in Moscow". The New York Times. October 18, 1941. Retrieved March 24, 2018. 
  26. ^ "Foreign Relations of the United States Diplomatic Papers, 1941, General, The Soviet Union, Volume I - Office of the Historian". history.state.gov. Retrieved 2018-03-27. 
  27. ^ "ATLANTIC NATIONS OPEN PARIS SCHOOL; 50 Officers and Civilians From All 12 Pact Members in First 6-Month Course". The New York Times. 1951-11-20. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2018-03-30. 
  28. ^ "Foreign Relations of the United States, 1952–1954, National Security Affairs, Volume II, Part 1 - Office of the Historian". history.state.gov. Retrieved 2018-03-29. 
  29. ^ "Foreign Relations of the United States, 1952–1954, National Security Affairs, Volume II, Part 1 - Office of the Historian". history.state.gov. Retrieved 2018-03-29. 
  30. ^ "Foreign Relations of the United States, 1952–1954, National Security Affairs, Volume II, Part 1 - Office of the Historian". history.state.gov. Retrieved 2018-03-29. 
  31. ^ http://www.nndb.com/people/198/000130805/
  32. ^ "George Frederick Reinhardt (1911-1971)," Office of the Historian, U.S. Department of State. (https://history.state.gov/departmenthistory/people/reinhardt-george-frederick)
  33. ^ "Interview with Ambassador Peter S. Bridges," October 24, 2003. By Charles Stuart Kennedy. The Association for Diplomatic Studies and Training Foreign Affairs Oral History Project (http://lcweb2.loc.gov/service/mss/mfdip/2007/2007bri01/2007bri01.pdf)
  34. ^ "G. Frederick Reinhardt Dead; Ambassador to Italy 1961-68," The New York Times. 02/24/1971 (https://www.nytimes.com/1971/02/24/archives/g-frederick-reinhardt-dead-ambassador-to-italy-196168-eisenhower-s.html)
  35. ^ "About us" SRI International Website. (https://www.sri.com/about)
  36. ^ (https://www.nytimes.com/1971/02/24/archives/g-frederick-reinhardt-dead-ambassador-to-italy-196168-eisenhower-s.html)
  37. ^ "Marriages," The American Foreign Service Journal, Vol. 26, No. 11. November 1949, p. 22. (http://www.afsa.org/sites/default/files/fsj-1949-11-november_0.pdf)
  38. ^ "Marriage for Lillian Tootle". New York Times. September 10, 1949. Archived from the original on |archive-url= requires |archive-date= (help). Retrieved March 24, 2018. 
  39. ^ Reinhardt, Solie (1998). V-Mail Wartime Letters. New York: Private. p. 126. 
  40. ^ "Obituary: Lilian Reinhardt," The New York Times, February 12, 2009.
  41. ^ "Reinhardt Still in Riga" (PDF). Telluride News Letter. October 1940. Retrieved April 1, 2018. 
  42. ^ "AFSA Presidents". American Foreign Service Association. Retrieved April 1, 2018. 
  43. ^ "Business Meeting". The American Journal of International Law. 65 (4): 323–332. 1971. 
  44. ^ "G. Frederick Reinhardt Dead; Ambassador to Italy 1961-68," The New York Times. 02/24/1971 (https://www.nytimes.com/1971/02/24/archives/g-frederick-reinhardt-dead-ambassador-to-italy-196168-eisenhower-s.html)
  45. ^ Shurtleff, William Roy. Descendants of Johannes P. Reinhardt of Württemberg. Pine Hill Press, Lafayette, California: 1994. pp 82-82
  46. ^ Protestant Cemetery, Rome: Stone 7 "George Frederick Reinhardt & Lillian Tootle Reinhardt" (http://www.cemeteryrome.it/cemeterydb/SitoExt/S7.html)
  47. ^ Protestant Cemetery, Rome: Stone 7 "George Frederick Reinhardt & Lillian Tootle Reinhardt" (http://www.cemeteryrome.it/cemeterydb/SitoExt/S7.html)

References[edit]

Diplomatic posts
Preceded by
Donald R. Heath
United States Ambassador to South Vietnam
1955–1957
Succeeded by
Elbridge Durbrow
Preceded by
Raymond A. Hare
United States Ambassador to Egypt
1960–1961
Succeeded by
John S. Badeau
Preceded by
James David Zellerbach
United States Ambassador to Italy
1961–1968
Succeeded by
H. Gardner Ackley