George Plantagenet, 1st Duke of Clarence
||This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. (February 2011)|
|Duke of Clarence|
21 October 1449|
Dublin Castle, Ireland
|Died||18 February 1478
Tower of London, London
|Spouse||Isabel Neville, Duchess of Clarence|
|Issue||Anne of York
Lady Margaret, Countess of Salisbury
Edward Plantagenet, 17th Earl of Warwick
Richard of York
|House||House of York|
|Father||Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York|
|Mother||Cecily Neville, Duchess of York|
George Plantagenet, 1st Duke of Clarence, 1st Earl of Salisbury, 1st Earl of Warwick KG (21 October 1449 – 18 February 1478) was the third son of Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York, and Cecily Neville, and the brother of English Kings Edward IV and Richard III. He played an important role in the dynastic struggle between rival factions of the Plantagenets known as the Wars of the Roses.
Though a member of the House of York, he switched sides to support the Lancastrians, before reverting to the Yorkists. He was later convicted of treason against his brother, Edward IV, and was executed (allegedly by being drowned in a butt of Malmsey wine). He appears as a character in William Shakespeare's plays Henry VI, part 3 and Richard III, in which his death is attributed to the machinations of Richard.
Clarence was born on 21 October 1449 in Dublin at a time when his father, the Duke of York, had begun to challenge Henry VI for the crown. His godfather was James FitzGerald, 6th Earl of Desmond. He was the third of the four sons of Richard and Cecily who survived to adulthood. His father died in 1460. In 1461 his elder brother, Edward, became King of England as Edward IV; he created his brother George Duke of Clarence in 1461 and invested him as a Knight of the Garter (also in 1461).
Clarence had actively supported his elder brother's claim to the throne, but when his father-in-law the Earl of Warwick (known as "the Kingmaker") deserted Edward IV to ally with Margaret of Anjou, consort of the deposed King Henry, Clarence joined him in France, taking his pregnant wife. She gave birth to their first child, a girl, on 16 April 1470, in a ship off Calais. The child died shortly afterwards. Henry VI rewarded Clarence by making him next in line to the throne after Edward of Westminster, justifying the exclusion of Edward IV either by attainder for his treason against Henry VI or on the grounds of his alleged illegitimacy.
After a short time, Clarence realized that his loyalty to his father-in-law was misplaced: Warwick had his younger daughter, Anne, marry Edward of Westminster, King Henry VI's heir in December 1470. Since it now seemed unlikely that Warwick would replace Edward IV with Clarence, Clarence changed sides.
Warwick's efforts to return Henry VI to the throne ultimately failed and Warwick was killed in battle (1471). The re-instated King Edward IV restored his brother Clarence to royal favour. As his father-in-law had died, Clarence became jure uxoris Earl of Warwick, but did not inherit the entire Warwick estate as his younger brother, Richard, Duke of Gloucester, married (ca. 1472) Anne Neville, the widowed younger sister of Clarence's wife. Clarence was created 1st Earl of Warwick [England] on 25 March 1472.
Like the first lords of Richmond, Peter II of Savoy and Ralph de Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland before him, Clarence received in 1462 the Honour of Richmond, a lifetime grant, but without the peerage title of Earl of Richmond.
Clarence's wife Isabel died on 22 December 1476, two months after giving birth to a short-lived son named Richard (6 October 1476 – 1 January 1477), and they are buried together at Tewkesbury Abbey in Gloucestershire. Their surviving children, Margaret and Edward, were cared for by their aunt, Anne Neville, until she died in 1485, when Edward was 10 years old. Though most historians now believe Isabel's death was a result of either consumption or childbed fever, Clarence was convinced she had been poisoned by one of her ladies-in-waiting, Ankarette Twynyho, whom, as a consequence, he had judicially murdered in April of 1477, by summarily arresting her and bullying a jury at Warwick into convicting her of murder by poisoning. She was hanged immediately after trial with John Thursby, a fellow defendant. Clarence's mental state, never stable, deteriorated from that point and led to his involvement in yet another rebellion against his brother Edward.
The arrest and committal to the Tower of one of Clarence's retainers, an Oxford astronomer named Dr John Stacey, led to his confession under torture that he had 'imagined and compassed' the death of the King, and used the black arts to accomplish this. He implicated one Thomas Burdett, and one Thomas Blake, a chaplain at Stacey's college. All three were tried for treason, convicted, and condemned to be drawn to Tyburn and hanged. Blake was saved at the eleventh hour by a plea for his life from James Goldwell, Bishop of Norwich, but the other two were put to death as ordered. This was a clear warning to Clarence, which he chose to ignore. He appointed Dr John Goddard to burst into Parliament and regale the House with Burdett and Stacey's declarations of innocence that they had made before their deaths. Goddard was a very unwise choice, as he was an ex-Lancastrian who had expounded Henry VI's claim to the throne.
Edward summoned Clarence to Windsor, severely upbraided him, accused him of treason, and ordered his immediate arrest and confinement.
Clarence was imprisoned in the Tower of London and put on trial for treason against his brother Edward IV. Clarence was not present - Edward IV himself prosecuted his brother, and demanded that Parliament pass a Bill of Attainder against his brother, declaring that he was guilty of 'unnatural, loathly treasons' which were aggravated by the fact that Clarence was his brother, who, if anyone did, owed him loyalty and love. Following his conviction, he was "privately executed" at the Tower on 18 February 1478, by tradition in the Bowyer Tower, and soon after the event, the rumour gained ground that he was drowned in a butt of Malmsey wine.
Titles, styles, honours and arms
Clarence is a principal character in two of William Shakespeare's history plays: Henry VI, Part 3 and The Tragedy of Richard III. Shakespeare portrays Clarence as weak-willed and changeable, his initial defection from Edward IV to Warwick is prompted by outrage at Edward IV's unwise marriage to Elizabeth Woodville. Despite several flowery speeches proclaiming loyalty to Warwick and to Henry VI, Clarence defects back to Edward IV's side almost as soon as he sees his brothers again; it takes only a few lines for his brothers to shame him into rejoining the Yorkist party. He later participates in the murder of Edward, Prince of Wales. Several lines reference his penchant for wine.
In Richard III, the play opens with Gloucester having framed Clarence for treason, using a soothsayer to sow doubt in the King's mind about his brother, and in the first scene Clarence is arrested and taken to the Tower. Gloucester nimbly stage-manages Clarence's death, fast-tracking the order of execution and then intercepting Edward IV's pardon when he changes his mind. In Act One Scene Four, Clarence recounts a terrifying nightmare, in which he has been pushed (accidentally) into the ocean by Gloucester and drowns, then finds himself in hell, accused of perjury by the ghosts of Warwick and Prince Edward. When he is attacked by assassins sent by Gloucester, he pleads eloquently and nobly but is stabbed and drowned in a butt of wine. It is Clarence's death that sends Edward IV into a fatal attack of guilt. He is the first character to die in the play and his ghost later appears to Gloucester, then already Richard III, and Henry VII of England before the Battle of Bosworth Field, cursing his brother and encouraging Henry VII.
- Anne of York (c. 17 April 1470), born and died in a ship off Calais.
- Margaret Pole, 8th Countess of Salisbury (14 August 1473 – 27 May 1541); married Sir Richard Pole; executed by Henry VIII.
- Edward Plantagenet, 17th Earl of Warwick (25 February 1475 – 28 November 1499); the last legitimate Plantagenet male at the time of his death; executed by Henry VII on grounds of attempting to escape from the Tower of London.
- Richard of York (6 October 1476 – 1 January 1477); born at Tewkesbury Abbey, Tewkesbury, Gloucestershire; died at Warwick Castle, Warwick, Warwickshire, where he was buried.
|This section does not cite any references (sources). (February 2013)|
- Alison Weir, Britain's Royal Family: A Complete Genealogy (London, U.K.: The Bodley Head, 1999), page 136.
- "George Plantagenet, duke of Clarence (English noble) -- Encyclopedia Britannica:". britannica.com. Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2014-01-20.
- European Heraldry. War of the Roses
- Marks of Cadency in the British Royal Family. Heraldica.org. Retrieved on 2012-07-09.
- Pinches, John Harvey; Pinches, Rosemary (1974), The Royal Heraldry of England, Heraldry Today, Slough, Buckinghamshire: Hollen Street Press, ISBN 0-900455-25-X
- Hicks, Michael (1992). False, Fleeting, Perjur'd Clarence: George, Duke of Clarence 1449–78 (rev. ed.). Bangor: Headstart History. ISBN 1-873041-08-X.
- Weir, Alison (2002). Britain's Royal Family: A Complete Genealogy. Bodley Head. pp. 136–7. ISBN 0-7126-4286-2.
- Pollard, A.J. (1991). Richard III and the Princes in the Tower. Bramley Books. p. 65. ISBN 978-1-85833-772-2.