George Newnes

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George Newnes
Portrait of George Newnes.jpg
Newnes, no later than 1897
Member of Parliament, Newmarket
In office
1885–1895
Preceded byN/A
Succeeded byHarry McCalmont
Member of Parliament, Swansea
In office
1900–1910
Preceded byJohn Dillwyn-Llewellyn
Succeeded byAlfred Mond
Personal details
Born(1851-03-13)13 March 1851
Matlock Bath, Derbyshire, England
Died9 June 1910(1910-06-09) (aged 59)
Lynton, Devon, England
NationalityBritish
Political partyLiberal
Spouse(s)
Priscilla Hillyard
(m. 1875)
Children2, including Frank Newnes
ParentsThomas Mold Newnes
ResidenceHollerday House, Lynton, Devon
EducationSilcoates School
City of London School
OccupationNewspaper Proprietor, Publisher, Editor & Politician
Known forGeorge Newnes Ltd.

Sir George Newnes, 1st Baronet (13 March 1851 – 9 June 1910) was an English publisher and editor and a founding father of popular journalism. Newnes also served as a Liberal Party Member of Parliament for two decades. His company, George Newnes Ltd, was known for such periodicals as Tit-Bits and The Strand Magazine; it continued publishing ground-breaking consumer magazines such as Nova long after his death.

Background and education[edit]

His father, Thomas Mold Newnes, was a Congregational church minister at the Glenorchy Chapel, Matlock.[1][2] George Newnes was born in Matlock Bath, Derbyshire,[1][3] and educated at Silcoates School and then at Shireland Hall, Warwickshire, and the City of London School.[1][2] In 1875, he married Priscilla Hillyard.[2] They had two sons; the eldest died at age eight (his death was said to have devastated his father),[4] and Frank Newnes (born 1876).

Career[edit]

Caricature of George Newnes by Leslie Ward ("Spy") in Vanity Fair magazine, 1894

In 1867 he entered commerce in the "fancy goods" trade, working in London and Manchester.[1][2]

He began his career in publishing in 1881 when he founded Tit-Bits[5] as a direct response to the Elementary Education Act 1870 which introduced education for children aged 5–12 and hence produced a new young generation able to read.[6]

The magazine was initially published in Manchester like a mini-encyclopedia, containing extracts from books and other publications, but principally a diverse range of tit-bits of information presented in an easy-to-read format. He funded the magazine by opening a vegetarian restaurant in Manchester.[7] The addition of competitions increased the readership of the periodical, and in 1884 Newnes moved publication to London.[1] He began to work with W. T. Stead, with whom he founded the Review of Reviews in 1890.[1] Tit-Bits reached a circulation of 700,000 by the end of the 19th century.[7] It paved the way for popular journalism – most significantly, the Daily Mail was founded by Alfred Harmsworth, a contributor to Tit-Bits, and the Daily Express was launched by Arthur Pearson, who worked at Tit-Bits for five years after winning a competition to get a job on the magazine.[7]

Arguably his best-known publication was The Strand Magazine, begun in 1891, in which Sir Arthur Conan Doyle was first able to publish his Sherlock Holmes mystery series.[7] He also founded other magazine titles, including The Wide World Magazine (1888), The Westminster Gazette (1893), and Country Life (1897).

Politically, Newnes was Liberal, and in 1885 he was elected as Member of Parliament (MP) for the newly created constituency of Eastern Cambridgeshire or Newmarket. He held the seat for ten years, before his defeat by the Conservative millionaire horse-breeder, Harry McCalmont in 1895.[1] In addition, Newnes refounded The Westminster Gazette in 1893 to support the Liberal party when The Pall Mall Gazette became a Unionist paper.[1]

In 1895 he was created a baronet "of Wildcroft, in the parish of Putney, in the county of London; of Hollerday Hill, in the parish of Lynton, and Hesketh House, in the borough of Torquay, both in the county of Devon."[8] He paid for the new Putney Library, built in 1899. Around this time he became the main sponsor of the Southern Cross Expedition to Antarctica; part of his contribution was the purchase of a movie camera from Arthur S. Newman, who would later supply similar cameras to Herbert Ponting of Captain Scott's 1910-3 Terra Nova Expedition and John Baptist Lucius Noel, photographer on the 1924 Mount Everest expedition.

He re-entered the Commons in 1900 as MP for Swansea, and held the seat until he retired at the January 1910 general election.[1]

Newnes built a large home called Hollerday House in Lynton, North Devon.[1] It was destroyed by fire in 1913.[9] He played a major part in the development of the twin towns of Lynton and Lynmouth. He built an innovative cliff railway — the Lynton and Lynmouth Cliff Railway — to join the two towns, and also provided the town hall and other amenities.[1] Largely as a result of Sir George's efforts, the 19-mile Lynton and Barnstaple Railway opened in 1898 ostensibly to bring visitors from the mainline railways at Barnstaple. (He was also involved in funding the Bridgnorth Cliff Railway and the Clifton Rocks Railway, as well as the Lynton Village railway station and the Lynmouth Bay railway station.)

Newnes provided a silver cup for the Newnes Trophy series of chess matches between Great Britain and the United States, conducted over transatlantic cable from 1896 to 1911.[10]

Sir George Newnes died at his Lynton home in June 1910 aged 59, having suffered ill health from diabetes for some time.[1] He was succeeded in the baronetcy by his son, Frank Newnes, who had served as MP for Bassetlaw, Nottinghamshire from 1906 to 1910.[1]

The abandoned oil shale mining site of Newnes, Australia was named after him.

Publishing company[edit]

In 1891 his publishing business was formed into a company that bore his name, George Newnes Ltd. The company was reconstructed in 1897 with a capital of 1,000,000 pounds, and began the publication of books.[1] In 1896 Newnes founded the book series, The Penny Library of Famous Books.[11]

After Newnes' death in 1910, his son Frank Newnes succeeded him as president of George Newnes Ltd. Decades after the proprietor's death, George Newnes Ltd (and its imprint C. Arthur Pearson Ltd) continued into the 1960s as one of London's three leading magazine publishers – along with Odhams Press and the Hulton Press – producing a diverse range of titles from Lady's Companion, Woman’s Own, Nova, Rave and Flair, to Practical Mechanics and Practical Television.

In 1959, the company was purchased by Odhams,[12][13][14] and in 1961, the company became part of the International Publishing Corporation.[15]

Today, books under the Newnes imprint continue to be published by Elsevier.[16][17]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "Obituary: Sir George Newnes". The Times. 10 June 1910. p. 13.
  2. ^ a b c d "Biographies of Candidates". The Times. 26 November 1885. p. 3.
  3. ^ Sir George at Biography.com accessed June 2007
  4. ^ A. J. A. Morris, 'Sir George Newnes', Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, OUP 2004–11
  5. ^ Adcock, John (24 September 2011). "Sir George Newnes, Bart.(1851–1910)". Yesterday's Papers.
  6. ^ "The 1870 Education Act". Parliament UK, Retrieved 21 Jan 2017.
  7. ^ a b c d Friederichs, Hulda (1911). George Newnes. London: Hodder & Stoughton (1911) Kessinger Publishing (2008). ISBN 978-0-548-88777-6. (republished 2008)
  8. ^ "No. 26598". The London Gazette. 15 February 1895. p. 911.
  9. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 12 January 2018. Retrieved 12 January 2018.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  10. ^ Golombek, Harry, ed. (1977), "Cable Matches", Golombek's Encyclopedia of Chess, Crown Publishing, p. 53, ISBN 0-517-53146-1
  11. ^ Penny Library of Famous Books, oac.cdlib.org, Online Archive of California. Retrieved 30 December 2018.
  12. ^ The Times (June 19, 1959).
  13. ^ "George Newnes Co," Grace's Guide to British Industrial History. Retrieved Apr. 1, 2021.
  14. ^ "Odhams Press," International Catalogue of Super-Heroes. Retrieved Mar. 3, 2021.
  15. ^ Birch, Paul. "Speaking Frankly," Archived 20 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine Birmingham Mail (14 December 2008).
  16. ^ "Newnes - Elsevier - Store".
  17. ^ "Newnes (Elsevier Inc) - Publisher Contact Information".

Sources[edit]

External links[edit]

Parliament of the United Kingdom
New constituency Member of Parliament for Newmarket
18851895
Succeeded by
Preceded by
Member of Parliament for Swansea
1900Jan. 1910
Succeeded by
Baronetage of the United Kingdom
New creation Baronet
(of Wildcroft)
1895–1910
Succeeded by