This article needs additional citations for verification. (March 2022)
|Birth name||George Gordon Meade|
|Nickname(s)||"Old Snapping Turtle"|
|Born||December 31, 1815|
Cádiz, Province of Cádiz, Spain
|Died||November 6, 1872 (aged 56)|
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.
Laurel Hill Cemetery, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
|Allegiance||United States of America|
|Service/||United States Army|
|Years of service||1835–1836|
|Rank||Major General (USA)|
|Commands held||V Corps|
Army of the Potomac
Department of the East
George Gordon Meade (December 31, 1815 – November 6, 1872) was a United States Army officer and civil engineer best known for decisively defeating Confederate General Robert E. Lee at the Battle of Gettysburg in the American Civil War. He previously fought with distinction in the Second Seminole War and the Mexican–American War. During the Civil War, he served as a Union general, rising from command of a brigade to that of the Army of the Potomac. Earlier in his career, he was an engineer and was involved in the coastal construction of several lighthouses.
Meade's Civil War combat experience started as a brigade commander (brigadier general) in the Peninsula Campaign and the Seven Days Battles. He was severely wounded while leading his brigade at the Battle of Glendale. As a division commander, he had notable success at the Battle of South Mountain and assumed temporary corps command at the Battle of Antietam. Meade's division was arguably the most successful of any at the Battle of Fredericksburg in December. It was part of a force charged with driving the Confederate troops under Stonewall Jackson back from their position on Prospect Hill. The division made it further than any other, but was forced to turn back due to a lack of reinforcements. Meade was promoted to commander of the V Corps, which he led during the Battle of Chancellorsville.
During the Gettysburg Campaign, he was appointed to command the Army of the Potomac just three days before the Battle of Gettysburg. Arriving on the field after the first day's action on July 1, Meade organized his army on favorable ground to fight an effective defensive battle against Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia, repelling a series of massive assaults throughout the next two days. Lee was forced to retreat to Virginia, ending his hope of winning the war through a successful invasion of the North. This victory was marred by Meade's ineffective pursuit during the retreat, allowing Lee and his army to escape instead of completely destroying them. The Union Army also failed to follow up on its success during the Bristoe Campaign and Battle of Mine Run that fall, which ended inconclusively. Meade suffered from intense political rivalries within the Army, notably with Major Gen. Daniel Sickles, who tried to discredit Meade's role in the victory at Gettysburg.
In 1864–1865, Meade continued to command the Army of the Potomac through the Overland Campaign, the Richmond–Petersburg Campaign, and the Appomattox Campaign, but he was overshadowed by the direct supervision of the general-in-chief, Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant, who accompanied him throughout these campaigns. Grant conducted most of the strategy during these campaigns, leaving Meade with significantly less influence than before. His image was harmed by his notoriously short temper and disdain for the press. After the war, he commanded several important departments during Reconstruction.
Early life and education
Meade was born on December 31, 1815, in Cádiz, Spain, the eighth of eleven children of Richard Worsam Meade and Margaret Coats Butler. His father, of a Philadelphia merchant family, had become wealthy in the American–Spanish trade and was appointed U.S. naval agent. He was ruined financially because of his support of Spain in the Peninsular War; his family returned to the United States in 1817, in precarious financial straits. His father died in 1828 when George was 12 years old.
His elder brother Richard Worsam Meade II became a naval officer, while several sisters married military men. Likewise, young George attended the American Classical and Military Lyceum in Philadelphia and the Mount Hope Institution in Baltimore, and entered the United States Military Academy at West Point in 1831. He graduated 19th in his class of 56 cadets in 1835. Meade was commissioned a brevet second lieutenant in the 3rd US Artillery, his first assignment being in Florida, fighting against the Seminole Indians. He became a full second lieutenant by year's end, and in the fall of 1836, he resigned from the army, a career he had not intended to pursue, even while attending West Point. He worked as a civil engineer for the Alabama, Georgia, and Florida Railroad and for the War Department.
On December 31, 1840 (his birthday), he married Margaretta Sergeant, daughter of John Sergeant, running mate of Henry Clay in the 1832 presidential election. They had seven children together: John Sergeant Meade; George Meade (who became a colonel in the US Army); Margaret Butler Meade; Spencer Meade; Sarah Wise Meade; Henrietta Meade; and William Meade.
Finding steady civilian employment was difficult for the newly married man, so he reentered the army in 1842 as a second lieutenant in the Corps of Topographical Engineers. Meade served in the Mexican–American War, assigned to the staffs of Generals Zachary Taylor, William J. Worth, and Robert Patterson. He was brevetted to first lieutenant for gallant conduct at the Battle of Monterrey.
After that war he was chiefly involved in lighthouse and breakwater construction and coastal surveying in Florida and New Jersey. He designed Barnegat Light on Long Beach Island, Absecon Light in Atlantic City, Cape May Light in Cape May, Jupiter Inlet Light in Jupiter, Florida, and Sombrero Key Light in the Florida Keys. He also designed a hydraulic lamp that was adopted by the Lighthouse Board for use in American lighthouses. Meade received an official promotion to first lieutenant in 1851, and to captain in 1856.
In 1857, Meade relieved Lt. Col. James Kearney on the Lakes Survey mission of the Great Lakes. Completion of the survey of Lake Huron and extension of the surveys of Lake Michigan down to Grand and Little Traverse Bays were done under his command. Prior to Captain Meade's command, Great Lakes' water level readings were taken locally with temporary gauges; a uniform plane of reference had not been established. In 1858, based on his recommendation, instrumentation was set in place for the tabulation of records across the basin. In 1860, the first detailed report of Great Lakes was published. Meade stayed with the Lakes Survey until the 1861 outbreak of the Civil War.
American Civil War
Meade was appointed brigadier general of volunteers on August 31, 1861, a few months after the start of the American Civil War, based on the strong recommendation of Pennsylvania Governor Andrew Curtin. He was assigned command of the 2nd Brigade of the Pennsylvania Reserves, recruited early in the war, which he led competently, initially in the construction of defenses around Washington, D.C. He eventually came to command a brigade in the Pennsylvania Reserves Division of the Army of the Potomac. In early 1862, with the army being reorganized into corps, Meade served as part of the I Corps under Maj. Gen Irvin McDowell. The I Corps was stationed in the Rappahannock area, but in June, the Pennsylvania Reserves were detached and sent to the Peninsula to reinforce the main army. With the onset of the Seven Days Battles on June 25, the Reserves were in the thick of the fighting. At Mechanicsville and Gaines Mill, Meade's brigade was mostly held in reserve, but at Glendale on June 30, it was heavily engaged. Meade was shot in the right arm and through the back. He was sent home to Philadelphia to rest and recuperate. Meade resumed command of his brigade in time for the Northern Virginia Campaign and the Second Battle of Bull Run, in which he led his brigade, then assigned to Maj. Gen. Irvin McDowell's corps of the Army of Virginia. His brigade made a heroic stand on Henry House Hill to protect the rear of the retreating Union Army. At the start of the Maryland Campaign, the division's commander John F. Reynolds was sent to Pennsylvania to train militia units, so Meade assumed temporary division command. When Meade's brigade stormed the heights at South Mountain, Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker, his corps commander, was heard to exclaim, "Look at Meade! Why, with troops like those, led in that way, I can win anything!" At the Battle of Antietam, Meade assumed command of the I Corps after Hooker was wounded and the ranking division commander, James B. Ricketts, was injured when his horse was shot from underneath him. During the Battle of Fredericksburg, Meade's division made the only breakthrough of the Confederate lines, spearheading through a gap in Lt. Gen. Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson's corps at the southern end of the battlefield. For this action, Meade was promoted to major general of volunteers, to rank from November 29, 1862, and major in the regular army, to rank from June 18. However, his attack was not reinforced, resulting in the loss of much of his division.
Meade considered himself deserving of a corps command after the hard service he'd performed during the summer 1862 campaigns, but instead Daniel Butterfield, his junior in rank and a political appointee, received command of the V Corps on November 16. New Army of the Potomac commander Ambrose Burnside told Meade that this was only a temporary arrangement. He replaced Butterfield in command of the corps on Christmas Day, but a month later was elevated to grand division command after the departure of William B. Franklin. After Hooker's dissolution of the grand division system, Meade was returned to command of V Corps, which he led in the Battle of Chancellorsville the following spring. General Hooker, then commanding the Army of the Potomac, had grand plans for the campaign, but was unsuccessful in execution, allowing the Confederates to seize the initiative. Meade's corps was left in reserve for most of the battle, contributing to the Union defeat. Afterward, Meade argued strongly with Hooker for resuming the attack against Lee, but to no avail.
Army of the Potomac and Gettysburg
Hooker resigned from command of the Army of the Potomac while pursuing Lee in the Gettysburg Campaign. In the early morning hours of June 28, 1863, a messenger from President Abraham Lincoln arrived to inform Meade of his appointment as Hooker's replacement. Meade was taken by surprise and later wrote to his wife that when the officer entered his tent to wake him, he assumed that Army politics had caught up with him and he was being arrested. He had not actively sought command and was not the president's first choice. John F. Reynolds, one of four major generals who outranked Meade in the Army of the Potomac, had earlier turned down the president's suggestion that he take over. The four generals, Reynolds, John Sedgwick, Henry Slocum, and Winfield Hancock, recommended him for command of the army and agreed to serving under him despite outranking him.
Meade assumed command at Prospect Hall in Frederick, Maryland. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia was invading Pennsylvania and, as a former corps commander, Meade had little knowledge of the disposition of the rest of his new army. Having known Meade during the Mexican War, Lee declared that Meade would make no blunders in his front and that if he (Lee) did so, Meade would readily exploit them. Only three days later Meade confronted Lee in the pivotal Battle of Gettysburg, July 1–3, 1863. The battle began almost by accident, as the result of a chance meeting engagement between Confederate infantry and Union cavalry in Gettysburg on July 1. By the end of the first day, two Union infantry corps had been almost destroyed, but had taken up positions on favorable ground. Meade rushed the remainder of his army to Gettysburg and skillfully deployed his forces for a defensive battle, reacting swiftly to fierce assaults on his line's left, right, and center, culminating in Lee's disastrous assault on the center, known as Pickett's Charge.
During the three days, Meade made excellent use of capable subordinates, such as Maj. Gens. John F. Reynolds and Winfield S. Hancock, to whom he delegated great responsibilities. Unfortunately for Meade's reputation, he did not skillfully manage the political manipulators he inherited from Hooker. Maj. Gens. Daniel Sickles, III Corps commander, and Daniel Butterfield, Meade's chief of staff, caused him difficulty later in the war, questioning his command decisions and courage. Sickles had developed a personal vendetta against Meade because of Sickles's allegiance to Joseph Hooker, whom Meade had replaced, and because of controversial disagreements at Gettysburg. Sickles had either mistakenly or deliberately disregarded Meade's orders about placing his corps in the defensive line, which led to that corps' destruction and placed the entire army at risk on the second day of battle. Radical Republicans, some of whom like Thaddeus Stevens were former Know Nothings and hostile to Irish Catholics like Meade's family, in the Joint Committee on the Conduct of the War suspected that Meade was a Copperhead and tried in vain to relieve him from command.
Following their severe losses at Gettysburg, General Lee's army retreated to Virginia. Meade was criticized by President Lincoln and others for not aggressively pursuing the Confederates during their retreat. Meade's perceived caution stemmed from three causes: casualties and exhaustion of the Army of the Potomac which had engaged in forced marches and heavy fighting for a week, heavy general officer casualties that impeded effective command and control, and a desire to guard a hard won victory against a sudden reversal. At one point, the Army of Northern Virginia was trapped with its back to the rain-swollen, almost impassable Potomac River, however, the Army of Northern Virginia was able to erect strong defensive positions before Meade, whose army had also been weakened by the fighting, could organize an effective attack. Lincoln believed that this wasted an opportunity to end the war and was concerned by an exultant message from Meade that the enemy had been driven from "our soil." Lincoln heard echoes of McClellan in this. Nonetheless, Meade was rewarded for his actions at Gettysburg by a promotion to brigadier general in the regular army and the Thanks of Congress, which commended Meade "... and the officers and soldiers of [the Army of the Potomac], for the skill and heroic valor which at Gettysburg repulsed, defeated, and drove back, broken and dispirited, beyond the Rappahannock, the veteran army of the rebellion." Meade wrote the following to his wife after meeting President Lincoln:
Yesterday I received an order to repair to Washington, to see the President. ... The President was, as he always is, very considerate and kind. He found no fault with my operations, although it was very evident he was disappointed that I had not got a battle out of Lee. He coincided with me that there was not much to be gained by any farther advance; but General Halleck was very urgent that something should be done, but what that something was he did not define. As the Secretary of War was absent in Tennessee, final action was postponed till his return.— General Meade
During the rest of the campaigning season in 1863, Meade was hobbled by the transfer of his XI and XII Corps to the Western Theater. Meade outmaneuvered Lee in the Bristoe Campaign, gaining a small victory. But his Mine Run Campaign failed when General French and the Third Corps bogged down.
Meade was a competent man and outwardly modest, although wartime correspondence with his wife reveal his ego and ambition. A British reporter described Meade: "He is a very remarkable looking man—tall, spare, of a commanding figure in presence, his manner pleasant and easy but having much dignity. His head is partially bald and is small and compact, but the forehead is high. He has the late Duke of Wellington class of nose, and his eyes, which have a serious and almost sad expression, are rather sunken, or appear so from the prominence of the curve nasal appearance. He has a decidedly patrician and distinguished appearance." Meade's short temper earned him notoriety, and while he was respected by most of his peers, he at times was not well loved by his army. Some referred to him as "a damned old goggle-eyed snapping turtle."
Meade and Grant
When Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant was appointed commander of all Union armies in March 1864, Meade offered to resign. He stated the task at hand was of such importance that he would not stand in the way of Grant choosing the right man for the job and offered to serve wherever placed. Grant assured Meade he had no intentions of replacing him. Grant later wrote that this incident gave him a more favorable opinion of Meade than the great victory at Gettysburg.
Grant made his headquarters with Meade for the remainder of the war, which caused Meade to chafe at the close supervision he received. Following an incident in June 1864, in which Meade disciplined reporter Edward Cropsey from The Philadelphia Inquirer newspaper for an unfavorable article, all of the press assigned to his army agreed to mention Meade only in conjunction with setbacks. Meade apparently knew nothing of this arrangement, and the reporters giving all of the credit to Grant angered Meade.
Additional differences caused further friction between Grant and Meade. Waging a war of attrition in his Overland Campaign against Robert E. Lee, Grant was willing to suffer previously unacceptable losses with the knowledge that the Union Army had replacement soldiers available, whereas the Confederates did not. Meade, despite his aggressive performance in lesser commands in 1862, had become a more cautious general and more concerned about the futility of attacking entrenched positions. Most of the bloody repulses his army suffered in the Overland Campaign were ordered by Grant, although the aggressive maneuvering that eventually cornered Lee in the trenches around Petersburg were Grant's initiative as well.
Meade was additionally frustrated by the manner in which Grant sometimes gave preferable treatment to subordinates that he had brought with him from the Western Theater. A primary example of this was Grant's interference with Meade's direction of Maj. Gen. Philip Sheridan's Cavalry Corps. The Army of the Potomac had used cavalry for couriers, scouting, and headquarters guards for most of its existence. Only Joe Hooker had contemplated using them in an aggressive fashion, and Meade had largely continued established practice. Sheridan objected and told Meade that he could "whip Stuart" if Meade let him. Meade reported the conversation to Grant, who replied, "Well, he generally knows what he is talking about. Let him start right out and do it." Meade deferred to Grant's judgment and issued orders to Sheridan to "proceed against the enemy's cavalry" and from May 9 through May 24, sent him on a raid toward Richmond, directly challenging the Confederate cavalry.
Although Meade generally performed effectively under Grant's supervision in the Overland Campaign and the Richmond-Petersburg Campaign, a few instances of bad judgment marred his legacy. During the Battle of Cold Harbor, Meade inadequately supervised his corps commanders and did not insist they perform reconnaissance before their disastrous frontal assault. Inexplicably, Meade wrote to his wife immediately after the attack and expressed pride that it was he who had ordered the attack. During the initial assaults on Petersburg, Meade again failed to coordinate the attacks of his corps before General Lee could reinforce the line, resulting in the ten-month stalemate, the Siege of Petersburg. He approved the plan of Maj. Gen. Ambrose Burnside to plant explosives in a mine shaft dug underneath the Confederate line east of Petersburg, but at the last minute he changed Burnside's plan to lead the attack with a well-trained African-American division that was highly drilled just for this action, instructing him to take a politically less risky course and substitute an untrained and poorly led white division. The resulting Battle of the Crater was one of the great fiascoes of the war. In all of these cases, Grant bears some of the responsibility for approving Meade's plans, but Meade's performance was not at the same level of competence he displayed on other occasions.
After Spotsylvania, Grant requested that Meade be promoted to major general of the regular army. In a telegram to Secretary of War Edwin Stanton on May 13, 1864, Grant stated that "Meade has more than met my most sanguine expectations. He and [William T.] Sherman are the fittest officers for large commands I have come in contact with." Meade felt slighted that his promotion was processed after that of Sherman and Philip Sheridan, the latter his subordinate. However, his date of rank meant that he was outranked at the end of the war only by Grant, Halleck, and Sherman.</ref> Although he fought during the Appomattox Campaign, Grant and Sheridan received most of the credit. He was not present when Robert E. Lee surrendered at Appomattox Court House.
Meade's decisions in command of the Army of the Potomac have been the focus of controversy. He has been accused of not being aggressive enough in pursuit of Confederate forces, and being reluctant to attack on occasion. His reputation among the public and 19th century historians suffered as a result of his short temper, his bad relationship with the press, his place in the shadow of the victorious Grant, and particularly the damaging fallout from the controversies with Dan Sickles. Recent historical works have portrayed him in a more positive light. They have acknowledged that Meade displayed and acted upon an understanding of the necessary changes in tactics brought about by improvements in weapons technology, such as his decisions to entrench when practicable and not to launch frontal assaults on fortified positions. In addition, the Army of the Potomac had suffered very heavily at Gettysburg, with over 20,000 casualties and the loss of many of its best officers and enlisted men, including three corps commanders; as a result, Meade may have been justified in not attempting a rapid pursuit with his army in such a battered condition.
Later life and death
Meade was a commissioner of Fairmount Park in Philadelphia from 1866 until his death. The people of Philadelphia gave his widow a house at 1836 Delancey Place, where he lived. The house still has the word "Meade" over the door, but it is now used as apartments. He also held various military commands, including the Department of the East and the Department of the South. He replaced Major General John Pope as governor of the Reconstruction Third Military District in Atlanta on January 10, 1868.
In 1869, following Grant's inauguration as President, Sherman succeeded him to the rank of General of the Army, opening up the Lieutenant General rank. At the time, the senior-most Major Generals were Halleck (who, by then, was an outcast), and then Meade. Before the inauguration, Meade met with Grant and intimated that he felt most deserving of the rank, by virtue of merit and seniority; nevertheless, Grant nominated Sheridan to the rank over the senior Meade, and the latter effectively served in semi-retirement as the commander of the Military Division of the Atlantic from his home in Philadelphia.
Meade received an honorary doctorate in law (LL.D.) from Harvard University, and his scientific achievements were recognized by various institutions, including the American Philosophical Society and the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences.
Having long suffered from complications caused by his war wounds, Meade died on November 6, 1872, at the age of 56, still on active duty, following a battle with pneumonia. He was buried at Laurel Hill Cemetery.
|Memorials to George G. Meade|
There are statues memorializing Meade throughout the United States, including statues at Gettysburg National Military Park, the George Gordon Meade Memorial statue by Charles Grafly, in Washington DC, and both the equestrian statue by Alexander Milne Calder and one by Daniel Chester French atop the Smith Memorial Arch, both in Fairmount Park in Philadelphia. The United States Army's Fort George G. Meade in Fort Meade, Maryland, is named for him, as are Meade County, Kansas, and Meade County, South Dakota. The Old Baldy Civil War Round Table in Philadelphia is named in honor of Meade's horse during the war. In World War II, the United States liberty ship SS George G. Meade was named in his honor.
One-thousand-dollar Treasury Note, also called Coin notes, of the Series 1890 and 1891, feature portraits of Meade on the obverse. The 1890 Series note is called the Grand Watermelon Note by collectors, because the large zeroes on the reverse resemble the pattern on a watermelon.
In 2015 General Meade was elected posthumously as a companion of the Pennsylvania Commandery of the Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States (MOLLUS). During his life, Meade was invited to join MOLLUS but refused.
- George Meade Easby, great-grandson.
- Matthew Fox, actor and great-great-great-grandson .
- Happy Rockefeller, great-great-granddaughter.
In popular culture
- The Dramatic Life of Abraham Lincoln (1924) – Alfred Allen
- Virginia City (1940) – Thurston Hall
- The Blue and the Gray (1982 TV miniseries) – Rory Calhoun
- Gettysburg: Three Days of Destiny (2004) – Andy Waskie
- Battlefield Detectives (2004 TV) – Mike Brown
- No Retreat from Destiny: The Battle That Rescued Washington (2006 video) – Paul Bugelski
- Meade's Army (2012) Is an album by musician and artist Jeph Jacques
- 1883 (2021) features an appearance by Tom Hanks as General Meade in the second episode of the series.
Dates of rank
|No insignia||Cadet, USMA||September 1, 1831||Regular Army|
|Second Lieutenant||July 1, 1835 (brevet)
December 31, 1835 (permanent)
|First Lieutenant||September 23, 1846 (brevet)
August 4, 1851 (permanent)
|Captain||May 19, 1856||Regular Army|
|Brigadier General||August 31, 1861||Volunteers|
|Major||June 18, 1862||Regular Army|
|Major General||November 29, 1862||Volunteers|
|Brigadier General||July 3, 1863||Regular Army|
|Major General||August 18, 1864||Regular Army|
- Warner 1964, p. 315.
- Baltzell, Edward Digby (1958). Philadelphia Gentlemen: The Making of a National Upper Class. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 142. ISBN 978-0-88738-789-0. Retrieved February 6, 2023.
- Huntington 2013, p. 11.
- Huntington 2013, p. 12.
- Stowe, pp. 42–61.
- Stowe, pp. 61–65.
- Huntington 2013, p. 13.
- Eicher & Eicher 2001, p. 384.
- Heidler & Heidler 2002, p. 1295.
- Tagg 1998, p. 1.
- Hunt, p. 22
- Dean, Love, Reef Lights: Seaswept Lighthouses of the Florida Keys, The Historic Key West Preservation Board, 1982, ISBN 0-943528-03-8. McCarthy, Kevin M., Florida Lighthouses. University of Florida Press, 1990, ISBN 0-8130-0993-6.
- Eicher & Eicher 2001, p. 385.
- Cape May Lighthouse history
- Woodford, Arthur, Charting the Inland Seas: A History of the U.S. Lakes Survey, Wayne State University Press, 1994, ISBN 978-0-8143-2499-8.
- Tagg 1998, pp. 2–3.
- Warner 1964, p. 316.
- Tagg 1998, p. 3.
- Coddington 1997, p. 216.
- Hooker was disputing troop dispositions with General in Chief Henry W. Halleck and offered his resignation as a protest. Halleck and President Lincoln, dissatisfied with Hooker's performance at Chancellorsville and his lackluster pursuit of Lee in the current campaign, seized upon this opportunity and accepted his resignation.
- Coddington 1997, p. 37.
- Coddington 1997, p. 209.
- "Meade Takes Command Historical Marker".
- Tagg 1998, pp. 4–6.
- Sears 1997, pp. 215–222. sfn error: no target: CITEREFSears1997 (help)
- Heidler & Heidler 2002, p. 1296.
- Warner 1964, pp. 316–317.
- The Life and Letters of George Gordon Meade, Major-General United States Army, Vol. 2, (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1913), p. 154.
- Heidler & Heidler 2002, pp. 1295–1296.
- Tagg 1998, pp. 1–4.
- Grant, chap. XLVI (vol. II, p. 117).
- Jaynes 1986, pp. 114–115.
- Rhea 2000, pp. 60–64.
- Jaynes 1986, pp. 156–169.
- Davis 1986, pp. 39–52.
- Davis 1986, pp. 64–88.
- Grant, chapter LII (vol. II, p. 235). He further stated that "I would not like to see one of these promotions at this time without seeing both."
- Eicher & Eicher 2001, p. 703.
- Warner, p. 644. Sherman was appointed on August 12, 1864, and confirmed on December 12 with date of rank August 12. Sheridan was appointed November 14 with date of rank November 8. Meade was not appointed until November 26, although his date of rank was established as August 18, meaning he technically outranked Sheridan, but was embarrassed that his name was not put forward first. The U.S. Senate confirmed Sherman and Sheridan on January 13, 1865, Meade on February 1. Subsequently, Sheridan was promoted to lieutenant general over Meade on March 4, 1869, after Grant became president and Sherman became the commanding general of the U.S. Army.
- Eicher & Eicher 2001, pp. 701–702.
- See, for example, Gallagher, essay by Richard A. Sauers, pp. 231-44.
- "George G. Meade - American Civil War - HISTORY.com". HISTORY.com. Retrieved March 29, 2018.
- Cole, Arthur C.; Meade, George; Meade, George Gordon (March 1915). "The Life and Letters of George Gordon Meade, Major-General United States Army". The Mississippi Valley Historical Review. 1 (4): 296–301. doi:10.2307/1886971. ISSN 0161-391X. JSTOR 1886971.
- "APS Member History". search.amphilsoc.org. Retrieved April 27, 2021.
- Laurel Hill Cemetery
- "The Soldier's Rest.; Obsequies of Gen. Meade in Philadelphia" (PDF). The New York Times. November 11, 1872.
- Federal Writers' Project (1940). South Dakota place-names, v.1-3. University of South Dakota. p. 38. Archived from the original on June 6, 2016.
- "Visitors didn't stand a 'ghost of a chance': George G. Meade Easby, a one-of-a-kind Hiller" Archived August 12, 2010, at the Wayback Machine, Chestnut Hill Local, December 15, 2005.
- "Ancestry of Matthew Fox". freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.com. Archived from the original on March 23, 2008. Retrieved July 14, 2010.
- "Meade's Army, by Deathmole". Deathmole.
- Melas, Chloe (December 27, 2021). "Tom Hanks makes cameo in '1883'". cnn.com. CNN. Retrieved March 9, 2022.
- Cullum, George W. (1891). Biographical register of the officers and graduates of the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, N.Y., from its establishment in 1802 to 1890. Vol. I (3rd ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin. pp. 601–609.
- Official Army Register for January 1871. Washington: Adjutant General's Office. 1871. p. 3.
- Coddington, Edwin B. (1997). The Gettysburg Campaign: A Study in Command. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-684-84569-2.
- Davis, William C. (1986). Death in the Trenches: Grant at Petersburg - Volume 22 of Civil War. Time-Life Books. ISBN 978-0-809-44777-0.
- Eicher, John H.; Eicher, David J. (2001). Civil War High Commands. Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-3641-3.
- Gallagher, Gary W. (1999). Three Days at Gettysburg: Essays on Confederate and Union Leadership. Kent State University Press. ISBN 0-87338-629-9.
- Grant, Ulysses S. (1885). Personal Memoirs of U.S. Grant. Charles L. Webster & Company.
- Heidler, David Stephen; Heidler, Jeanne T. (2002). Encyclopedia of the American Civil War: A Political, Social, and Military History. W.W. Norton. ISBN 978-0-3930-4758-5.
- Hunt, Harrison. Heroes of the Civil War. New York: Military Press, 1990. ISBN 0-517-01739-3.
- Huntington, Tom (2013). Searching for George Gordon Meade: The Forgotten Victor of Gettysburg. Stackpole Books. ISBN 978-0-8117-0813-5.
- Jaynes, Gregory (1986). The Killing Ground: Wilderness to Cold Harbor - Volume 1 of Civil War. Time-Life Books. ISBN 978-0-809-44768-8.
- Rhea, Gordon C. (2000). To the North Anna River: Grant and Lee, May 13–25, 1864. Louisiana State University Press. ISBN 978-0-8071-3111-4.
- Sears, Stephen W. (1999). Controversies & Commanders: Dispatches from the Army of the Potomac. Houghton Mifflin Company. ISBN 978-0-618-05706-1.
- Stowe, Christopher S. "A Philadelphia Gentleman: the Cultural, Institutional, and Political Socialization of George Gordon Meade". PhD diss., University of Toledo, 2005.
- Tagg, Larry (1998). The Generals of Gettysburg - The Leaders of America's Greatest Battle. Da Capo Press. ISBN 978-0-306-81242-2.
- Warner, Ezra J. (1964). Generals in Blue: Lives of the Union Commanders. Louisiana State University Press. ISBN 0-8071-0822-7.
- Meade family genealogy at rootsweb.com
- Meade biography at civilwarhome.com
- Cape May Lighthouse history
- Historical marker website
- Brown, Canter Jr. (1991). "Moving a military road" (PDF). South Florida History Magazine. No. 2. pp. 8–11. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 13, 2016. Retrieved November 18, 2017 – via HistoryMiami.
- Cleaves, Freeman. Meade of Gettysburg. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1991. ISBN 0-8061-2298-6.
- Hall, Jeffrey C. The Stand of the U.S. Army at Gettysburg. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2003. ISBN 0-253-34258-9.
- Hyde, Bill, ed. The Union Generals Speak: The Meade Hearings on the Battle of Gettysburg. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2003. ISBN 0-8071-2581-4.
- Meade, Col. George. The Life and Letters of George Gordon Meade, Major-General United States Army. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1913. OCLC 985820.
- Sauers, Richard Allen. Meade: Victor of Gettysburg. Military Profiles. London: Brassey's, 2003. ISBN 978-1-57488-418-0.
- Sears, Stephen W. Gettysburg. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2003. ISBN 0-395-86761-4.
- The George G. Meade collection, including papers covering all aspects of his career, are available for research use at the Historical Society of Pennsylvania.
- General Meade Society of Philadelphia
- Philadelphia Civil War Museum Meade collection
- George G. Meade in Encyclopedia Virginia
- Military biography of George G. Meade from the Cullum biographies
- Pictures of U.S. Treasury Notes featuring George G. Meade, provided by the Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco.
- Photographs of Meade at the Wayback Machine (archived February 8, 2008)