George Massey Tunnel
Descending into the Massey Tunnel
|Route||British Columbia Highway 99|
|Opened||May 23, 1959|
|Owner||British Columbia Toll Highways and Bridge Authority(original)
British Columbia Ministry of Transportation
|Length||2,064 feet (629 m)|
|Number of lanes||4|
|Water Depth||22 metres|
The George Massey Tunnel (often referred to as the Massey Tunnel) is a highway traffic tunnel in the Metro Vancouver region of southwestern British Columbia. It is located approximately 20 km (12.4 mi) south of the city centre of Vancouver, British Columbia, and approximately 30 km (18.6 mi) north of the Canada–United States border at Blaine, Washington.
Construction, costing approximately $25 million, began on the tunnel in March 1957, and it was opened to traffic on May 23, 1959 as the Deas Island Tunnel. Queen Elizabeth II attended the official opening ceremony of the tunnel on July 15, 1959. It carries a four-lane divided highway under the south arm of the Fraser River estuary, joining the City of Richmond to the north with the Corporation of Delta (a municipality) to the south. It is the only road tunnel below sea level in Canada, making its roadway the lowest road surface in Canada.
The tunnel forms part of Highway 99. It is named for Nehamiah "George" Massey, a former Member of the Legislative Assembly of British Columbia. He represented Delta between 1956 and 1960, and was a long-time advocate of a permanent crossing to replace an existing ferry that crossed the south arm of the Fraser River. The tunnel was renamed the George Massey Tunnel in 1967, three years after Massey died. It is still sometimes referred to by its previous name, the Deas Island Tunnel. As of 2013[update], public consultations are taking place regarding replacement of the tunnel.
The tunnel is a single tube that is subdivided with a concrete wall, each side containing two traffic lanes. The typical traffic flow has two northbound lanes in the east tube and two southbound lanes in the west tube. In 1981 a counterflow system was introduced to meet increasing traffic demand in the tunnel.
At peak rush traffic periods, a reversible lane system is used, with a series of swing gates deployed that direct traffic in one direction to a single lane, while increasing the other direction to three lanes. Morning rush has three lanes northbound (inbound to Vancouver) and evening rush has three southbound lanes (outbound from Vancouver).
Construction, maintenance and replacement
The tunnel is 629 m (2,064 ft) long and made up of six precast concrete sections (length: 344 ft (104.9 m); height: 24 ft (7.3 m); width: 78 ft (23.8 m)). The sections were floated into position by barge and then sunk into a shallow trench that had been dug into the loose sand and silt of the river bed. The trench and tunnel sections were then covered over with a protective layer of rock—500-pound (230 kg) stones filled 50 feet (15.24 m) out on each side, plus a bed of 1,500-pound (680 kg) stone on top. A structure located at each end of the tunnel houses the main ventilation and pumping equipment. Concrete retaining walls make up the approaches, which extend out about 400 m (1,312 ft) from the ventilation buildings. At its lowest point the roadway is about 22 metres (72 ft) below sea level, making it the lowest section of roadway in Canada. The Fraser River flows into the Strait of Georgia about 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) downstream from the tunnel.
Due to the tunnel being designed and constructed in the 1950s, very little consideration was given to seismic factors. The river bed is a 600 m (1,969 ft) thick layer of sediment on top of bedrock. This sedimentary layer may liquefy during a major earthquake, leaving the tunnel with nothing to rest on, and thus vulnerable to total collapse. In recent years, as the awareness of the effect of serious seismic activity developed, an engineering assessment and subsequent retrofit project was initiated to increase the survivability of the tunnel in the event of a significant earthquake. This retrofit project started in the fall of 2004 and had been completed by the spring of 2006.
In the interest of providing active protection for commuters from the danger earthquakes pose to the tunnel, an early warning system called Shakealarm was installed and commissioned in 2009. This was the first application of a commercialized earthquake early warning system (EEWS) to protect critical infrastructure in Western Canada. Capable of detecting earthquakes with seconds to minutes of warning time the installation on George Massey Tunnel is designed to close the gates at either end of the tunnel so that no one can enter if a dangerous quake is inbound, and those already inside can exit as normal before shaking begins.
The tunnel was constructed for the British Columbia Toll Highways and Bridge Authority, and is now administered by the British Columbia Ministry of Transportation. It has not had a toll on it since the 1960s, when tolls were removed from all of the bridges and tunnels in the Lower Mainland (although tolls are now collected on the Golden Ears Bridge, completed in 2009, and on the Port Mann Bridge, completed in 2012). The initial toll was 25 cents; in 1964, George Massey became the last person to pay the toll, which was then one dollar.
On February 16, 2006, it was reported that the provincial government had plans to expand the tunnel's capacity, from four lanes to six, dubbed the "H99" project. There has been no progress on this score and contradictory government statements since then, so future upgrades are an uncertain prospect.
On September 28, 2012, Premier Christy Clark announced plans to replace the aging tunnel within 10 years, addressing the congestion and safety issues currently plaguing the structure. On November 21, 2012, it was announced that the Ministry of Transportation and Infrastructure is leading a multi-stage planning initiative, including seeking public input on replacement options for the tunnel to determine a number of options for its replacement.
On September 20, 2013, Premier Clark announced that construction on a new bridge to replace the tunnel will begin in 2017. On December 16, 2015, British Columbia Transportation Minister Todd Stone announced detailed plans to spend $3.5 billion on a bridge and interchange improvements to replace the tunnel.
Non-motorized tunnel use
The tunnel is illegal for cyclists or pedestrians to traverse. A limited fare-free shuttle service is available year-round, during certain hours, and can carry tandems. Cyclists must wait at prescribed pickup points, but the van will make more than one trip if there are more than seven bicycles. Translink also provides year-round regular bus service through the tunnel with standard two-bike carrying racks. However, the lack of sufficient rack space translates to long waits for cyclists during peak hours. Cycling advocates have long advocated for improvement to this facility, as it is a major choke point limiting Vancouver-to-Tsawwassen Ferry bicycle traffic.
The tunnel has a posted height limit of → 4.15 m (13 ft 7 3⁄8 in) ← in both directions. The replacement bridge, to be constructed starting in 2017, will likely eliminate the current height restrictions for over-height vehicles in the tunnel.
- "Predicting Liquefaction Response of Granular Soils from Pressuremeter Tests" (PDF).
- "The Persistent Tunnel "Vision" of British Columbia's George Massey". June 12, 2011. Archived from the original on November 15, 2011. Retrieved 2011-11-25.
- "Deas Island Tunnel Traffic Cams".
- "Tunnel History | George Massey Tunnel Replacement". engage.gov.bc.ca. Retrieved 2016-03-09.
- "Chronology: 1959-JUL-15".
- "Twinned tunnel part of Victoria's long-term plan". Feb 16, 2006. Retrieved 2012-09-04.
- "Premier Announces Investments in Capital Projects, Transportation Infrastructure". Sep 28, 2012.
- "Massey Tunnel replacement consultations begin". Nov 21, 2012.
- "George Massey Tunnel Replacement official website". Nov 21, 2012.
- "George Massey Tunnel Replacement Project". engage.gov.bc.ca. Retrieved 2015-09-21.
- "Massey Tunnel to be replaced with B.C.'s largest toll bridge". Dec 16, 2015. Retrieved 2015-12-16.
- "George Massey Tunnel Bicycle Shuttle Information Page". BC MOTI. Retrieved 2012-08-03.
- Rees, Stephen. "Stephen Rees Blog tagged Massey Tunnel Posts". Retrieved 2012-08-03.
- 1959 Government documentary about the construction of the tunnel
- Film of the official opening of the tunnel by Queen Elizabeth on July 15th 1959
- Satellite photo of George Massey Tunnel from Google Maps
- "Prefab Tunnel Conquers A Tough River" , March 1959, Popular Mechanics detailed article on what was then the Deas Island Tunnel
- Vancouver Sun Article - Twinned Tunnel Part of Victoria's Plan
- Buckand and Taylor Bridge Engineering, George Massey Tunnel project
- George Massey Tunnel Bicycle Shuttle
- Videos of the construction of the George Massey Tunnel - courtesy of the Delta Optimist
- Kenaidan Seismic Retrofit Project
- Journal of Commerce article on tunnel