George Monro (British Army officer)

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George Monro
Clonfin, County Longford, Kingdom of Ireland
Died3 November 1757 (aged 56–57)
Albany, Province of New York
Allegiance Kingdom of Great Britain
Service/branch British Army
Years of service1718–1757
Battles/warsSeven Years' War
RelationsGeorge Munro, 1st of Auchinbowie (father)

Lieutenant-Colonel George Monro (sometimes spelled "Munro") (1700–1757) was a Scots-Irish officer in the British Army. He is best remembered for his unsuccessful defense of Fort William Henry in 1757 during the French and Indian War. After surrendering with full honours of war to French General Louis-Joseph de Montcalm, he and his troops were attacked by France's Native allies. The events of the siege were made famous by James Fenimore Cooper in his novel The Last of the Mohicans.

Early life and career[edit]

Monro was born in Clonfin, County Longford, Ireland, in about 1700. He was the younger son of George Munro, 1st of Auchinbowie, who was famed for his victory at the Battle of Dunkeld in 1689 in Scotland.[1] However, when John Alexander Inglis wrote his history of the Monro of Auchinbowie family in 1911, he had not then identified the younger George Monro as a member of the family.[1]

Monro joined Otway's Regiment, the 35th Regiment of Foot, as a Lieutenant in 1718. He appears to have had an unremarkable military career by rising in the ranks to lieutenant-colonel by 1750.[citation needed]

Seven Years' War[edit]

Hostilities between Britain and France were soon renewed with the outbreak of the Seven Years' War in 1756. The 35th Regiment was deployed to America, where Monro relieved Lieutenant-Colonel William Eyre as commander of Fort William Henry in the Province of New York.[2]: 95  That summer, the French General Louis-Joseph de Montcalm led a force of 7,626 French and Native troops in a weeklong Siege of Fort William Henry. Effectively cut off from the main British force, commanded by General Daniel Webb, the 2,327-man British garrison stood little chance of holding the fort once the French began formal siege operations on 3 August. Monro was forced to open negotiations with Montcalm on 9 August.[3]

Monro's tenacious defence of the fort won him generous terms of surrender from Montcalm. The British were accorded the full honours of war by being allowed to keep their colours, muskets and a single symbolic cannon. The garrison would be paroled and allowed to march to the British-held Fort Edward, about 17 miles (27 km) away.

However, it was not to be. As Monro led his garrison from Fort William Henry the next day, the Native American warriors attacked the British soldiers and killed approximately 185 of them. Monro actually survived the massacre, but he died suddenly in Albany just three months later, on 3 November 1757.[4][3]

In popular culture[edit]

Colonel Munro is portrayed in James Fennimore Cooper's story The Last of the Mohicans, in which he is the father of two daughters, Alice and Cora. (In reality Munro never married or had children)[5] In the story, he plays a similar role as he did in history, leading the defense of Fort William Henry.[6]

In the blockbuster 1992 film adaptation, in which he is portrayed (by Scottish actor Maurice Roëves) as being killed in the massacre by Montcalm's Native allies, the leader of whom (Magua) cuts his heart out as revenge for Monro killing his family.[7][8] He is also portrayed in the 1920 silent film by James Gordon,[9][10][11] in the 1932 version by Edward Hearn,[12][13] in the 1936 version by Hugh Buckler[14] and in the 1965 version by Paul Muller[15][16][17] and in the 1968 version by Otto Ambros.[18]

Monro is also portrayed as a supporting character in the 2014 action-adventure video game Assassin's Creed Rogue.[19] He is shown to be a noble character, seeking to help the people of New York City recover from the gang violence and the disrepair of the city.[20] He is a member of the Templar Order and assists Christopher Gist and the protagonist Shay Patrick Cormac until he is killed by Assassin Liam O'Brien in Albany after the fall of Fort William Henry.[21][22][23] He is voiced by Graham J. Cuthbertson.[24]


  1. ^ a b Holden, James A.; Inglis, John Alexander (1914). "The Lineage of Colonel George Monro - Proceedings of the New York State Historical Association". Proceedings of the New York State Historical Association. 13: 389–403. JSTOR 42889472.
  2. ^ Steele, Ian kenneth (1990). Betrayals: Fort William Henry and the "Massacre". Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195058932.
  3. ^ a b "Colonel Monro ... The Scotsman". Retrieved 13 April 2022.
  4. ^ McLynn, Frank (2004). 1759: The Year Britain Became Master of the World. Atlantic Monthly Press. ISBN 9780871138811.
  5. ^ McManus, John C. (28 January 2010). U.S. Military History For Dummies. John Wiley & Sons. p. 71. ISBN 9780470643235.
  6. ^ Nester, William R. (13 February 2008). The Epic Battles for Ticonderoga, 1758. SUNY Press. p. 6. ISBN 9780791473221.
  7. ^ Brereton, Pat (2005). Hollywood Utopia: Ecology in Contemporary American Cinema. Intellect Books. p. 270. ISBN 9781841501178.
  8. ^ Rollins, Peter (23 January 2011). Hollywood's Indian: The Portrayal of the Native American in Film. University Press of Kentucky. p. 264. ISBN 9780813131658.
  9. ^ Waldman, Harris (1 January 2001). Maurice Tourneur: The Life and Films. McFarland & Company. p. 104. ISBN 9780786409570.
  10. ^ Österberg, Bertil O. (2001). Colonial America on Film and Television: A Filmography. McFarland & Company. p. 267. ISBN 9780786408627.
  11. ^ Nollen, Scott Allen (1 January 1991). Boris Karloff: A Critical Account of His Screen, Stage, Radio, Television, and Recording Work. McFarland & Company. p. 350. ISBN 9780899505800.
  12. ^ Harmon, Jim; Glut, Donald F. (1973). "The Classics "You Say 'What Dost Thou Mean By That?' and Push Him Off the Cliff"". The Great Movie Serials: Their Sound and Fury. Routledge. p. 324. ISBN 978-0-7130-0097-9.
  13. ^ Hischak, Thomas S. (18 June 2012). American Literature on Stage and Screen: 525 Works and Their Adaptations. McFarland & Company. p. 114. ISBN 9780786492794.
  14. ^ Motion Picture Herald. Vol. 124. Quigley Publishing Company. 1936. p. 18.
  15. ^ Bianco e nero. Vol. 8. Editrice Il castoro. 1967. p. 114.
  16. ^ La Saison cinématographique. Vol. 30. U.F.O.L.E.I.S. 1948. p. 62.
  17. ^ "Uncas, el fin de una raza". ABC (in Spanish). 16 March 2017. Retrieved 6 January 2018.
  18. ^ Österberg, Bertil O. (2001). Colonial America on Film and Television: A Filmography. McFarland & Company. p. 184. ISBN 9780786408627.
  19. ^ S. Fernández, Jorge (9 March 2015). "Análisis de Assassin's Creed Rogue para PC". Hobby Consolas (in Spanish). Retrieved 7 January 2018.
  20. ^ Pugliese, Tommaso (9 March 2015). "Tutto è lecito". Multiplayer (in Italian). Retrieved 7 January 2018.
  21. ^ Gallagher, Jason; Saavedra, John (26 October 2017). "Assassin's Creed Origins and the Story So Far". Den of a Geek. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
  22. ^ Sears, Connor (13 October 2014). "Assassin's Creed Rogue Story Trailer Confirms PC Version For Early 2015, Gives Players First Look At Returning Assassin Characters". Gamenguide. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
  23. ^ Alisonno, Tommaso (17 October 2014). "Preview Assassin's Creed: Rogue". Game Surf (in Italian). Retrieved 7 January 2018.
  24. ^ Jablicko007. "George Monro". Postaby (in Czech). Retrieved 7 January 2018.

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