George Washington Birthplace National Monument
|George Washington Birthplace National Monument|
IUCN category V (protected landscape/seascape)
|Location||Westmoreland County, Virginia, United States|
|Nearest city||Colonial Beach, VA|
|Area||661.7 acres (267.8 ha)|
|Established||January 23, 1930|
|Visitors||130,647 (in 2011)|
|Governing body||National Park Service|
George Washington Birthplace National Monument
|NRHP reference #||66000850|
|Added to NRHP||October 15, 1966|
|Designated VLR||October 18, 1983|
The George Washington Birthplace National Monument is a national monument in Westmoreland County, Virginia, United States. This site was developed in the mid-17th century as a colonial tobacco plantation by Englishman John Washington. A member of the assembly, he was a great-grandfather of George Washington, general and the first United States president. George Washington was born in this house on February 22, 1732. He lived here until age three, returning later to live here as a teenager.
Before the 20th century, the original house was lost, but the foundation outlines of Washington's house are marked. The public park was established in 1930 and in 1931 a memorial house was built in historicist style to mark the site and to represent an 18th-century tobacco plantation. The historic park opened in 1932, during the Great Depression. At the entrance to the grounds, now maintained and operated by the National Park Service, is a Memorial Shaft obelisk of Vermont marble; it is a one-tenth scale replica of the Washington Monument in Washington, D.C.
The monument (referring to the house, property and memorial complex) and its preceding plantation, which eventually became called Wakefield, are located at the confluence of Popes Creek and the larger Potomac River, and is representative of 18th-century Virginia tobacco plantations. The area has been restored, planted and maintained with farm buildings, groves of trees, livestock, gardens, and crops of tobacco and wheat, to represent the environment Washington knew here as a boy.
One of George Washington's great-grandfathers, John Washington, settled this plantation in 1657 at the original property on Bridges Creek. The family acquired expanded land to the south toward nearby Popes Creek.
Before 1718 the first section of the house in which George Washington was born was built. His father enlarged it between 1722–1726. He added on to it by the mid-1770s, making a ten-room house known as "Wakefield". This house, which George Washington in 1792 would describe as "the ancient mansion seat," was destroyed by fire and flood on Christmas Day 1779, and never rebuilt.
Thirty-two graves of Washington family members have been found at the Bridges Creek cemetery plot, including George's half-brother, father, grandfather, and great-grandfather.
Washington's father cultivated tobacco on his several plantations, as his ancestors had done. This labor-intensive crop was worked by enslaved Africans and African Americans. By the time George Washington was born in 1732, the population of the Virginia colony was 50 percent black, and most of the ethnic Africans were enslaved. During the time that Washington lived here, his father held "20 or so" slaves to work on the tobacco plantation at Popes Creek.
ln 1858, the Commonwealth of Virginia acquired the property to preserve the homesite and cemetery, but the Civil War intervened. Short on revenues for such purposes, Virginia donated the land to the federal government in 1882.
The Wakefield National Memorial Association was formed in 1923 to restore the property. In 1930, the grounds were authorized by Congress as a U.S. National Monument. In 1931, the Wakefield Association received a grant from John D. Rockefeller, Jr., to acquire and transfer a total of 394 acres (1.59 km2) of land to the Federal government.
Since the exact appearance of the original Washington family home is not known, a Memorial House was designed by Edward Donn, Jr., representing similar buildings of the era; it was constructed on the approximate site in 1931. The actual location of Washington's boyhood home is adjacent to the memorial house and its foundation is outlined in the ground by crushed oyster shells.
The Memorial House represents a typical upper-class house of the period of the original's construction. The Memorial House is constructed of bricks handmade from local clay. It has a central hallway and four rooms on each floor, furnished in the 1730–1750 period style by the Wakefield National Memorial Association. Furnishings include an 18th-century tea table believed to have been in the original house. Most of the other furnishings are more than 200 years old.
The park and Memorial House were opened by the National Park Service in 1932, on the 200th anniversary of George Washington's birth.
National Monument today
In the 21st century, the Monument is part of the National Park Service's ongoing efforts to interpret historical resources. In addition to the Memorial House, park facilities open to visitors include the historic birthplace home area, Kitchen House, hiking trails, and picnic grounds. In the Kitchen House, costumed re-enactors demonstrate candle- and soap-making. A Colonial Herb and Flower Garden has been planted with herbs and flowers common to Washington's time, such as thyme, sage, and basil, and flowers such as hollyhocks, forget-me-nots, and roses. Typical trees and bushes of Washington's time have also been added to the landscaping. The Colonial Living Farm has a barn and pasture, and raises livestock, poultry, and crops of the 18th century variety, using farming methods common then.
Visitors may also tour the Washington family Burial Ground, which contains the graves of 32 members of the Washington family, including George Washington's father, grandfather, and great-grandfather. Replicas of two original gravestones are visible, along with five memorial tablets placed here in the 1930s.
The Visitors' Center contains artifacts recovered from the burned-down Washington house, such as those pictured at right (clockwise, from right): a bowl, clay figurine, wine bottle seal belonging to Augustine Washington, wine bottle, and keyhole plate.
A 15-minute film depicting Washington family life is shown in a theater at the Visitors' Center.
The George Washington Birthplace National Monument is 38 miles (61 km) east of Fredericksburg, Virginia, located on the Northern Neck. It can be reached via Virginia State Route 204, the access road to the site from Virginia State Route 3.
- List of National Monuments of the United States
- Northern Neck George Washington Birthplace AVA
- Montross, Virginia
- Stratford Hall Plantation
- State Route 204, the access road to the site from State Route 3
- "Listing of acreage as of December 31, 2011". Land Resource Division, National Park Service. Retrieved 2012-05-14.
- "NPS Annual Recreation Visits Report". National Park Service. Retrieved 2012-05-14.
- National Park Service (2010-07-09). "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. Retrieved 2013-07-16.
- "Virginia Landmarks Register". Virginia Department of Historic Resources. Retrieved 5 June 2013.
- George Washington Birthplace, National Park Service brochure (1999)
- Marquis, A.N. Company. Who's Who In America, vol. 1:Historical Volume (1607-1896), revised ed., Marquis, A.N. Company., 1967.
- Washington, George, Writings, XXXII, p. 29
- "Slavery at Popes Creek Plantation", George Washington Birthplace National Monument, National Park Service, accessed 15 Sept 2011
- Seth C. Bruggeman, Here, George Washington Was Born: Memory, Material Culture, and the Public History of a National Monument (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2008).
- Gary W. Ferris (1999), Presidential Places
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to George Washington Birthplace National Monument.|
- George Washington Birthplace National Monument official website
- Wakefield, State Route 204, Wakefield Corner, Westmoreland County, VA: 15 photos, 3 data pages, and 2 photo caption pages at Historic American Buildings Survey, Library of Congress
- Wakefield, Kitchen, State Route 204, Wakefield Corner, Westmoreland County, VA: 7 photos and 1 photo caption page at Historic American Buildings Survey
- Wakefield, Gardens & Grounds, State Route 204, Wakefield Corner, Westmoreland County, VA: 2 photos at Historic American Buildings Survey