George Goschen, 2nd Viscount Goschen
George Joachim Goschen, 2nd Viscount Goschen GCSI GCIE CBE VD PC (15 October 1866 – 24 July 1952) was a British politician who served as Member of Parliament for East Grinstead from 1895 to 1906 and as Governor of Madras from 1924 to 1929.
George Joachim Goschen, 2nd Viscount was the son of prominent Conservative (formerly Liberal and Liberal Unionist) politician and Chancellor of the Exchequer, George Joachim Goschen, 1st Viscount Goschen. He had his early education in the United Kingdom and served as Secretary to Victor Child Villiers, 7th Earl of Jersey, the Governor of New South Wales in Australia from 1890 to 1892. In 1895 and 1900, he was elected to the House of Commons from East Grinstead and served as a Member of Parliament from 1895 to 1906 and as the Parliamentary Secretary to the Board of Agriculture and Fisheries from March to June 1918. In 1924, he was appointed Governor of Madras, India and served as the Governor of Madras from 1924 to 1929 and acted as the Viceroy of India from 1929 to 1931. George Goschen died in 1952 at the age of 85.
Goschen fell in love with Lady Margaret Evelyn-Gathorne Hardy, the youngest of five daughters of the Gathorne Hardy, 1st Earl of Cranbrook, who was eight years older than he was and desired to marry her. His father, the 1st Viscount, was, however, strongly opposed to their marriage and used his influence to get an appointment for his son as a Private Secretary to Lord Jersey, the Governor of New South Wales in Australia. Goschen calmly obeyed his father's orders and worked in Australia from 1890 to 1892. On his return from Australia, however, he married Margaret on 26 January 1893.
Member of Parliament for East Grinstead
Goschen entered politics early in life. In 1895, he was elected to the House of Commons of the United Kingdom as a Conservative for the then East Grinstead constituency in Sussex and served as a member of parliament for two terms from 18 July 1895 to 25 January 1906. In July 1913, he was elected Chairman of the Council of the Corporation of Foreign Bondholders which comprised some of the leading financiers in England. Goschen served as the Parliamentary Secretary to the Board of Agriculture and Fisheries from March to June 1918.
Tenure as Governor of Madras
The Madras Presidency Radio Club started a radio transmission service in Madras, the first in the city, in 1924, under Goschen's patronage. This service lasted from 1924 to 1927. Goschen was also involved in the early stages of the Loyola College, Chennai and presided over its first college day in 1928. The Children's Hospital at Mangalore was refurbished and renamed as Lady Goschen Hospital while the SPG College, Trichinopoly was renamed as Bishop Heber College and Goschen presided over its diamond jubilee celebrations in 1926.
Goschen maintained friendly relations with the Raja of Panagal who was the Chief Minister of Madras Presidency. However, in the 1926 elections to the Madras Legislative Assembly, the Justice Party, to which the Raja belonged, was reduced to a minority winning only 21 out of 98 seats in the assembly. The Raja stepped down as Chief Minister and handed over his resignation to the Governor. Goschen invited S. Srinivasa Iyengar, the leader of the Swarajya Party which had won a majority, to form the government, but he refused as the acceptance of public posts would defeat the very purpose of the Swarajists to disrupt the working of the dyarchy. Goschen, therefore, made an independent, P. Subbarayan, the Chief Minister, and nominated 34 members to the council to support him. As the government was set up by Goschen and all the members nominated by him, it functioned more or less like a puppet government.
Subbarayan's government was the subject of much controversy and survived a no-confidence motion on 23 August 1927. Its position became more precarious when the Simon Commission arrived in India in 1928. The Swarajya Party moved a resolution exhorting a boycott of the commission and the Justice Party supported them. The motion was passed 65 to 50 with both of Subbarayan's ministers in favor of a boycott. Subbarayan responded by resigning his post. Goschen, however, mediated a settlement with the Raja of Panagal and appointed a Justice Party nominee, Krishnan Nair to the Executive Council. The Justice Party, immediately, withdrew their support to the resolution and welcomed the commission. Just before his retirement from active politics in 1925, the Justice Party insisted upon a gift of land to their leader Theagaroya Chetty from the Madras government but Goschen stuanchly refused to make the grant. A block named "Goschen Block" was constructed in the Govt Estate (presently Omandurar Estate) in Mount Road. This had a number of houses allotted to Govt officials and later to MLAs (Mr P Kakkan, Minister in the Kamaraj Govt lived in one). Goschen Block was demolished when the new Assembly building Now a hospital) construction started.
As Acting Viceroy of India
Lord Irwin, the Viceroy of India, left for London on leave from July 1929. He appointed Goschen to act as the Viceroy during his absence. George Goschen's father, the 1st Viscount, had been offered the Viceroyalty of India by British Prime Minister William Ewart Gladstone in 1880 but had declined the offer.
In 1933, a group which called itself the Union of Britain and India was formed in London. This group was in favor of an Indian federation. Goschen served as the first President of the union. Goschen also wrote a chapter titled "Provincial Autonomy" in the 1934 book India from a Back Bench where he criticized the dyarchy system regarding it as a failure based on his experience as an administrator in India.
From this point of view, the result has been disappointing; for Diarchy has inculcated a spirit of irresponsibility than responsibility. The Ministers have to rely for support on the official bloc in the Councils (about a quarter of the whole number of members), and for this reason their sense of responsibility to the elected members is "blurred", and the elected members regard them as to some extent suspect.
The Ministers are not responsible for "Law and Order" or Finance. In other words, they have not to find the money for their departments and are consequently handicapped in starting new schemes: and they are not responsible for the effect of their administration. They thus stand to lose their credit and escape the blame that fuller responsible would award them.
Goschen and his wife, Lady Margaret Evelyn-Gathorne Hardy, had three children:
- Lt. Hon. George Joachim, 7th Btn E Kent Regiment (18 Nov 1893 – 16 January 1916) died of wounds received in action at the Siege of Kut
- Hon. Phyllis Evelyn, Lady-in-Waiting to Her Royal Highness the Princess Royal 1948-1965, (5 August 1895 – 27 May 1976;) married Lt Col. Francis Cecil Campbell Balfour
- Hon. Cicely Winifred (29 April 1899 – 1980), married Maj. Melville Edward Bertram Portal, son of Sir Bertram Percy Portal
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- "College profile". Bishop Heber College. Archived from the original on 31 July 2008.
- "Big power project in India will harness Pykara river". The New York Times. 14 November 1926.
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- Encyclopedia of Political Parties, Pg 194
- Kumar, Dharma; Tapan Raychaudhuri; Meghnad Desai; Irfan Habib (1983). The Cambridge Economic History of India: C. 1757 - C. 1970. Cambridge University Press Archive. p. 215. ISBN 0521228026, ISBN 978-0-521-22802-2.
- Birkenhead, Frederick Winston Furneaux Smith (1966). Halifax: The Life of Lord Halifax. Houghton Mifflin. p. 270.
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- Baillies, Sir Adrian (1934). India from a Back Bench. pp. 45–46.
- "Viscount Goschen". The New York Times. 25 July 1952.
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- Muthiah, S. (12 May 2008). "In search of the Stanley name". The Hindu.
- Ramnarayan, V. (23 July 2001). "Traveller with a mission". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 22 May 2011.
- Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by the Viscount Goschen
|Parliament of the United Kingdom|
|Member of Parliament for East Grinstead
Sir Charles Todhunter
|Governor of Madras
Sir Norman Majoribanks
|Peerage of the United Kingdom|
George Joachim Goschen