George W. M. Reynolds
George William MacArthur Reynolds (23 July 1814 – 19 June 1879) was a British fiction writer and journalist.
Reynolds was born in Sandwich, Kent, the son of Captain Sir George Reynolds, a flag officer of the Royal Navy. Reynolds was educated first at Dr. Nance's school in Ashford, Kent, and then attended the Royal Military College, Sandhurst. He was intended for a career in the British Army, but his parents died during 1829 and, with his subsequent inheritance, he decided to quit the military and devote himself instead to literary pursuits. He left Sandhurst on 13 September 1830 and for the next few years he traveled a great deal, particularly in France, and became a naturalised French citizen. He began residence in Paris in 1834, where he started a daily English newspaper. The venture failed, and Reynolds returned bankrupt to England in 1836.
Reynolds was a prolific writer of popular fiction starting from The Youthful Imposter, published in 1835 which was then republished later as The Parricide; or, The Youth's Career of Crime. After the publication of his first novel Reynolds then assumed the editorship of The Monthly Magazine, a position which he held between 1837 and 1838 and wrote articles under the pseudonym of "Parisianus." Almost forgotten now, during his lifetime he was more read than Dickens or Thackeray; in his obituary, the trade magazine The Bookseller called Reynolds "the most popular writer of our times" ("Obituary" 600). His best-known work was the long-running serial The Mysteries of London (1844), which borrowed liberally in concept from Eugène Sue's Les Mystères de Paris (The Mysteries of Paris). It sold 40,000 copies a week in penny instalments and more than a million copies cumulatively before it was issued in bound volumes, enjoying an international circulation in French, German, Italian, and Spanish translations. Although it was outlawed by the authorities, the German version achieved the status of a cult favourite on the Russian black market.
The Mysteries of London and its even lengthier sequel, The Mysteries of the Court of London, are considered to be among the seminal works of the Victorian "urban mysteries" genre, a style of sensational fiction which adapted elements of Gothic novels – with their haunted castles, innocent noble damsels in distress and nefarious villains – to produce stories which instead emphasized the poverty, crime, and violence of a great metropolis, complete with detailed and often sympathetic descriptions of the lives of lower-class lawbreakers and extensive glossaries of thieves' cant, all interwoven with a frank sexuality not usually found in popular fiction of the time.
The Mysteries of London, like most of Reynolds' works, was published first as a weekly penny dreadful, or "Penny Blood", illustrated with lurid engravings and circulating mainly among readers of limited means and education. Although Reynolds was unusual in his religious skepticism (one of the main characters in The Mysteries of London was a clergyman turned libertine) and political radicalism, his tales were intended for his mostly middle- and lower-class readers; they featured "hump-backed dwarves, harridans and grave-robbers [who] groped past against a background of workhouses, jails, execution yards, thieves' kitchens and cemeteries. His readers could depend on him to bring in the theme of maiden virtue rudely strumpeted as often as possible."
Reynolds' Wagner, the Wehr-Wolf was a gothic novel which described how the title character became a werewolf after making a pact with the devil. Wagner, the Wehr-Wolf was republished in 1975 by Dover Books with an introduction and bibliography of Reynolds by E. F. Bleiler.
Reynold's novels remained in print on both sides of the Atlantic longer than those of many of his contemporaries. An 1875 edition of Reynolds's Ciprina, published in Philadelphia, lists 40 novels including Mysteries of London under the heading "George W. M. Reynolds' Great Works", priced between 50 cents and $1.00. The Mysteries of the Court of London, translated into Marathi as well as Urdu, remained a best-seller in India well into the twentieth century. The Marathi translation was done by K.B. Mande in the early 20th century and was titled The Secret Deeds of the Elites of London. It was very popular in the Marathi-speaking area, as is evident by numerous references to the text in early 20th-century Marathi literature.
Reynolds was also a major figure in the Chartist movement. In 1846, he founded two magazines, Reynolds' Miscellany (RM) and The London Journal (LJ). In 1849, he founded Reynolds's Political Instructor, which in May 1850 became Reynolds Weekly Newspaper, the leading radical newspaper of the post-Chartist era. It long survived him, ending publication in 1967 as the Sunday Citizen.
For both Reynolds's Political Instructor and Reynolds's Weekly Newspaper, between 1849 and 1856, he would write a signed editorial every week in which he gave his opinion on the pressing political matters of the day.
In 1854, he relocated to Herne Bay in Kent, where he became one of the town's Improvement Commissioners. Reynolds was an advocate of British Republicanism; much of his journalism, especially during the 1870s, "promoted a levelling agenda against traditional social hierarchies and accentuated the difficulties of the British throne".
A prolific novelist, the list of Reynolds's works is long; matters are made more complex by the fact that American publishers often attributed the authorship of various anonymously written books to Reynolds as well. Furthermore, although he is known as a penny blood author, not all of his works appeared as serialised penny instalments.
The following works have, as a result of research by E.F. Bleiler, been confirmed to have been definitely authored by Reynolds:
- The Youthful Imposter
- (published in 3 vols by Librarie des Estrangers in 1835)
- The Baroness: A Novel
- (serialised in the Monthly Magazine in 1837, under the pseudonym of "Parisianus")
- Pickwick Abroad; or, The Tour in France
- (serialised in the Monthly Magazine between 1837-38)
- Alfred de Rosann
- (serialised in the Monthly Magazine in 1838).
- The Father
- (serialised in the Monthly Magazine in 1838).
- Mary Hamel
- (serialised in the Monthly Magazine in 1838).
- The Appointment: A Tale
- (serialised in The Isis in 1839).
- Grace Darling; or, the Heroine of the Ferne Islands
- (published in one volume by George Henderson in 1839).
- Robert Macaire in England
- (published in 3 vols by Thomas Tegg in 1839).
- Noctes Pickwickianae
- (serialised in The Teetotaller in 1840).
- The Steam Packet: A Tale of the River and Ocean
- (published in one volume by Willoughby in 1840).
- The Drunkard's Tale
- (serialised in The Teetotaller in 1840).
- Pickwick Married
- (serialised in The Teetotaller in 1841).
- Master Timothy's Bookcase
- (issued in weekly parts beginning July 15, 1841 and published as a single volume by W. Emans in 1842).
- The Mysteries of London, First Series
- (issued in weekly parts beginning in October 1844)
- (published in two volumes by G. Vickers in 1846).
- The Assassin
- (short story which appeared in The London Journal on March 29, 1845).
- Margaret Catchpole
- (short story which appeared in The London Journal on April 5, 1845).
- Faust: A Romance
- (serialised in The London Journal between October 4, 1845 and September 26, 1846).
- The Mysteries of London, Second Series
- (issued in weekly parts beginning in October 3, 1846 and September 16, 1848)
- (published in two volumes by G. Vickers in 1848).
- Wagner, the Wehr-Wolf
- (serialised in Reynolds's Miscellany between November 6, 1846 and July 24, 1847).
- A Tale for Christmas
- (short story which appeared in Reynolds's Miscellany on December 26, 1846).
- The Matrimonial Advertisement
- (short story which appeared in Reynolds's Miscellany on January 30, 1847).
- The Days of Hogarth; or, the Mysteries of Old London
- (serialised in Reynolds's Miscellany between May 29, 1847 and April 29, 1848).
- The Coral Island, or the Hereditary Curse
- (serialised in Reynolds's Miscellany between July 15, 1848 and March 31, 1848).
- The Mysteries of the Court of London, First Series
- (issued in weekly parts between September 9, 1848 and August 17, 1850).
- (published in one volume by John Dicks in 1850).
- The Pixy; or, The Unbaptized Child
- (published in one volume by John Dicks in 1848).
- The Bronze Statue; or, the Virgin's Kiss
- (serialised in Reynolds's Miscellany between March 31, 1849 and March 14, 1850).
- The Castellan's Daughter
- (serialised in Reynolds's Miscellany between June 22 and June 29, 1850).
- The Greek Maiden; or The Banquet of Blood
- (short story which appeared in Reynolds's Miscellany on July 27, 1850).
- The Seamstress; a Domestic Tale
- (serialised in Reynolds's Miscellany between March 23, 1850 and August 10, 1850).
- Pope Joan, the Female Pontiff
- (serialised in Reynolds's Miscellany between August 10, 1850 and January 25, 1851).
- The Mysteries of the Court of London, Second Series
- (issued in weekly parts between August 24, 1850 and August 1852).
- The Janizary; or, The Massacre of the Christians
- (serialised in Reynolds's Miscellany between November 2-9, 1851).
- The Prophecy; or, The Lost Son
- (serialised in Reynolds's Miscellany between December 7-10, 1851).
- Kenneth, a Romance of the Highlands
- (serialised in Reynolds's Miscellany between January 25, 1851 and December 27, 1851).
- The Necromancer
- (serialised in Reynolds's Miscellany between December 27, 1851 and July 31, 1852).
- Mary Price; or the Memoirs of a Servant Girl
- (issued in weekly parts between November 1851 and October 1852).
- The Mysteries of the Court of London, Third Series
- (issued in weekly parts between May 1, 1852 and December 3, 1853).
- The Massacre of Glencoe, a Historical Tale
- (serialised in Reynolds's Miscellany between July 31, 1852 and June 18, 1853).
- The Soldier's Wife
- (issued in weekly parts between November 1852 and June 1853)
- (published in one volume by John Dicks in 1853)
- The Ryehouse Plot; or, Ruth, the Conspirator's Daughter
- (serialised in Reynolds's Miscellany between June 18, 1853 and August 19, 1854).
- Joseph Wilmot; or, the Memoirs of a Manservant
- (issued in weekly parts between July 29, 1853 and July 4, 1855).
- Rosa Lambert; or, the Memoirs of an Unfortunate Woman
- (issued in weekly parts between November 4, 1853 and October, 1854).
- The Mysteries of the Court of London, Fourth Series
- (issued in weekly parts between December 30, 1853 and December 5, 1855).
- May Middleton; or, The History of a Fortune
- (serialised in Reynolds's Miscellany between August 19, 1854 and January 6, 1855).
- Omar, a Tale of the War
- (serialised in Reynolds's Miscellany between January 6, 1855 and January 5, 1856).
- The Loves of the Harem: A Romance of Constantinople
- (issued in weekly parts between February 3, 1855 and July 7, 1856).
- Ellen Percy; or, The Memoirs of an Actress
- (issued in weekly parts between July 21, 1855 and September 1857).
- Agnes; or, Beauty and Pleasure
- (issued in weekly parts between December 12, 1855 and January 1857).
- Leila; or, the Star of Mingrelia
- (serialised in Reynolds's Miscellany between January 5, 1855 and July 5, 1856).
- The Empress Eugenie's Boudoir
- (issued in weekly parts beginning February 4, 1857; exact date of final serial unknown).
- Margaret; or, the Discarded Queen
- (serialised in Reynolds's Miscellany between July 5, 1856 and July 11, 1857).
- The Young Duchess (sequel to Ellen Percy)
- (serialised in Reynolds's Miscellany between June 17, 1857 and June 9, 1858).
- Canonbury House; or, the Queen's Prophecy
- (serialised in Reynolds's Miscellany between July 11, 1857 and May 1, 1858).
- Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots
- (serialised in Reynolds's Miscellany between May 14, 1859 and December 24, 1859).
- Two Christmas Days
- (short story featured in Reynolds's Miscellany on December 29, 1860).
- The Young Fisherman
- (serialised in Reynolds's Miscellany between October 5, 1861 and November 9, 1861).
Translations of French-Language Works
- Songs of Twilight (Paris: Librarie des Estrangers, 1836) [Translation of Victor Hugo's Chants du Crepiscule]
- The Last Day of a Condemned (London: George Henderson, 1840) [Translation of Victor Hugo's Le Dernier Jour d'un Condamné]
- Sister Anne (London: George Henderson, 1840) [Translation of Paul de Kock's Soeur Anne]
- The Errors of the Christian Religion Exposed (London: Richard Carlile, 1832)
- The Modern Literature of France, 2 vols (London: George Henderson, 1839)
- The Anatomy of Intemperance (London: United Temperance Union, 1840)
- The French Self-Instructor (London: Dicks, 1846)
- 'The Foundation of the Ottoman Empire' (serialised in Reynolds's Miscellany between February 18-25, 1854).
- The Self-Instructor (London: Dicks, 1861)
- The London and Paris Courier (editor between January-August 1836)
- The Monthly Magazine of Politics, Literature, and the Belles-Lettres (editor between 1837 and 1838)
- The Teetotaller (editor between June 1840 and September 1841)
- The London Journal (editor between March 1845 and November 1846)
- Reynolds's Miscellany (editor between 1846 and 1869)
- Reynolds's Political Instructor (editor between 1849 and 1850)
- Reynolds's Weekly Newspaper (editor between 1850 to 1879)
- Bow Bells (editor from 1864 until 1868).
- A Sequel to Don Juan (London: Paget and Co., 1843)
Alternative American Titles (alphabetical):
Many of Reynolds's novels were published under different titles by publishers in the USA, and they were rarely serialized as they were in the UK. Sometimes Reynolds was not even credited for his novels. The details of the alternative titles are as follows. Most of these American editions were published by Philadelphia-based T.B. Peterson or the New York-based Hurst and Co.
- The Bronze Statue
- American title: Angela Wildon; or, the Mysteries of Altendorph Castle
- Canonbury House
- American title (i): The Mysteries of the Court of Queen Elizabeth
- American title (ii): Ada Arundel; or, The Secret Corridor
- American title (iii): Olivia; or, The Maid of Honour.
- Mary Price; or, The Memoirs of a Servant girl
- published as two different volumes in New York: Mary Price (vol. 1) and Eustace Quentin (vol. 2)
- The Massacre of Glencoe
- American title: Roderick the Brave; or, the Massacre of Glencoe.
- The Necromancer
- American title: Musidora; or, The Necromancer
- The Seamstress
- American title: Virginia Mordaunt, the Seamstress
- Alternative American title: The Palace of Infamy
- The Soldier's Wife
- American title: The Degraded Deserter
- American title (i): Omar Pasha; or The Vizier's Daughter
- American title (ii): Catherine Volmar; or, A Father's Revenge
- American title (iii): The White Lady: A Romance of Love and War
- Leila; or The Star of Minghella
- American title (i): Leila
- American title (ii): Karaman; or, The Bandit Chief
- The Empress Eugenie's Boudoir
- American title: The Mysteries of the Court of France
American Reprints of Mysteries of the Court of London
In the United States Reynolds's Mysteries of the Court of London was published as The Works of G.W.M. Reynolds, 20 vols (Boston: Burton Ethnological Society, 1900). This work was not a collection of Reynolds's whole corpus of works but merely a reprint of Series 1-4 of The Mysteries of the Court of London. These 20 volumes were then privately reprinted c.1920 by a Boston-based "Oxford Society". Each volume was given a different title:
- First series: Vol. 1: Pauline Clarendon; Vol. 2: Rose Foster (a); Vol. 3: Rose Foster (b); Vol. 4: Mrs. Fitzherbert; Vol. 5: Caroline Walters
- Second series: Vols. 6-10: Venetia Trelawney
- Third series: Vols 11-15: Lady Saxondale's Crimes
- Fourth Series: Vols. 16-20: The Fortunes of the Ashtons.
Spurious Works and Mis-attributions
Given Reynolds's fame in the USA the publisher T.B. Peterson regularly attached Reynolds's name to novels that he never wrote. The following spurious works are as follows:
- The Child of Waterloo; or, the Horrors of the Battlefield (not dated, author unknown; very likely to be a version of James Malcolm Rymer's Mabel; The Horrors of the Battlefield. A Tale of Waterloo)
- The First False Step; or, The Path of Crime (disowned by Reynolds)
- Edgar Montrose; or, The Mysterious Penitent (not dated, author unknown).
- The Gipsy Chief (1858; an adaptation of part of Thomas Miller's continuation of The Mysteries of London)
- Mary Glentworth; or, The Forbidden Marriage (New York: Pollard and Moss, 1888; this is one of the most interesting spurious works attributed to Reynolds by an American publisher. Mary Glentworth is indeed a character in Ellen Percy but this is an entirely new novel written by an anonymous author which merely takes Glentworth as its main character, and the publishers simply attached Reynolds's name to the title page).
- The Rival Beauties; or, Love and Diplomacy (1854; disavowed by Reynolds; author unknown).
- "The Other Dickens", aired on BBC Radio 3, 1 July 2012
- Reynolds, George W. M., ed. (25 July 1840). "The Teetotaler". I (5). London: United Temperance Association. Retrieved 18 December 2011.
DEVOTED TO TEMPERANCE, LITERATURE, AND SCIENCE. EDITED BY GEORGE W. M. REYNOLDSCite journal requires
- Bleiler, E.F. (1975). "Bibliography". in G. W.M. Reynolds, Wagner, the Wehr-Wolf. New York: Dover. p. 158. ISBN 9780486799292.
- Fisher, B. F.; "Wagner, the Wehr-Wulf", in: Frank N. Magill, ed. Survey of Modern Fantasy Literature, Vol 4. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Salem Press, Inc., 1983. ISBN 0-89356-450-8 (pp. 2049–53) .
- Andrzej Olechnowicz, The Monarchy and the British Nation, 1780 to the Present. Cambridge University Press, 2007. ISBN 0521844614, (p. 190).
- archive.org's snapshot of the Literature and Place George W.M. Reynolds arcitle at the Wayback Machine (archived 28 September 2007).
- The Literary Encyclopedia G. W. M. Reynolds.
- Mapping History's Nightmares: A Geography of Victorian Gothic Fiction:27–33; Robert Mighall.
- The Library 1973 s5-XXVIII(4):319–26; "George W. M. Reynolds: A Bibliography".
- G.W.M. Reynolds: Nineteenth-Century Fiction, Politics, and the Press, ed. by Anne Humpherys and Louis James, Ashgate 2008.
- BBC Radio 3 Sunday Feature: "The Other Dickens" (45-minute audio documentary).
Reviews and literary criticism
- Frank Jay's discussions of Reynolds from Spare Moments at the Wayback Machine (archived 26 October 2009) Published between 1918 and 1921. Posted by Justin Gilbert at GeoCities.
- "G. W. M. Reynolds" by E.F. Bleiler, in Bleiler (ed) Supernatural Fiction Writers: Fantasy and Horror NY: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1985, 205–11. Primarily an examination of Reynolds novels Faust, The Necromancer, and Wagner, the Wehr-Wolf.
- E.F. Bleiler. "Introduction"; and "Bibliography". in G. W.M. Reynolds, Wagner, the Wehr-Wolf. NY: Dover, 1975. (The only full modern statement on Reynolds, with much new information. The bibliography is the only disentanglement of Reynolds' exceedingly complex publications.)
- G. W. M. Reynolds: Nineteenth-Century Fiction, Politics, and the Press, edited by Anne Humpherys and Louis James, Ashgate, 2008
- Andrew King, The London Journal 1845–1883: Periodicals, Production and Gender, Ashgate, 2004
- Dick Collins. "Introduction". George W.M. Reynolds, Wagner The Werewolf Hertforshire: Wordsworth Editions, 2006, ix–xvii.
|Wikisource has the text of the 1885–1900 Dictionary of National Biography's article about Reynolds, George William MacArthur.|
- George W. M. Reynolds at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database
- George W. M. Reynolds at Library of Congress Authorities, with 29 catalogue records
Books available online
All titles marked (RM) and (LJ) above are available online at the British Periodicals website.
- Works by George W. M. Reynolds at Project Gutenberg
- Works by or about George W. M. Reynolds at Internet Archive
- Works by George W. M. Reynolds at LibriVox (public domain audiobooks)
- Alfred de Rosann; or, Adventures of a French Gentleman at Internet Archive.
- Ellen Percy: or, The memoirs of an actress, vol. II at the University of Michigan.
- The Empress Eugenie's Boudoir at Internet Archive.
- The French Self-Instructor at Internet Archive.
- Mary Price; or, The memoirs of a servant-maid at the University of Michigan.
- The Mysteries of London at victorianlondon.org.
- The Soldier's Wife in epub format at the MobileRead Forums.
- The Seamstress in epub format at the MobileRead Forums.
- Alfred: The Adventures of a French Gentleman in ePub Format at the MobileRead Forums.
- First Series, vol. I,
- First Series, vol. II,
- Second Series, vol. I,
- Second Series, vol. II (not available),
- Third series, vol. I,
- Third series, vol. II,
- Fourth series, vol. I,
- Fourth series, vol. II.
The Mysteries of the Court of London (privately printed edition of the "Mysteries" in 20 volumes (by a so-called "Oxford Society") was entitled "The Works of George W. M. Reynolds", online at www.archive.org (only 7 volumes of this edition):
- The Parricide; or, The Youth's Career of Crime, a slightly modified re-printing of The Youthful Imposter at Internet Archive.
- Pickwick Abroad at Internet Archive.
- Robert Macaire; or, The French Bandit in England at the University of Michigan.
- Wagner the Wehr-Wolf at Project Gutenberg.
- The Young Duchess; or, Memoirs of a Lady of Quality at the University of Michigan.
| Editor of Reynold's News