George A. Romero
George A. Romero
Romero in Venice, 2009
George Andrew Romero
February 4, 1940
The Bronx, New York, U.S.
|Died||July 16, 2017 (aged 77)|
Toronto, Ontario, Canada
|Alma mater||Carnegie Mellon University|
|Known for||Films based on an imagined zombie apocalypse|
(m. 1971; div. 1978)
(m. 1980; div. 2010)
Suzanne Desrocher (m. 2011)
George Andrew Romero (//; February 4, 1940 – July 16, 2017) was an American-Canadian filmmaker, writer and editor. He is best known for his series of gruesome and satirical horror films about an imagined zombie apocalypse, beginning with Night of the Living Dead (1968). This film is often considered a progenitor of the fictional zombie of modern culture. Other films in the series include Dawn of the Dead (1978) and Day of the Dead (1985). Aside from this series, his works include The Crazies (1973), Martin (1978), Creepshow (1982), Monkey Shines (1988), The Dark Half (1993) and Bruiser (2000). He also created and executive-produced the 1983–88 television series Tales from the Darkside.
Romero was born in the New York City borough of the Bronx, the son of Ann (Dvorsky) and George Romero, a commercial artist. His mother was Lithuanian, and his father moved from Spain to Cuba as a child. His father has been reported as being born in A Coruña, with his family coming from the Galician town of Neda, although Romero once described his father as of Castilian descent.
Raised in the Bronx, he would frequently ride the subway into Manhattan to rent film reels to view at his house. He was one of only two people who repeatedly rented the opera-based film The Tales of Hoffmann; the other was future director Martin Scorsese. Romero attended Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh.
After graduating from college in 1960, Romero began his career shooting short films and TV commercials. One of his early commercial films was a segment for Mister Rogers' Neighborhood in which Fred Rogers underwent a tonsillectomy. With nine friends, including screenwriter John A. Russo, Romero formed, Image Ten Productions in the late 1960s. This is the production company that produced Night of the Living Dead (1968). Directed by Romero and co-written with John A. Russo, the movie became a cult classic and a defining moment for modern horror cinema.
Among the inspiration for Romero's filmmaking, as told to Robert K. Elder in an interview for The Film That Changed My Life, was the British film, The Tales of Hoffmann (1951) from the Powell and Pressburger team.
|“||It was the filmmaking, the fantasy, the fact that it was a fantasy and it had a few frightening, sort of bizarre things in it. It was everything. It was really a movie for me, and it gave me an early appreciation for the power of visual media—the fact that you could experiment with it. He was doing all his tricks in-camera, and they were sort of obvious. That made me feel that, gee, maybe I could figure this medium out. It was transparent, but it worked.||”|
1970s and 1980s
The three films that Romero created that followed Night of the Living Dead: There's Always Vanilla (1971), Jack's Wife / Season of the Witch (1972) and The Crazies (1973) were not as well received as Night of the Living Dead or some of his later work. The Crazies, dealing with a bio spill that induces an epidemic of homicidal madness, and the critically acclaimed arthouse success Martin (1978), a film that deals with the vampire myth, were the two well-known films from this period.
Romero returned to the zombie genre in 1978 with Dawn of the Dead. Shot on a budget of $1.5 million, the film earned over $55 million internationally and was later named one of the top cult films by Entertainment Weekly in 2003. He made the third entry in his "Dead Series" with Day of the Dead in 1985.
Between these two films, Romero shot Knightriders (1981), another festival favorite about a group of modern-day jousters who reenact tournaments on motorcycles; and Creepshow (1982), written by Stephen King, an anthology of tongue-in-cheek tales modeled after 1950s horror comics. The cult-classic success of Creepshow led to the creation of Romero's Tales from the Darkside, a horror anthology television series that aired from 1983 to 1988.
From the latter half of the 1980s and into the 1990s came Monkey Shines (1988), about a killer helper monkey; Two Evil Eyes (a.k.a. "Due occhi Diabolici", 1990), an Edgar Allan Poe adaptation in collaboration with Dario Argento; The Dark Half (1993) from a novel written by Stephen King; and Bruiser (2000), about a man whose face becomes a blank mask.
Romero updated his original screenplay and executive-produced the 1990 remake of Night of the Living Dead directed by Tom Savini for Columbia/TriStar. Savini is also responsible for the makeup and special effects in many of Romero's films including Dawn of the Dead, Day of the Dead, Creepshow, and Monkey Shines. Romero had a cameo appearance in Jonathan Demme's Academy Award-winning The Silence of the Lambs (1991) as one of Hannibal Lecter's jailers.
In 1998, he directed a live-action commercial promoting the videogame Resident Evil 2 in Tokyo. The 30-second advertisement featured the game's two main characters, Leon S. Kennedy and Claire Redfield, fighting a horde of zombies while in Raccoon City's police station. The project was obvious territory for Romero; the Resident Evil series has been heavily influenced by the "Dead Series". The commercial was popular and was shown in the weeks before the game's actual release, although a contract dispute prevented it from being shown outside Japan. Capcom was so impressed with Romero's work, it was strongly indicated that Romero would direct the first Resident Evil film. He declined at first — "I don't wanna make another film with zombies in it, and I couldn't make a movie based on something that ain't mine" — although in later years, he reconsidered and wrote a script for the first movie. It was eventually rejected in favor of Paul W. S. Anderson's version.
Universal Studios produced and released a 2004 remake of Dawn of the Dead, with which Romero was not involved. Later that year, Romero kicked off the DC Comics title Toe Tags with a six-issue miniseries titled The Death of Death. Based on an unused script that Romero had previously written for his "Dead Series", the comic miniseries concerns Damien, an intelligent zombie who remembers his former life, struggling to find his identity as he battles armies of both the living and the dead. Typical of a Romero zombie tale, the miniseries includes ample supply of both gore and social commentary (dealing particularly here with corporate greed and terrorism — ideas he would also explore in his next film in the series, Land of the Dead). Romero has stated that the miniseries is set in the same kind of world as his Dead films, but featured other locales besides Pittsburgh, where the majority of his films take place.
Romero, who lived in Toronto, directed a fourth Dead movie in that city, Land of the Dead, released in 2005. The movie's working title was "Dead Reckoning". Actors Simon Baker, Dennis Hopper, Asia Argento, and John Leguizamo starred, and the film was released by Universal Pictures (who released the Dawn of the Dead remake the year before). The film received generally positive reviews.
Some critics have seen social commentary in much of Romero's work. They view Night of the Living Dead as a film made in reaction to the turbulent 1960s, Dawn of the Dead as a satire on consumerism, Day of the Dead as a study of the conflict between science and the military, and Land of the Dead as an examination of class conflict.
In June 2006, Romero began his next project, called Zombisodes. Broadcast on the Internet, it is a combination of a series of "Making of" shorts and story expansion detailing the work behind the 2007 film George A. Romero's Diary of the Dead. Shooting began in Toronto in July 2006.
In August 2006, The Hollywood Reporter made two announcements about Romero, the first being that he would write and direct a film based on a short story by Koji Suzuki, author of Ring and Dark Water, called Solitary Isle and the second announcement pertaining to his signing on to write and direct George A. Romero's Diary of the Dead, which follows a group of college students filming a horror movie who proceed to film the events that follow when the dead rise.
After a limited theatrical release, Diary of the Dead was released on DVD by Dimension Extreme on May 20, 2008, and later to Blu-ray on October 21, 2008. Shooting began in Toronto in September 2008 on Romero's Survival of the Dead (2009). The film was initially reported to be a direct sequel to Diary of the Dead, but the film features only Alan van Sprang, who appeared briefly as a rogue National Guard officer, reprising his role from the previous film, and did not retain the first-person camerawork of Diary of the Dead. The film centers on two feuding families taking very different approaches in dealing with the living dead on a small coastal island. The film premiered at the 2009 Toronto International Film Festival. Prior to the May 28, 2010, theatrical release in the United States, Survival of the Dead was made available to video on demand and was aired as a special one-night showing on May 26, 2010, on HDNet.
Romero made an appearance in the second downloadable map pack called "Escalation" for the video game Call of Duty: Black Ops. He appears as himself in the zombies map "Call of the Dead" as a non-playable enemy character. Romero is featured alongside actors Sarah Michelle Gellar, Danny Trejo, Michael Rooker, and Robert Englund, all of the four being playable characters. He is portrayed as a powerful "boss" zombie armed with a movie studio light.
In 2010, Romero was contacted by Claudio Argento to direct a 3D remake of his younger brother Dario Argento's film, Deep Red (1975). Claudio was expected to write the screenplay and told Romero that his brother would also be involved. Romero, who showed interest in the project, decided to contact his longtime friend Dario only to find out that Dario was unaware of a remake and Romero ended up declining Claudio's offer. Romero stated that he had plans for two more "Dead" movies which would be connected to Diary of the Dead and they would be made depending on how successful Survival of the Dead was. Romero, however, said that his next project would not involve zombies and he was going for the scare factor, but offered no further details.
In 2012, Romero returned to video games recording his voice for "Zombie Squash" as the lead villain, Dr. B. E. Vil. "Zombie Squash HD Free" game was released by ACW Games for the iPad in November 2012.
In 2014, Marvel Comics began releasing Empire of the Dead, a 15-issue miniseries written by Romero. The series, which is broken up into three five-issues acts, features not only zombies but also vampires. In May 2015, it was announced at Cannes that the production company Demarest was developing the comic series into a TV series. The series will be written and executive-produced by Romero and Peter Grunwald.
In May 2017, Romero announced plans for George A. Romero Presents: Road of the Dead, a film that he co-wrote with Matt Birman, who would direct the film making it Romero's first zombie-themed film that he did not direct himself. Romero and Birman along with Matt Manjourides and Justin Martell will produce the film. Birman was the second unit director on Land of the Dead, Diary of the Dead and Survival of the Dead. Birman pitched the idea to Romero ten years earlier, saying the movie is like The Road Warrior meets Rollerball at a NASCAR race, with significant inspiration from Ben-Hur and that "the story is set on an island where zombie prisoners race cars in a modern-day Coliseum for the entertainment of wealthy humans".
On July 13, 2017, Romero released the first poster for Road of the Dead and discussed the plot for the movie saying "it's set in a sanctuary city where this fat cat runs a haven for rich folks, and one of the things that he does is stage drag races to entertain them," Romero told Rue Morgue. "There's a scientist there doing genetic experiments, trying to make the zombies stop eating us, and he has discovered that with a little tampering, they can recall certain memory skills that enable them to drive in these races. It's really The Fast and the Furious with zombies". Romero died three days later leading to reports questioning if the film will ever be made. A prequel comic book series based on Romero's Road of the Dead was announced by IDW in July 2018. The 3-part mini-series was released in December 2018.
Romero was married three times. He married his first wife, Nancy, in 1971. They divorced in 1978. They had one child together, Cameron. Romero met his second wife, actress Christine Forrest, on the set of Season of the Witch (1973), and they married in 1980. She had bit parts in most of his films. They had two children together, Andrew and Tina Romero. The couple divorced in 2010 after three decades of marriage. Romero met Suzanne Desrocher while filming Land of the Dead (2005), and they married in September 2011 at Martha's Vineyard and lived in Toronto. He acquired Canadian citizenship in 2009, becoming a dual Canada-U.S. citizen. His son Cameron is a filmmaker, responsible for the film Origins (2015), which is the prequel to Night of the Living Dead.
On July 16, 2017, Romero died in his sleep following a "brief but aggressive battle with lung cancer", according to a statement by his longtime producing partner, Peter Grunwald. Romero died while listening to the score of one of his favorite films, The Quiet Man, with his wife, Suzanne Desrocher Romero, and daughter from his second marriage, Tina Romero, at his side.
Romero ranked his top ten films of all time for the 2002 Sight & Sound Greatest Films Poll. They are The Brothers Karamazov, Casablanca, Dr. Strangelove, High Noon, King Solomon's Mines, North by Northwest (a film on which a teenaged Romero worked as a gofer), The Quiet Man, Repulsion, Touch of Evil and The Tales of Hoffmann. Romero listed the films in alphabetical order, with special placement given to Michael Powell's The Tales of Hoffmann, which he cites as "my favourite film of all time; the movie that made me want to make movies".
Awards and nominations
On October 27, 2009, Romero was honored with the Mastermind Award at Spike TV's Scream 2009. The tribute was presented by longtime Romero fan Quentin Tarantino, who stated in his speech that the "A" in George A. Romero stood for "A fucking genius."[better source needed]
Regarded as the "Godfather of the Dead" and the "father of the modern movie zombie", Romero's influence, and that of Night of the Living Dead, is widely seen among numerous filmmakers and artists, in particular those who have worked in the zombie subgenre, including comics writer Robert Kirkman, novelist Seth Grahame-Smith, and filmmakers John Carpenter, Edgar Wright and Jack Thomas Smith.
The season eight premiere episode "Mercy" of the zombie-based show The Walking Dead, the first to air after Romero's death, dedicated the episode to Romero; showrunner Scott M. Gimple said that the show "owes a great debt" to Romero for his impact on popular culture.
In May 2019, the University of Pittsburgh announced it had acquired George Romero's archives and that a multimedia exhibit be created and open to the public in the university's Hillman Library.
- Dawn of the Dead (with Susan Sparrow; movie tie-in), 1979.
- Martin (with Susan Sparrow; movie tie-in), 1984.
- Toe Tags #1-6 ("The Death of Death"; DC Comics), 2004–2005.
- Empire of the Dead (Marvel Comics), 2014–2015.
- Nights of the Living Dead co-edited by Jonathan Maberry and George Romero (St. Martin's Griffin), 2017.
Forewords written by Romero
- Bizarro! by Tom Savini (foreword), 1984. ISBN 0-517-55319-8
- Book of the Dead edited by John Skipp and Craig Spector (foreword), 1989.
- ZOMBIES! An Illustrated History of the Undead Foreword by George A. Romero.
- The Extraordinary Adventures of Dog Mendonça and Pizzaboy II – Apocalipse by Filipe Melo and Juan Cavia (foreword), 2011.
- J.C. Maçek III (June 15, 2012). "The Zombification Family Tree: Legacy of the Living Dead". PopMatters.
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- Maberry, Jonathan; Romero, George A. (11 July 2017). "Nights of the Living Dead: An Anthology". St. Martin's Press – via Google Books.
- George A Romero: un director de cine casi nedense Archived 2013-10-04 at the Wayback Machine, article by historian Manuel Pérez Grueiro in Revista de Neda. Anuario Cultural do Concello de Neda, nº 11, pp 21-24, 2008, re-published on Central Librera Ferrol bookshop's website.
- Os zombis teñen orixe galega, Praza Pública, 1/10/2013.
- "George A. Romero On His Latino Heritage: 'I Was The Shark, Not The Jet'".
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- "Romero – master of the macabre". Eye for Film. Archived from the original on July 23, 2015. Retrieved July 23, 2015.
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- Pennsylvania Center for the Book. "George Romero". Pabook.libraries.psu.edu. Archived from the original on 2007-11-02. Retrieved 2016-01-23.
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- "Mr. Rogers Gets a Tonsillectomy". Archived from the original on February 16, 2007. Retrieved February 16, 2007.
- Pegg, Simon (14 October 2010). Nerd Do Well. Random House. p. 231. ISBN 9781409023937.
- M. Rowan, Terry (2012). The Book of the Undead A Zombie Film Guide. Lulu.com. p. 139. ISBN 9781257129454.
- M. Rowan, Terry. Hollywood Monsters & Creepy Things. Lulu.com. p. 126. ISBN 9781365462108.
- "The Film That Changed My Life: 30 Directors on Their Epiphanies in the Dark: Robert K. Elder: 9781556528255: Amazon.com: Books". Amazon.com. Retrieved May 25, 2012.
- Romero, George A. Interview by Robert K. Elder. The Film That Changed My Life. By Robert K. Elder. Chicago: Chicago Review Press, 2011. N. p261. Print.
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- Maria Sciullo (July 17, 2017). "'Martin' star recalls George Romero". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved July 20, 2017.
- "Dawn of the Dead (1979) - Financial Information". The Numbers. Nash Information Services.
- Anne Thompson (July 16, 2017). "How George Romero's Semi-Autobiographical Labor of Love 'Knightriders' Gave Him the Independence He Wanted So Badly". IndieWire. Retrieved July 20, 2017.
- Marcello Gagliani Caputo (January 14, 2017). Guide to the Cinema of Stephen King. Google Books: Babelcube Inc. ASIN B01MRP1WUH.
- James Hibberd (November 12, 2013). "'Tales from the Darkside' reboot at the CW". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved July 20, 2017.
- Saperstein, Pat (16 July 2017). "George A. Romero, 'Night of the Living Dead' Director, Dies at 77". Variety.
- Chernov, Matthew (16 December 2016). "Why George Romero's 'Resident Evil' Film Failed to Launch". Variety.
- Sarkar, Samit (17 July 2017). "Watch George A. Romero discuss his Resident Evil 2 commercial". Polygon.
- "TOE TAGS FEATURING GEORGE ROMERO #1". DC Comics. 4 March 2012.
- "Land of the Dead". Rotten Tomatoes. Fandango.
- Caetlin Benson-Allott (July 18, 2017). "The Defining Feature of George Romero's Movies Wasn't Their Zombies. It Was Their Brains". Slate. Retrieved July 20, 2017.
- "City of the Dead - PlayStation 2". IGN. Retrieved July 20, 2017.
- Benjamin Golze (August 8, 2005). "City of the Dead hunts for publisher". GameSpot. Retrieved July 20, 2017.
- Dark Water (short story collection) Stories in Dark Water
- "Aintitcool.com". Aintitcool.com. Retrieved 2016-01-23.
- Cinescape Archived November 29, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
- "Aintitcool.com". Aintitcool.com. Retrieved 2016-01-23.
- "Diary of the Dead (2007)". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved July 20, 2017.
- Jeannette Catsoulis (May 27, 2010). "Maybe These Zombies Need to Focus on Their Veggies". The New York Times. Retrieved July 20, 2017.
- Brad Miska (January 26, 2010). "'Survival of the Dead' Release Plans Locked, Loaded and Firing!". Bloody Disgusting. Retrieved July 20, 2017.
- Brian Crecente (May 3, 2011). "George Romero Explains The Story Behind Call of The Dead... Then Gets Zombified". Kotaku. Retrieved July 20, 2017.
- Barton, Steven (August 23, 2010). "George A. Romero Offers More Living Dead Updates, Comments on Deep Red Remake". DreadCentral. Retrieved May 29, 2011.
- "George Romero's Zombie Squash Game is Now Available for the iPad". DailyDead.com.
- Smith, Zack (October 22, 2013). "Romero: Zombies Don't Run in Marvel's Empire of the Dead". Newsarama. Retrieved June 18, 2014.
- "Cannes: George A. Romero's 'Empire of the Dead' Set for TV Series". Variety. May 21, 2015. Retrieved May 22, 2015.
- "George A. Romero Driving Down the 'Road of the Dead'!". Bloody Disgusting. May 19, 2017. Retrieved May 19, 2017.
- "George A. Romero says Road of the Dead is "The Fast and the Furious with zombies"". flickeringmyth. July 13, 2017. Retrieved July 13, 2017.
- "George Romero's 'Road of the Dead' Getting Comic Book Series From IDW". Horror.
- "Scifimoviepage.com". Scifimoviepage.com. 2005-10-21. Retrieved 2016-01-23.
- Norman Wilner. "Q&A: George A. Romero".
- Han, Angie (October 16, 2014). "George Romero's Son Cameron Crowdfunding 'Night of the Living Dead' Prequel 'Origins'". Retrieved January 26, 2015.
- Squires, John (January 26, 2015). "Cameron Romero's Night of the Living Dead Prequel Origins Headed Our Way". Retrieved January 26, 2015.
- Anderson, Tre'Vell (July 16, 2017). "George A. Romero, 'Night of the Living Dead' creator, dies at 77". Archived from the original on 2017-07-19. Retrieved July 16, 2017.
- BFI - Sight & Sound Top Ten Poll 2002 December 21, 2015. Retrieved December 24, 2015.
- Retro Cinema: Carnival of Souls moviephone.com Archived 2012-06-16 at the Wayback Machine
- "Mastermind Award for George A Romero". 18 November 2010 – via YouTube.
- "A History of Horror with Mark Gatiss – Q&A with Mark Gatiss". BBC News. Retrieved November 12, 2010.
- Flaherty, Joseph (June 15, 2010). "‘Godfather of the Dead’ George A. Romero Talks Zombies". Wired.
- Day, Patric Kevin (November 1, 2013). "George Romero dismisses 'The Walking Dead' as 'soap opera'". Los Angeles Times.
- White, Michele (March 14, 2015). Producing Women: The Internet, Traditional Femininity, Queerness, and Creativity. Routledge. Retrieved March 13, 2016.
- Franklin-Wallis, Oliver (February 16, 2016). "Would you survive a zombie apocalypse?". Wired.
- Carpenter, John (writer/director). (2003). Audio Commentary on Assault on Precinct 13 by John Carpenter. [DVD]. Image Entertainment.
- Q & A session with John Carpenter and Austin Stoker at American Cinematheque's 2002 John Carpenter retrospective, in the 2003 special edition Region 1 DVD of Assault on Precinct 13.
- Saperstein, Pat (July 19, 2017). "John Carpenter Remembers the 'Profound Impact' of George Romero". Variety. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
- Schwartz, Terri (May 21, 2012). "HCFF: George Romero honored by Edgar Wright, Robert Kirkman, Zack Snyder and Simon Pegg". IFC. Retrieved June 20, 2017.
- Wien, Gary (October 19, 2014). "Infliction: An Interview With Jack Thomas Smith". New Jersey Stage.
- Ross, Dalton (October 22, 2017). "The Walking Dead showrunner answers season 8 premiere burning questions". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved October 23, 2017.
- Pitz, Marylynne (May 16, 2019). "George Romero's archives acquired by University of Pittsburgh". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved May 16, 2019.
- Squires, John (May 16, 2019). "University of Pittsburgh Library System Has Acquired the Archives of George A. Romero". Bloody Disgusting. Retrieved May 16, 2019.
- Dawn of the Dead, George A Romero and Susan Sparrow, St. Martins Press, 1978, 978-0312183936
- Martin, George A Romero and Susan Sparrow, Stein & Day, 1984, 978-0812870206
- George Romero's Empire of the Dead: Act One (2014 - Present) marvel.com
- "Nights of the Living Dead - Jonathan Maberry - Macmillan". Macmillan Publishers.
- Parker, Trevor. "Looking back at the BOOK OF THE DEAD". Fangoria.
- "Zombies! - Jovanka Vuckovic - Macmillan". Macmillan Publishers.
- "The Extraordinary Adventures of Dog Mendonça and Pizzaboy II – Apocalipse". dog-pizzaboy.com.
- Dupuis, Joachim Daniel (2014), George A. Romero and the zombies, Autopsy of a living-dead. Paris: L'Harmattan (in French).
- Gagne, Paul R. (1987). The Zombies That Ate Pittsburgh: the Films of George A. Romero. New York: Dodd, Mead.
- Newman, Kim (1988). Nightmare Movies: A Critical History of the Horror Film 1968–1988.
- Williams, Tony (2003). Knight of the Living Dead: The Cinema of George A. Romero. London: Wallflower Press.
- Moreman, Christopher M. (2008). "A modern meditation on death: identifying buddhist teachings in George A. Romero's Night of the Living Dead". Contemporary Buddhism. 9 (2): 151–165. doi:10.1080/14639940802556461.
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- George A. Romero on IMDb
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- New York Times short bio
- Senses of Cinema: Great Directors Critical Database
- George Romero @ THE DEUCE: Grindhouse Cinema Database
- Works by George A. Romero at Project Gutenberg
- Works by or about George A. Romero at Internet Archive