|Judge of the United States Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court of Review|
May 19, 1979 – May 18, 1982
|Preceded by||Seat established|
|Succeeded by||John Field|
|Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit|
May 6, 1969 – May 20, 1983
|Appointed by||Richard Nixon|
|Preceded by||Charles Fahy|
|Succeeded by||Ken Starr|
|United States Attorney for the District of Minnesota|
|Appointed by||Dwight D. Eisenhower|
|Preceded by||Fallon Kelly|
|Succeeded by||Phillip Neville|
|Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Minnesota's 3rd district
January 3, 1947 – January 3, 1949
|Preceded by||William Gallagher|
|Succeeded by||Roy Wier|
|Member of the Minnesota House of Representatives
from the 29th district
January 8, 1935 – January 4, 1943
|Preceded by||Burton Kingsley|
|Succeeded by||Carl Wegner|
|Born||George Edwards MacKinnon
April 22, 1906
St. Paul, Minnesota, U.S.
|Died||May 1, 1995
Potomac, Maryland, U.S.
|Spouse(s)||Elizabeth Valentine Davis|
|Education||University of Colorado, Boulder
University of Minnesota, Twin Cities (LLB)
|Service/branch||United States Navy|
|Years of service||1942–1946|
George Edward MacKinnon (April 22, 1906 – May 1, 1995) was appointed by President Nixon to the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia in May 1969, where he served until his death in 1995. Judge MacKinnon is also the father of feminist legal scholar Catharine MacKinnon.
According to Judge Harry T. Edwards, Judge MacKinnon was "a real character: he was someone who was not easily dissuaded from his positions, who always aimed to get his way, and, yet, who always enjoyed his colleagues and fostered collegiality on the court." Chief Justice Warren Burger, a fellow Minnesotan who appointed MacKinnon to the U.S. Sentencing Commission and the special court division that selected independent counsel, said, "He's a man who can't be frightened or pushed by anybody" when describing him.
Thomas J. Campbell, who once worked as a clerk for Judge MacKinnon, has written:
- Judge MacKinnon inspired by words. He inspired by his life's deeds. But he inspired most of all by what came to him, naturally. That he'd always introduce himself as George, not Judge. That he would call his wife on his private phone line, so that the government would not have to pay whatever marginal cost one phone call might represent. That he would answer his own phone with such alacrity that clerk or secretary would have to scramble to pick it up on the first ring. That he presided at the marriage, in chambers, of a man he had once prosecuted, convicted, and sent away to prison as U.S. Attorney. That he was loved by Democrats and Republicans, liberals and conservatives, and sought the approval of neither to find his own sense of worth.
Place of birth, education and early legislative experience
MacKinnon was born in St. Paul, Minnesota in 1906, the son of James Alexander Wiley and Cora Blanche (Asselstine) MacKinnon.
MacKinnon attended the University of Colorado at Boulder from 1923–1924 and received his LL.B. with honors from the University of Minnesota Law School in 1929. During this time, he also won an All-American rating as center on the Minnesota football teams of 1925–1927, and the Western Conference Medal of 1929.
After graduating MacKinnon was assistant general counsel for the Investor's Syndicate (later known as the Investors Diversified Services) from 1929 to 1942. During this time, he was also a member of the Minnesota House of Representatives in the 29th District (1935–1942) and he served on the Rules Committee and as chairman of the House Judiciary Committee. He authored and help led the enactment of the 1939 Minnesota State Reorganization Act, and drafted the state Civil Service Law of 1939 and the state Old Age Assistance Law of 1936.
He married Elizabeth Valentine Davis August 20, 1938.
MacKinnon served as an officer in the United States Navy from 1942 to 1946. MacKinnon volunteered for duty and spent his four years with the Atlantic Fleet Air Force, during which time he earned a citation for meritorious services. He was discharged a commander.
MacKinnon was elected as a Republican to serve as a United States Representative for the Third District of Minnesota to the 80th congress (January 3, 1947 – January 3, 1949), but was defeated when he sought re-election. He served on the Education and Labor Committee.
U.S. Attorney and Republican nominee for Governor
From 1953 to 1958, MacKinnon served as United States Attorney for the District of Minnesota. MacKinnon successfully prosecuted the first labor case under the Taft-Hartley Act against Archer Daniels Midland, Gerald Connelly, and Sidney Brennan in United States v. Gerald Connelly. It was one of the most famous labor racketeering cases in the country.
MacKinnon then served as Special Assistant to the U.S. Attorney General from 1960–1961. During 1960 MacKinnon focused on labor racketeering investigations involving James Hoffa. MacKinnon started the Test Fleet investigation that led to James Hoffa's conviction for perjury.
He was Chief Counsel for Investors Mutual Funds from 1961–1969.
Appointment as federal judge
During his time as a federal judge he also served as: Presiding Judge for the United States Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court of Review (1979–1982), Presiding Judge for the Special Division of U.S. Court of Appeals for Appointment of Independent Counsels (1985–1992), as a Delegate to the United Nations Congress on the Prevention of Crime and Treatment of Offenders (1985), and as a member on the United States Sentencing Commission (1985–1991).
- Specific references
- Harry T. Edwards, In Memoriam: George E. MacKinnon, 64 Geo. Wash. L. Rev. 819, 820-21 (1996)
- Ann Pelham, "Judge MacKinnon Works Two Odd Jobs at the Edges of Constitutionality," Legal Times at 15 (May 7, 1990).
- Donald Dale Jackson, Judges 313 (1974).
- Other sources
- United States Congress. "George MacKinnon (id: M000027)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.
- George MacKinnon at the Biographical Directory of Federal Judges, a public domain publication of the Federal Judicial Center.
- George E. Mackinnon: An Inventory of His Papers at the Minnesota Historical Society
|United States House of Representatives|
|Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Minnesota's 3rd congressional district
|Party political offices|
|Republican nominee for Governor of Minnesota
|Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit
|New seat||Judge of the United States Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court of Review